NASA/IPAC EXTRAGALACTIC DATABASE
Date and Time of the Query: 2019-08-25 T15:21:48 PDT
Help | Comment | NED Home

Notes for object UGC 03426

18 note(s) found in NED.


1. 2006A&A...448..499B
Re:MRK 0003
3.2.2 Mrk 3 The Chandra ACIS-HETG and the XMM-Newton EPIC and RGS spectra were
analyzed in detail by Sako et al. (2000) and Bianchi et al. (2005b),
respectively. It is one of the few Compton-thick Seyfert galaxies that have high
resolution spectra, showing that the soft X-ray spectrum is indeed dominated by
emission lines. The ratio between the forbidden to the resonant line in the
He-like triplets of light metals and the presence of RRC from the same elements
give strong evidence in favour of an emitting gas photoionized by the nuclear
continuum.
We show in Fig. 4 the high resolution spectrum with the largest S/N available
for Mrk 3 and one of the best high resolution spectra for an AGN ever measured.
It was obtained summing all the RGS observations of the source (for a total of
~=190 ks) and combining RGS 1 and RGS 2 first and second orders.
The spectrum is dominated by K-shell emission lines from O and Ne, with
weaker Fe L lines mainly from Fe XVII and Fe XVIII. Spectra from plasma in
collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) are instead dominated by Fe L emission
lines (see e.g. the spectrum of solar flares: Phillips et al. 1982). As already
observed by Sako et al. (2000), this could in principle be accounted for by an
at least one order-of-magnitude iron underabundance, but this is at odds with
the EW of the iron K{alpha} line and the depth of the neutral iron edge, which
are consistent with an iron abundance only slightly lower than the solar one
(Bianchi et al. 2005b). Moreover, the clear detection of narrow O VII and O VIII
RRCs implies an electron temperature much cooler than the one expected in a CIE
plasma with the same ionic species (e.g. Liedahl & Paerels 1996; Liedahl 1999).
Therefore, the gas is likely to be in photoionization equilibrium (PIE).
Indeed, the spectrum is telling us something more. The resonance lines in the
O VII and Ne IX triplets are stronger than those expected for pure recombination
in PIE (e.g. Porquet & Dubau 2000). The resonance 3d-2p Fe L lines should also
be suppressed when recombination is the dominant process (Liedahl et al. 1990),
while these transitions are clearly detected in the observed spectrum together
with 3s-2p lines. Both problems can be solved taking into account the role of
resonant scattering (Band et al. 1990; Matt 1994; Krolik & Kriss 1995). Resonant
lines in He-like triplets are greatly enhanced by this mechanism with respect to
recombination, especially for low column densities (see e.g. Bianchi et al.
2005a). Similarly, photoexcitation significantly favors the production of Fe L
3d-2p lines (Kallman et al. 1996).

2. 2006A&A...448..499B
Re:MRK 0003
While a complete and detailed analysis of the combined RGS spectrum is beyond
the scope of this paper, we compared the O VII-O VIII series with the
photoionization code PHOTOION (Kinkhabwala et al. 2003), in order to get some
more quantitative information from this high S/N part of the spectrum. We
first only dealt with the spectrum between 0.55-0.66 keV (observer's frame), in
order to include only the O VII triplet and the O VIII Ly{alpha}. The strong
resonant line with respect to the forbidden and the intercombination lines is
best reproduced with a O VII column density of 7x10^17^ cm^-2^ and a
transverse velocity distribution {sigma}_v_^rad^ =250 km s^-1^. Indeed, both
parameters contribute to make resonant scattering an important process in the
gas under analysis (e.g. Bianchi et al. 2005a; Kinkhabwala et al. 2002). The
observed forbidden line appears stronger than expected with respect to the
intercombination line: this was also observed in the spectrum of NGC 1068
(Brinkman et al. 200 2; Kinkhabwala et al. 2002) and explained with an
additional contribution due to inner-shell photoionization in O VI (see also
Kinkhabwala et al. 2003, for further details). The strong O VIII Ly{alpha}
line requires a much higher column density for this ion (1.6x10^18 cm ^-2^,
thus suggesting that the average ionization parameter could be high.

3. 2006A&A...448..499B
Re:MRK 0003
The inclusion of the spectrum up to 0.79 keV (observer's frame) shows that
the flux of lower order lines (O VII and O VIII{beta}) and the O VII RRC is
underpredicted by the parameters used to account for the {alpha} lines. Again,
this is another piece of evidence in favour of a strong contribution from
photoexcitation and, in general, an important indicator of photoionization as
the dominant process at work (see Kinkhabwala et al. 2002, for a detailed
discussion on this issue). In order to reproduce correctly also these lines, we
need lower column densities (~3x10^17^ and 8x10^17^ cm^-2^ for O VII and O VIII,
respectively) and a lower {sigma}_{v}_^rad^ = 200 km s^-1^. Note that it is not
easy to disentangle the role of each of the two parameters separately, since
both play on the relative role between recombination and photoexcitation. With
these parameters, the need for an additional contribution for the O VII
forbidden line flux is higher. Moreover, the observed O VII RRC keeps on be ing
stronger than the expected one. We do not have an easy explanation for this
behaviour, but it is likely that the close Fe XVII 3s-2p line (which is not
modelled by PHOTOION) may contaminate the flux of the RRC.
In summary, we confirm previous results by Sako et al. (2000) and Bianchi et
al. (2005b), but on stronger evidence: the soft X-ray spectrum of Mrk 3 is
produced in a gas in photoionization equilibrium, with a significant
contribution from resonant scattering as well as recombination.
Moreover, visual inspection of Fig. 4 also suggests that the gas is not
strongly in/outflowing, since large shifts of the emission lines are not
observed with respect to the theoretical values. This is quantitatively
supported by the results on the spectral fits, which lead to tight constraints
on the shifts of the O VII forbidden line, the O VIII K{alpha} and the N VII
K{alpha}, being respectively 0+/-60, 30+/110 and 10^+180^_-110_ km s^-1^ (note
that the systematic uncertainty of the RGS at these energies is around 100-130
km s^-1^). However, this may be simply due to the fact that we are observing a
spectrum which includes both sides of the bicone, thus naturally producing a
zero net shift. In any case, the line widths are also all upper limits, being
<300, <400 and <1000 km s-^1^ for the above-mentioned lines, respectively.

4. 2005A&A...442..137N
Re:UGC 03426
The gas distribution in UGC 3426 is irregular and seems to be connected to the
gas disk of UGC 3422, ~100 kpc to the north-west. The projected surface density
of the gas is very low, with a maximum of only about 0.3 M_sun_pc^-2^. It
appears as if the gas in UGC 3426 has been tidally drawn out of the gas disk of
UGC 3422.

5. 2003ApJS..148..327S
Re:Mrk 0003
5.20. Mrk 3
The [O III] image of this Seyfert 2 galaxy is S-shaped, with a clear
conical NLR at regions close to the nucleus (Fig. 8, top right). The
major extent of the line emission is 2.2" (580 pc) along the E-W
direction, while along the N-S direction it is extended by 1" (260
pc). The line emission is aligned with the radio emission described
by Ulvestad & Wilson (1984). A detailed discussion of this galaxy is
given by SK96 and Capetti et al. (1996). Capetti et al. (1999) and
Ruiz et al. (2001) discuss the kinematics of the NLR gas, which is
strongly influenced by the interaction with the radio emission.

6. 2002AJ....124..675C
Re:UGC 03426
Unusually warm FIR source: alpha(25,60) = 0.30. Seyfert 2.

7. 2000MNRAS.318..173M
Re:MRK 0003
2.4 Mrk 3
The BeppoSAX data on this source have been discussed in detail by
Cappi et al. (1999). For an easier comparison with the other sources in
this sample, we re-analysed the high energy part of the spectrum adopting
the transmission model of Matt et al. (1999b). The direct nuclear
radiation is seen through an absorber of 1.1 x 10^24^ cm^-2^ (and
therefore, strictly speaking, the source is not Compton-thick according
to the above definition). The intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity
is ~0.9 x 10^44^ erg s^-1^.
A cold-reflection component is clearly required by the data
(Cappi et al. 1999). There is evidence for an unabsorbed power-law
component too, suggesting the presence of an ionized reflector. Moreover,
the iron line is broad, which would suggest a blend of cold and ionized
lines. However, ASCA did not find evidence for a substantial broadening
of the line, even if a weak additional line at ~6.8 keV is possibly
present (Iwasawa 1996). The existence of an ionized reflector must
therefore still be considered an open issue.

8. 2000A&A...363..507G
Re:MRK 0003
Among the AGN associated with disk galaxies, a HYMORS-like source has
recently been mapped in the Seyfert galaxy, Mrk 3 (UGC 3426). Mrk 3 has
an extremely low level of nuclear radio activity and its overall radio
size is only ~ 0.5 kpc (Kukula et al. 1999). The Eastern jet shows knots
close to the nucleus and fades outwards in an FR I pattern, while the
Western jet terminates in a typical FR II hot spot and lobe.

9. 1999ApJS..120..209N
Re:MRK 0003
Mrk 3 (type 2; Fig. 8) - The 3.6cm map shows a triple structure in a
direction consistent with the extension in the 20cm map. The 3.6cm flux
of the central component (listed as "E1" in Table 2) has been measured
by both Gaussian deconvolution and flux summation and found to be 7.5
+/- 1 mJy. The images are similar to those published in Paper V; higher
resolution maps are given by Kukula et al. (1993). Capetti et al.
(1996) provide a detailed discussion of the correlation of radio and
emission-line structure in this galaxy. RC3 lists a log R_25_ of 0.06
and does not list a major axis P.A. Thompson & Martin (1988) used
enlarged sky survey prints to measure a major axis P.A. of 15^deg^ for
the brighter isophotes. A DSS image shows that the outer isophotes of
this galaxy are close to circular.

10. 1999ApJ...524..684G
Re:Mrk 0003
Mrk 3 is a Seyfert 2 nucleus harboring a hidden BLR (Miller & Goodrich
1990). The radio structure is linear, resolving into a 2" (~600 pc) jet
(Kukula et al. 1993). Surprisingly, we do not detect H I absorption in
this hidden Seyfert 1. On the other hand, there are no flat spectrum
components that clearly mark the location of the central engine (Kukula
et al. 1993). It may be that the nuclear radio source is free-free
suppressed or radio silent, so there is no background radio source to
illuminate the material obscuring the central engine.

11. 1997ApJS..113...23T
Re:MRK 0003
A8. MARKARIAN 3
A ROSAT PSPC observation of Mrk 3 revealed a faint X-ray source ~2' west of the
active nucleus (Turner, Urry, & Mushotzky 1993). While the hard X-ray flux of
Mrk 3 has varied over a timescale of years, the soft X-ray flux has not, which
suggests the soft emission may arise in an extended component. However, a ROSAT
HRI image of this source showed the nucleus to be unresolved. A Ginga
observation of Mrk 3 showed a flat spectrum source of {GAMMA}=1.3 absorbed by
~6x10^23^ cm^-2^ and a strong iron line (Awaki et al. 1990). The PSPC spectra
confirmed the steep soft excess and indicated the presence of significant soft
X-ray line emission (Turner et al. 1993). ASCA has shown the iron K-shell
emission line can be resolved into at least two components; Iwasawa et al.
(1994) find the 6.4 keV component to be dominant, with an equivalent width of
~860 eV and FWHM ~10^4^ km s^-1^, with a second component of equivalent width
190 eV and narrower than the first. Those authors also found the total
intensity of the iron K-shell line emission decreased by factor of over 3 in
response to the decrease in the continuum level, which suggests that the hard
X-ray continuum and iron line are observed directly through the nuclear
obscuring material, not in scattered light.
In analysis, the hard X-ray spectrum can be modeled by a hard component that is
heavily absorbed plus a steep power-law component that is unabsorbed. We find
evidence for several soft X-ray emission lines, which confirms the suggestion
of soft line emission from the PSPC data. The 2-10 keV flux of the source has
dimmed by a factor of 4 since the Ginga observation (Polletta et al. 1996). As
the predicted starburst contribution is a small fraction of the total observed
X-ray flux in Mrk 3, then this source may provide a good test for models
investigating the production of lines in a material photoionized by the active
nucleus. Kraemer & Harrington (1986) model the optical and UV emission lines in
Mrk 3, concluding that those lines arise in photoionized gas and that the dust
within the gas produces much of the observed IR continuum radiation. The
spectrum of this source is investigated in detail in a follow-up paper (Turner
et al. 1997b).

12. 1997ApJ...477..631V
Re:MRK 0003
Miller & Goodrich (1990) and Tran (1995a) detected a BLR in Mrk 3 using
spectropolarimetry, but low-resolution J-band spectra do not reveal any
obvious BLR at Pa{beta} (Paper I). The high declination of Mrk 3
prevented us from obtaining high-resolution UKIRT data of this galaxy.

13. 1996ApJ...463..498S
Re:MRK 0003
A13. MRK 3
This galaxy was observed with a medium-band filter that included H{beta} and
[O III] {lambda}{lambda}4959, 5007, with H{beta} being responsible for 7.5% of
the total emission. The emission-line distribution is Z-shaped, extending
~2.1" (555 pc) along the east-west direction. Note the presence of a
biconical morphology along PA 70^deg^. The opening angle of the western cone
is 40^deg^, and the emission is extended by 1.4" (370 pc) in that direction,
while the eastern cone has an opening angle of 50^deg^ and the emission is
extended by 0.7" (185 pc). The base extension is 0.65" (175 pc). See Capetti
et al. (1995) for more details on the prerefurbishment FOC observations of
this galaxy.

14. 1994AJ....107...35H
Re:IRAS 06097+7103
06097+7103 (Mkn 3). This well-studied galaxy was not observed by us,
but it has been discussed in detail by others (e.g., Neff & Ulvestad
1988). It has a small broadline region < 1 pc and narrow-line region of 1
kpc in radius. It is a strong double radio source, that is one of the
strongest for Seyfert galaxies, and does not coincide and is asymmetric
with respect to the optical nucleus. Each component of the double radio
source is slightly extended and separated by ~1.5" (600 pc) (Wilson et
al. 1980).

15. 1993ApJ...419..553B
Re:MRK 0003
Mrk3 (UGC 03426)
Mrk 3 is one of the group of Seyfert 2 galaxies which shows polarized
broad emission lines suggesting the presence of a "hidden Seyfert 1
nucleus" (e.g., Miller & Goodrich 1990; Schmidt & Miller 1985). Based on
single dish observations, the detection of large amounts of H I has been
reported. However, WSRT 21 cm observations de Bruyn (1993) suggest that
the H I is instead associated with the nearby spiral galaxy UGC 03422.
Early observations of the small-scale Structure of Mrk 3 showed an
asymmetric double (Wilson et al. 1980; Ulvestad & Wilson 1984a; Pedlar,
Unger, & Booler 1984; Neff & Ulvestad 1988). Recent high-resolution VLA
and MERLIN observations give a more detailed picture revealing that the
source though asymmetric, is a collimated linear radio source with a
slight "S" shape and a total extent of ~2" (500 Pc) along P.A. 84^deg^
(Kukula et al. 1993). Our WSRT image of the residual emission after a
model for the nuclear source is subtracted out (Fig. 2, resolution 3.5" x
3.8") shows that the total extent of the radio emission is substantially
larger than 2". The large-scale radio source appears as a somewhat
amorphous halo, with two peaks of emission separated by ~4" along P.A.
36^deg^. The maximum extent of the observed radio emission deconvolved
from the tapered version of this image (not shown) is ~5.5" (1.4 kpc).

16. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:[RC2] A0609+71B
= MRK 0003
Type 2 Seyfert nucleus.
Photograph:
Ap. J., 183, 29, 1971.
Photometry:
Ap. J., 171, 5, 1972.
Spectrum and Photograph:
Ap. J., 159, 405, 1970.
Ap. J., 192, 581, 1974.
Spectrophotometry:
Astrofizika, 7, 389, 1971.
Ap. J., 171, 5, 1972.
Radio Observations:
Izv. V.U.Z. Radiofizika, 16, 1342, 1973.

17. 1973UGC...C...0000N
Re:UGC 03426
Absorption lane close to center?
See UGC 03422

18. 1967Afz.....3...55M
Re:MRK 0003
= MCG +12-06-019
Spectral Type: sd12e
Mainly red.
Strong emission of H{alpha}, (N_1, N_2, H{beta}), H{zeta}
and {lambda}3727


Back to NED Home