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Notes for object NGC 3079

35 note(s) found in NED.


1. 2008MNRAS.386.2242H
Re:NGC 3079
NGC 3079. It has a peanut-shape bulge (Lutticke, Dettmar & Pohlen 2000)
which shows the cylindrical rotation (Shaw, Wilkinson & Carter 1993), a
character of disc-like pseudo-bulge.

2. 2008MNRAS.386.2242H
Re:NGC 3079
NGC 3079 - The accretion disc of the SMBH is probably thick, flared and
clumpy, in contrast to the compact, thin, warped, differentially
rotating disc in the archetypal maser galaxy NGC 4258 (Kondratko,
Greenhill & Moran 2005). The mass of SMBH thus may be underestimated.
The stellar velocity dispersion is taken as the central value from Shaw
et al. (1993). (iv)

3. 2008MNRAS.386.2242H
Re:NGC 3079
NGC 3079. It has a peanut-shape bulge (Lutticke, Dettmar & Pohlen 2000) which
shows the cylindrical rotation (Shaw, Wilkinson & Carter 1993), a character of
disc-like pseudo-bulge.

4. 2008MNRAS.386.2242H
Re:NGC 3079
NGC 3079 - The accretion disc of the SMBH is probably thick, flared and clumpy,
in contrast to the compact, thin, warped, differentially rotating disc in the
archetypal maser galaxy NGC 4258 (Kondratko, Greenhill & Moran 2005). The mass
of SMBH thus may be underestimated. The stellar velocity dispersion is taken as
the central value from Shaw et al. (1993).

5. 2007A&A...461.1209D
Re:NGC 3079
NGC 3079: The source was proposed as a Compton-thick one by Iyomoto
et al. (2001). Here this result is confirmed, considering the large EW
of the FeK{alpha} line. In this framework, the steep spectrum below 10
keV suggests that this component could be ascribed to a warm scattering
process instead of a cold reflection.

6. 2006ApJS..164...52S
Re:NGC 3079
This is an edge-on spiral galaxy, with several regions of star formation along
the disk (Cecil et al. 2001). The UV image (Fig. 8, middle) is mostly empty,
showing only traces of emission, due to the high amount of extinction along the
line of sight. The radio image shows a strong point source at the nucleus and a
lobe at 20" NE, both related to a hidden AGN (Duric et al. 1983). The radio
image also shows strong emission along P.A.= -15^deg^, related to star forming
regions along the galaxy disk. The H{alpha} image from Cecil et al. (2001) shows
strong emission along the disk, as well as a nuclear outflow, related to the
radio lobe.

7. 2005ApJ...630..269N
Re:NGC 3079
NGC 3079.This galaxy appears to fit the Krugel et al. (1990) model. Indeed, the
2MASS image shows that the beam extends significantly beyond the nuclear dust
and gas emitting region. Tinney et al. (1990) presented a CO J = 1-0 spectrum
of NGC 3079 compiled from a map; the profile appears to be an asymmetric double
horn.

8. 2005ApJ...627..674A
Re:NGC 3079
NGC 3079.This galaxy contains complicated structure on milliarcsecond scales
along with water maser emission. Sawada-Satoh et al. (2000) present VLBA images
of this galaxy from 1996 October 20 observations showing a resolved object with
multiple components. They found over 18 mJy in three milliarcsecond-scale
components at 8.4 GHz, which is far less than the ~120- mJy we observed on
arcsecond scales with the VLA. The VLBI nuclear component has a sharply peaked
spectrum, with {alpha}^8.4^_15_ ~ +0.9 at low frequencies and {alpha}^15^_22_ =
-1.8 at high frequencies. Ho & Ulvestad (2001) found a peak spectral index of
{alpha}^1.4^_4.9_ = +0.2 on arcsecond scales. The VLA scale emission is also
extended and shows a small jet feature in our full-u-v images. The extended
emission in this galaxy did not cause any u-v problems, as we found NGC 3079 to
remain constant with an observed scatter of only ~1%.

9. 2004ApJS..151..193S
Re:NGC 3079
4.2.5. NGC 3079 (and NGC 3073) NGC 3079 is a massive spiral galaxy with
a LINER nucleus (Heckman 1980) and is home to both vigorous disk-wide
star formation (as evidenced by the high values of the IRAS 60 to 100
micron flux ratio throughout the optical disk, see Mayya & Rengarajan
1997, in addition to Seaquist, Davis, & Bignell 1978, Veilleux et
al. 1994, and Braine et al. 1997) and a weak AGN with a parsec-scale
radio jet (e.g., Irwin & Seaquist 1988; Trotter et al. 1998;
Sawado-Satoh et al. 2000). Direct radio detection of young SN remnants
in the nuclear region (as found in other galaxies with nuclear
starbursts such as M82, NGC 253, and NGC 3628) is currently lacking,
although this may be mainly due to a combination of the greater distance
of NGC 3079 as compared to these other starbursts, and the general focus
of radio studies on the nuclear radio source and the probable radio
jet. Nevertheless, there is good observational evidence pointing to
recent star formation within the molecular-gas-rich central few hundred
pc (Armus et al. 1995; Israel et al. 1998).
We originally targeted NGC 3079 as part of a program seeking to
ascertain whether the close spatial correlation between X-ray and
H{alpha}emission found in the southern NGC 253 nuclear outflow cone
(Strickland et al. 2000) is a general feature of all superwinds. NGC
3079 was known to have an outflowing, kiloparsec-scale, limb-brightened
optical emission line bubble (Ford et al. 1986; Heckman et al. 1990;
Filippenko & Sargent 1992; Veilleux et al. 1994), subsequently
dramatically imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 (Cecil et
al. 2001), and there was suggestive evidence for bright structured
diffuse X-ray emission in the same region from ROSAT HRI observations
(Dahlem et al. 1998; Pietsch et al. 1998).
The Chandra observations of NGC 3079 show that the diffuse X-ray
emission is very closely associated with the optical filaments forming
the bubble-the lower half of which can be seen in the left-hand side of
Figures 8a and 8c (see Strickland et al. 2003 for a direct overlay of
the X-ray emission on the H{alpha}emission, or Cecil, Bland-Hawthorn, &
Veilleux 2002 for a comparison to both the HST images and the radio
emission). Note that the 1.5 kpc scale radio lobes, the only large-scale
feature unambiguously associated with the AGN, are offset from the
X-ray/H{alpha}bubble (see Fig. 3 in Cecil et al. 2002). The lack of any
clear correlation, or anticorrelation, between the bubble and the radio
lobes strongly suggests that they are unrelated and spatially distinct
phenomena, the partial overlap being due to projection.

10. 2004ApJS..151..193S
Re:NGC 3079
On the larger scale, the diffuse X-ray emission is brightest along a
set of 10 kpc scale arcs that define a roughly X-shaped structure
centered on the nucleus (see Fig. 8h)-structure visible in the lower
signal-to-noise ROSAT PSPC data (Read et al. 1997; Dahlem et al. 1998;
Pietsch et al. 1998). Comparison with the continuum-subtracted
H{alpha}image taken by Heckman et al. (1990)-see also Figure
8i-demonstrates that the X-ray arcs or filaments correspond closely to
the location of the multi-kiloparsec-scale X-shaped optical filaments
discovered by Heckman et al. The NGC 3079 observations were one of the
shorter exposures in the sample, and consequently the higher noise level
is visible in the hard X-ray images (Figs. 8j and 8k).
Diffuse soft X-ray emission almost completely fills the 20 x 20 kpc
scale boxes shown in Figures 8g-8l. The diffuse X-ray emission is easily
traced to ~140" (~11.6 kpc) above the disk (to the east) and ~130"
(~10.8 kpc) below the plane (to the west), with the tips of the arclike
X-features extending even further. The northernmost of the eastern arc
appears to extend out to 210" (17.4 kpc) above the plane.
Tracing the wind out to such large distances strengthens the case that
the peculiar H I distribution of the dwarf galaxy NGC 3073 (10.0' away
from NGC 3079, corresponding to a minimum physical separation of 49.7
kpc) is due to a wind from NGC 3079 (Irwin et al. 1987) ram-pressure
stripping the ISM of this dwarf galaxy. If this is occurring, there
should be X-ray and H{alpha} emission associated with a bow shock
upstream from NGC 3073 (similar to the Lehnert et al. 1999 model for the
cloud found 11 kpc to the north of M82). We find no statistically
significant level of X-ray emission associated with NGC 3073 itself. The
upper limit on the soft X-ray emission within a 2' diameter aperture
centered on NGC 3073 (this extends ~1' ~ 5 kpc further upstream than the
H I) is less than 1.3 x 10^-3^ counts s^-1^ (3 {sigma}, 0.3-2.0 keV
energy band). Assuming a total absorbing column equal to the foreground
Galactic column of NH = 2 x 10^20^ cm^-2^, emission from a hot plasma with
a temperature similar to what Lehnert et al. (1999) found for the M82
northern cloud (kT {approx} 0.8 keV), and using the appropriate spectral
responses, this corresponds to a flux limit of fX < 6 x 10^-1^5 ergs s^-1^
cm^-2^, and L_X_ < 2 x 10^38^ ergs s^-1^. By way of comparison, the M82
northern cloud has a soft X-ray luminosity of 2 x 10^38^ ergs s^-1^ and
a very similar H{alpha}luminosity. Were the M82 northern cloud at a
distance of 50 kpc from M82, we might expect its X-ray and
H{alpha}luminosities to be a factor of (50/11)^2^ ~ 20 times fainter,
given that it would intercept a significantly smaller fraction of the
superwind's mechanical energy. Deep optical imaging may be a promising
way of determining whether there really is a bow shock with luminosity
L_H{alpha}_~ L_X_ ~ 10^37^ ergs s^-1^ upwind of NGC 3073 (to our
knowledge this has not been attempted, despite it being suggested by
Irwin et al. 1987).

11. 2003ApJS..146..353M
Re:NGC 3079
NGC 3079 (HI)
This well-known LINER is too highly inclined for any structure in the
circumnuclear dust to be reliably classified.

12. 2003ApJS..146..249B
Re:NGC 3079
5.8. NGC 3079
The water maser source in NGC 3079 has been studied extensively by
Baan & Haschick (1996) and Hagiwara et al. (2002b) and has not been
part of our monitoring program. However, we present a GBT spectrum of
this maser (Fig. 2) which is shown with a flux range chosen to
emphasize the weak features. Our spectrum confirms the redshifted
structure detected by Hagiwara et al. (2002b) as well as the narrow
gap at the systemic velocity, though the flux in the 2002 April
spectrum does not drop to zero at the systemic velocity, as in their
2001 December data.

13. 2002ApJS..139....1T
Re:NGC 3079
NGC 3079 (S2).-ASCA results are presented in Ptak et al. (1999) and
Dahlem, Weaver, & Heckman (1998). Although hard X-ray emission is
detected, we found no clear evidence for the presence of an AGN from the
present data. The small L_X_/L_H_{alpha}_ ratio (Terashima et
al. 2000a) indicates that the AGN component, if the dominant ionizing
source of the optical emission lines, should be heavily obscured in the
energy band below 10 keV. The upper limit on the EW of an Fe K emission
line is large (~2 keV), not inconsistent with a highly obscured
nucleus. A recent BeppoSAX observation detected a strong Fe K emission
line and highly absorbed hard X-ray emission (Iyomoto et al. 2001). Such
a spectral shape gives clear evidence for the presence of a heavily
obscured AGN.
The low-energy portion of the ASCA spectrum shows strong emission
lines arising from {alpha}processed elements, which are most likely
associated with hot gas arising from powerful starburst activity. A
variable abundance model gives a significantly better fit than the
solar case ({DELTA}{chi}^2^ = -16.3).
The absorption column for the hard component depends on the model
adopted for the soft component. Our best-fit value is N_H_ =
1.7^+1.8^_-1.2_ x 10^22^ cm^-2^. Dahlem et al. (1998) used a
two-temperature MEKAL plasma plus a partially covered power law and
obtained N_H_ = 6 x 10^22^ cm^-2^. Ptak et al. (1999), assuming a
RS + power-law model, derived a very small column, with a typical
upper limit of N_H_ ~ few x 10^22^ cm^-2^. Since the hard component
seen by ASCA is probably a combination of scattered emission
from the AGN and contributions from the starburst region (X-ray
binaries, supernovae, and hot gas), the amount of absorption to be
attributed to the AGN is highly ambiguous.

14. 2002AJ....124..675C
Re:UGC 05387
Very extended radio source; all 3 NVSS components contribute. Seyfert
2.

15. 2001ApJS..136...61S
Re:NGC 3079
5.16. NGC 3079
NGC 3079 is a nearly edge-on galaxy (our K-band image is also elongated
at the same position angle as the galactic disk) which has been well
studied. NGC 3079 has been classified as a LINER (Heckman 1980), but we
prefer a Seyfert 2 classification based on line ratios from the literature
(Table 2). Lehnert & Heckman (1996) and Veilleux et al. (1994) find
evidence that the nucleus is driving a galactic-scale outflow
(a "superbubble"). On the nucleus, a large concentration of CO gas has
been found (Schoniger & Sofue 1994) and a central starburst appears
sufficiently strong to produce the outflow (Veilleux et al. 1994), though
the latter authors cannot exclude the presence of an AGN. A detection of
broad H{alpha}, consistent with the nuclear outflow, has been reported by
Stauffer (1982). Israel et al. (1998) image the central region of this
galaxy in the near-IR (J, H, K, and the H_2_ 1-0 S(1) line). They claim
that its extremely red infrared colors can only be explained with hot dust
emission, and they support that argument by comparing the depths of the
K-band CO absorption lines from Hawarden et al. (1995) with those from
Arnaud, Gilmore, & Collier (1989) and Lancon & Rocca-Volmerange (1992).
Israel et al. (1998) infer based on this comparison that up to 25%-30% of
the emission within the central 3" x 3" can be attributed to hot dust.
However, our K-band spectrum, at higher spectral resolution than that by
Hawarden et al. (1995), shows CO depths 25%-30% deeper than theirs, and
thus does not reveal a hot dust signature. Hawarden et al. (1995) conclude
that the H_2_ near-IR emission lines are shock excited in the outflow and
that the outflow has an active nuclear origin. Pietsch, Trinchieri,
& Vogler (1998) resolve the X-ray emission from the inner 20" x 30" and
find it to be coincident with the optical superbubble. A point-source
active nucleus may contribute to the X-ray emission. In addition, they
argue that an AGN interpretation is favored for the high X-ray to optical
luminosity ratio.

16. 2001ApJS..133...77H
Re:NGC 3079
NGC 3079 (S2). - NGC 3079 belongs to a minority of edge-on spiral
galaxies which exhibit anomalous extended emission along the minor axis.
Apart from the strong nuclear source, the radio morphology is dominated by
a striking system of loops and bubbles which strongly suggest an outflow
origin (Duric & Seaquist 1988, and references therein). Our full-resolution
images have resolved out most of the extended emission, although some of it
is recovered in the tapered map. The extended, bubble-like component lies
at P.A. ~ 64^deg^, close to the optical minor axis, which is at
P.A. = 75^deg^. The nucleus, with a peak flux density of 90 mJy at 6 cm and
70 mJy at 20 cm in our 1" maps, has an angular size less than 005 at 15 GHz
(Hummel et al. 1984; Carral, Turner, & Ho 1990), but it was not detected in
the VLBI experiment of Hummel et al. (1982). Duric & Seaquist (1988)
detected linearly polarized 6 cm emission over the extent of the
bubble-like feature and along the major axis of the galaxy's disk. Our
higher resolution map is shown in Figure 16g. The integrated polarized
flux density of the bubble-like feature is S_pol,6_^I^ = 12.4 mJy, and the
corresponding area-averaged polarization fraction is very high, ~73%. This
high percentage polarization may be caused by polarization structure on
smaller scales than the total-intensity structure, as for NGC 3031. We did
not detect polarization at 20 cm (S_pol,20_^P^ < 0.096 mJy beam^-1^).

17. 1999ApJ...524..684G
Re:NGC 3079
NGC 3079 is classified as a LINER (Heckman 1980) with evidence for
active star formation (e.g., Condon & Broderick 1988; Irwin & Seaquist
1990). The H I absorption was discussed briefly by Gallimore et al.
(1994) but in more detail by Baan & Irwin (1995). MERLIN observations
well resolve the rotational trend of the absorption-line gas (Pedlar
et al. 1996), which matches the sense of the rotation traced by H I
emission (Irwin & Seaquist 1991). The bulk of the absorption probably
arises from the edge-on but normally rotating disk, observed in
silhouette against extended, diffuse radio emission associated with star
formation (Pedlar et al. 1996). Based on new VLBI observations, Satoh
et al. (1998) report that the H I absorption viewed toward the central
VLBI radio jet appears to be counterrotating relative to the gas motions
in the outer galaxy, but it is unclear whether the H I absorption on
VLBI scales traces gas in rotation as opposed to, say, nuclear-driven
outflow. The apparent complexity of the broad absorption-line profile
may reflect the structure of the VLBI jet as much as the kinematics and
distribution of the absorbing gas.

18. 1998ApJS..118..401D
Re:NGC 3079
The HRI image of NGC 3079 was first overlaid on a 30' x 30' Digitized
Sky Survey (DSS) image to perform astrometry. Optical counterparts were
found for three X-ray sources, one each to the east, north, and west of
NGC 3079. The image was then aligned to average the offsets of these
optical sources with respect to the X-ray source positions. Each optical
source falls within the 90% flux X-ray contour, and so we are confident
in the alignment. The relative alignment in the final image is estimated
to be off by no more than 6 ". Using two stars in the DSS image that
also appear in the H {alpha} image (Fig. 4), we then aligned the
NGC 3079 X-ray source relative to these stars, based on the alignment
in the DSS image. We estimate the X-ray position in the H{alpha} image
to be good to within 6 ". We describe this procedure in so much detail
because the resulting alignment is different from that obtained by
Pietsch, Supper, & Vogler (1996).
The X-ray contours are conelike and extend to the northeast of the
galaxy disk. The extraplanar X-ray emission is offset from the
H{alpha} bubble, which is located ~16" to the south of it.

19. 1998ApJS..118..401D
Re:NGC 3079
Raw images
A hard, compact nuclear component is found superposed on some faint
extended emission, which arises partly out of the disk plane. This faint
emission is only visible in PSPC images with high spatial resolution
(48"). After excision of the bright emission features, no further faint
halo emission could be found. Therefore, the raw images are also the
final images.

20. 1998ApJS..118..401D
Re:NGC 3079
The halo emission cannot be separated from the core in either the PSPC
or ASCA data, and so we examine the integral galaxy spectrum.

21. 1998ApJ...500..685P
Re:NGC 3079
1. NGC 3079.--NGC 3079 is a LINER galaxy (Heckman 1980), morphologically
classified as an SB(s)c. This object shows large amounts of dust irregularly
distributed throughout its disk and large reddening toward its nucleus. The SED
of NGC 3079 is fitted by three different thermal components of temperatures 21,
41, and 151 K, with widths of ~16, ~20, and 45 K, respectively. The three
components have different intensities, the more intense one being the colder
component. This is expected given the large amounts of dust and dark molecular
clouds seen in the optical images of NGC 3079 spread out throughout the entire
galaxy.

22. 1998AJ....116.2682C
Re:IRAS 09585+5555
NGC 3079. Seyfert 2. Nuclear superbubble (Veilleux et al. 1994). VLA
maps at 20 and 6 cm in Duric & Seaquist (1988).

23. 1997ApJS..112..391H
Re:NGC 3079
NGC 3079.--The large strengths of [O II] {lambda}3727 (Heckman, Balick, & Crane
1980) and [O I] {lambda}6300 (Paper III) relative to [O III] {lambda}5007 in
the nucleus of NGC 3079 qualify it as a LINER according to the definition of
Heckman (1980). Adhering to the convention of Paper III, on the other hand, the
[O III]/H{beta} ratio puts the nucleus in the category of Seyfert galaxies;
however, it should be noted that the H{beta} line is very weak and uncertain
and that the excitation could be lower. As described extensively by Filippenko
& Sargent (1992) and Veilleux et al. (1994) and is clearly illustrated in
Figure 9f, the kinematics of the lineemitting gas near the nucleus of this
edge-on SBc galaxy are extremely complicated. The central starburst appears to
dominate the energetics, although some contribution from an AGN cannot be
excluded (Veilleux et al. 1994). In view of the complexity of the velocity
field of the gas, it is not surprising that we were unsuccessful in achieving a
satisfactory decomposition of the H{alpha}+[N II] blend. (We do not show any of
the trial fits in Fig. 9f.) Within our 2"x4" extraction aperture, the [S II]
line profile does not entirely match the shape of the [N II] lines, and
H{alpha} seems to have a narrow core (Fig. 9f), perhaps because of superposed
emission from H{alpha} II regions, which is absent from [N II] and [S II].
Judging by the spatial variation of the emission-line spectrum (Veilleux et al.
1994), these profile differences most likely reflect variations in excitation
or physical conditions among the discrete gas elements included in our
integrated spectrum. Without adequate constraints on the intrinsic narrow-line
profiles, it is virtually impossible to fit the broad H{alpha} component with
confidence. Thus, although Stauffer (1982) and Keel (1983) suspected that broad
H{alpha} was present in this object, we agree with Filippenko & Sargent (1992)
that it is premature to come to any firm conclusions.

24. 1996ApJ...458..120S
Re:NGC 3079
NGC 3079
This is an amorphous edge-on galaxy classified as Sc type, showing an
anomalously high concentration of CO gas in the center(Sofue et al. 1994). The
distance is taken to be 15.6 Mpc using the H I systemic velocity and a Hubble
constant of H_0_ = 75 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^ (Sofue & Irwin 1992). Figure 6 shows the
rotation curve produced by using the composite CO + H I PV diagram obtained by
Sofue et al.(1994). Here they used a VLA H I PV diagram from Irwin & Seaquist
(1991) and CO data from the Nobeyama Millimeter Array (NMA) (Sofue & Irwin
1992). This galaxy exhibits an exceptionally high concentration of CO emission
in the galactic center. This high-density nuclear disk is clearly visible as
the absorption feature in the H I line.
The rotation velocity shows a steep rise to a maximum as high as 320 km s^-1^
on the southeast side and 260 km s^-1^ on the northwest, followed by a dip at
a few kiloparsec radius. The rotation velocity of this nuclear disk component
is highly asymmetric with respect to the nucleus. The asymmetric rotation
continues until r ~ 8 kpc. The H I gas is widely distributed in the broad ring
at R = 1'-2' (5-10 kpc) and in the outskirts showing a symmetric flat rotation.

25. 1996A&AS..115..439E
Re:NGC 3079
NGC 3079 is discussed by Braine et al. (1993). It is a peculiar nearly edge-on
SB galaxy with a violent bipolar outflow of gas from the nucleus, a "galactic
superwind" (Filippenko & Sargent 1992). H I in absorption against the nucleus
has been detected by Gallimore et al. (1994) using the VLA. NCC 3079 has also
been observed in the CO J = 1-0 line by Sofue & Irwin (1992) using the Nobeyama
mm array.

26. 1996A&A...309..335H
Re:NGC 3079
NGC 3079 (z = 0.00375 and 0958+559 (U4) (z = 1.170, m_B_ = 18.4)
{DELTA}{theta} = 144"
Arp (1981) originally discovered several QSOs close to NGC 3079 and its
companion NGC 3073. Based on statistical arguments he concluded that the QSOs
and galaxies were associated. A number of investigations of NGC 3079 several
years after Arp's work have shown that it is an exceedingly active galaxy with
extensive evidence of radio emission and a jet-like out-flow from its nucleus
(Hummel, van Gorkum and Kotanyi (1983)). It contains a highly luminous H_2_O
maser (Haschik and Baan 1985). There is also extensive evidence for the
ejection of excited gas from the nuclear region (velocities in excess of
1000 km Sec^-1^ are detected (Filippenko and Sargent 1992)) and also evidence
of generation of Heiles shells of neutral hydrogen out of the plane of the
galaxy (Irwin & Seaquist 1990). The nearest QSO to NGC 3079 is U4 (0958+559)
which has been investigated by Womble (1993) and by Womble, Junkkarinen &
Burbidge (1992) who found CaII absorption from the extended gas in the
spectrum of the QSO. The galaxy is seen nearly edge on and a large part of the
optical and radio activity is concentrated in the northwest quadrant which is
where 0958+559 is found. The geometry is complicated and there is no direct
alignment between the QSO and any specific optical or radio feature. However
as is shown in Fig. 6, taken from Womble (1993), the QSO lies in the general
direction of the Heiles shells. More specifically, the position angle of the
QSO with respect to the galaxy nucleus is 25^deg^, and this is close to the
position angle of Heiles shell C of Irwin and Seaquist. The position angle of
the line with largest velocities of ionized gas measured by Filippenko and
Sargent is 45^deg^. Thus while we cannot say that there is direct alignment of
this QSO with an obvious galaxy feature, the overall activity of the galaxy in
the general direction of the QSO is striking. And it must be remembered that
Arp identified four QSOs in total very close to NGC 3079.

27. 1995MNRAS.276.1262K
Re:NGC 3079
NGC 3079: Type2. Host galaxy: SB (CPG), spiral (UGC). Radio: at high
resolution this object is unresolved. However, the C-array map shows some
signs of low-level extended structure in a north-south direction, and the
flux ratio of ~1.5:1 indicates that there may be extended structure on
intermediate scales (or variability on the timescale of 1 yr?).

28. 1995ApJS...98..477H
Re:NGC 3079
NGC 3079 belongs to a class of galaxies which display large-scale
emission features emanating from the nucleus along the minor axis. These
``superwinds'' (Heckman, Armus, & Miley 1990) are thought to arise from
the collective energy deposition and expulsion of matter from massive
stars and supernovae in starburst systems. The center of NGC 3079 also
harbors a LINER nucleus. Because of the complex geometry of the
emission-line gas, the detailed spectrum of the nucleus depends on the
orientation of the slit. The spectrum shown in Figure 25 (PA = 45 deg)
was chosen simply because it has a fairly high S/N. Detailed analyses of
NGC 3079 can be found in Filippenko & Sargent (1992) and Veilleux et al
(1994).

29. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 3079
Triplet?
Sc(s)II-III
PH-7933-S
Nov 7/8, 1980
103aO
12 min
Racine wedge
NGC 3079 (v_o = 1225 km/s) forms a pair
with NGC 3073 (S0 pec!; v_o = 1271 km/s; not
in the RSA), at a separation of 10.1'. A third
anonymous galaxy (Im or BCD) of unknown
redshift exists in the field, separated by 6.6'
from NGC 3079. From its stellar content, this
candidate companion appears to be at the same
distance as NGC 3079.
At the mean redshift distance of 25 Mpc
(H = 50) the projected linear separations of the
two supposed companions from NGC 3079 are small,
at 73 kpc and 48 kpc, respectively.
The plane of NGC 3079 is warped in the
outer regions. Furthermore, the morphology of
the two companions is abnormal, suggesting an
earlier encounter.
A few individual stars (or more probably
HII regions) resolve out of the background light
in the outer regions of the image starting at about
B = 21.
A Racine wedge has produced secondary
images to the bright stars 5 magnitudes fainter
than the primary at 18" separation.

30. 1993A&AS...97..887B
Re:NGC 3079
NGC 3079 is a disturbed LINER (SM) with extremely strong and wide CO
emission. IRAM and unpublished NRO 45 m CO(1-0) data are both severely
incompatible with the low intensity in S88. See Irwin and Seaquist (1991)
for a detailed radio study of this perturbed galaxy.

31. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 3079
= Holm 156a = 4C 55.19
Pair with NGC 3073 (Holm 156b) at 10 arcmin
and with an anonymous galaxy at 6.5 arcmin north-preceding.
HI 21cm: halo search,
Astr. Ap., 28, 95, 1973 (no detection).
Source R2 (Astr. Ap., 3, 292, 1969) rejected.
Radio Observations:
Ap. J., 144, 553, 1966.
A.J., 78, 18, 1973.
Ap. J., 189, 399, 1974.
Astr. Ap., 31, 447, 1974.

32. 1973UGC...C...0000N
Re:UGC 05387
SB(s)m (de Vaucouleurs), Sc- (Holmberg)
See UGC 05374
09 57.8 +55 57 at 6.5 north-following, 0.9 x 0.4, m=14.6

33. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 3079
= Holm 156a
Bright, peanut-shaped bar: 1.4 arcmin x 0.3 arcmin with dark lanes on one side.
2 main partially resolved arms, one is longer and forms an outer loop or (R):
6.2 arcmin x 0.5 arcmin. Almost edge-on and probably similar to NGC 4631.
Pair with NGC 3073 at 10 arcmin preceding and an anonymous galaxy at 6.5
arcmin north-preceding.
Lick (1956) velocity for condensation 60 arcsec south-east of center:
+1593 km/sec. Lick (1962) velocities: 99 arcsec north of nucleus:
+1000 km/sec; 30 arcsec south of nucleus: +1237 km/sec.

34. 1956AJ.....61...97H
Re:NGC 3079
HMS Note No. 079
Nuclear region, with very broad, poorly-defined absorption lines,
probably inclined by rotation.
HMS Note No. 080
Condensation approximately 60 arcsec [south-east] that shows
{lambda} 3727 as the only faint emission. There probably is a
real difference in velocity between the nucleus and this
condensation, but the lines are so poor and difficult to
measure that the amount is quite uncertain.

35. 1918PLicO..13....9C
Re:NGC 3079
Quite bright; 8' x 1' in p.a. 167^deg^; nucleus elongated and hazy; numerous
condensations in the whorls. A nearly edgewise spiral, showing evidence of
absorption lane on the east. See Abs. Eff. 34 s.n.


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