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Notes for object NGC 4214

25 note(s) found in NED.

1. 2011AJ....141...23B
Re:NGC 4214
A.14. NGC 4214
NGC 4214 is a nearby (D = 2.9 Mpc) dwarf irregular
galaxy classified as a starburst galaxy. We found 56 HI holes
in NGC 4214 with a wide range of sizes, from 0.11 to 1.2 kpc.
Given the close proximity of this galaxy and consequently the
high spatial resolution, it is surprising that only about 7% of
the holes detected are type 3. One possible explanation is that
NGC 4214 has a low scale height and therefore holes can break
out of the disk faster.

2. 2009A&A...493..871S
Re:UGC 07278
UGC 7278 has a strong kinematic warp, with the inclination changing from about
30^deg^ in the central parts to about 10^deg^ in the outer parts, and the
position angle changing from 74^deg^ to 90^deg^. Because of the low inclination,
the actual values of the inclination, and hence the amplitude of the rotation
curve, are uncertain. The H I in the central parts has a high velocity
dispersion and seems to counterrotate with respect to the outer parts.

3. 2008MNRAS.390..466E
Re:UGC 07278
UGC 7278. This galaxy does not show any evidence for rotation. However, a
velocity amplitude of about 10 km s^-1^ is observed on its velocity field.

4. 2006ApJS..164...52S
Re:NGC 4214
The UV image shows one strong clump of emission at the nucleus and another clump
on the eastern border of the image (Fig. 3, right). As for NGC 1569, the
H{alpha} and radio emission trace each other, but are very faint in regions of
strong UV emission, indicating that the gas has been evacuated from these
regions. Note that this galaxy is close enough to allow us to resolve individual
stars in the STIS image.

5. 2004MNRAS.349..225G
Re:UGC 07278
4.13 UGC 7278 This barred magellanic galaxy experiences an important
star formation traced by very bright H{alpha} emission from two large H II
complexes. H II regions are present along an elongated structure and
this main body is surrounded by extended diffuse emission. The H{alpha}
velocity field is very peculiar; it consists of more or less concentric
closed loops, with a gradient from the centre towards the external
parts. In order to subtract at best the very bright OH night sky line at
6677.28 {Angstrom} we retained only the H{alpha} signal with S/N >= 3.1
1. With this severe selection criterion we are probably losing some
diffuse emission from the galaxy at low level. The velocity field shows
no circular motion in the central part. Our velocity map is different
from that derived in H I (McIntyre 1997; Swaters 1999). The low spatial
resolution of the H I data smoothes the motion seen on the H{alpha}
map. The maximum radial velocity of 320 km s^-1^ corresponds to a central
region located slightly to the north of the maximum of the continuum map
which must be the place of the nucleus, and the crude interpretation of
our velocity field is that the ionized gas in the central part of the
galaxy is receding through a disc seen almost face-on. Of course, we
could derive no rotation curve from our velocity field. The velocity map
derived from radio observations suggests the presence of a bar at the
place of the optical main body but the grand design of the velocity
field in the outer parts is fairly regular. The only H II regions with
velocities in agreement with the H I velocity map are those seemingly in
orbit around the main body of the galaxy. There are two others sets of
H{alpha} kinematical data available in the literature: the first set was
obtained with a long-slit spectrograph (Maiz-Apellaniz, Tenorio-Tagle
& Mas-Hesse 1999), and the second with the WIYN (University of
Wisconsin, Indiana University, Yale University and the National Optical
Astronomy Observatories) integral field unit spectrometer (Wilcots &
Thurow 2001). These data provide information only for some regions but
the agreement with our data is quite good, despite a systematic
difference in radial velocities (GHASP data are lower by 10-20 km s^-1^
because the calibration is made with a line far from the H{alpha} line of
the galaxy; see Paper I for explanations). Unfortunately, there is no
other H{alpha} kinematical information about the eastern side which could
help confirming this peculiar motion we observe in this galaxy.

6. 2003ApJS..146....1W
Re:NGC 4214
NGC 4214.-This object is bright and the observation is relatively long,
resulting in a spectrum with high S/N ratio (12 per resolution
element). Strong Galactic O VI absorption can be seen, as well as strong
O VI and Ly{beta} associated with NGC 4214. However, the continuum
placement in the 1030-1034 {angstrom} wavelength too
uncertain. Placing it low would yield W(O VI) = 165 +- 25 m{angstrom},
whereas placing it high gives W(O VI) = 265 +- 20 m{angstrom}. Both of
these continuum placements can be defended. Because of this large
uncertainty NGC 4214 was excluded from the final sample.

7. 2002MNRAS.329..877C
Re:GB6 J1215+3619
98-redshift from Falco et al. (1999); spectrum in Ho et al. (1995).

8. 2002ApJS..140..303L
Re:NGC 4214
NGC 4214 (Fig. 34).-This is the highest quality spectrum in our sample.
The 10" x 56" aperture covers a large fraction of the galactic disk.
The fitted spectrum has an age of 10 Myr and agrees with the
observations extremely well. The wavelength range above 1600 {Angstrom}
shows little evidence for line blanketing, a result of the lower
metallicity of this galaxy. The same effect is seen in the other
metal-poor galaxies. The continuum is well defined and strong down to
the Lyman break.

9. 2002ApJ...573..306E
Re:NGC 4214
NGC 4214
A contour map of most of the sources in this galaxy can be seen in
Figure 7. There were at least eight radio sources in this irregular
galaxy with one ({eta}) apparently composed of a number of smaller
sources. Using an H{alpha} map of the galaxy provided by S. D. Van Dyk
(1997, private communication) and superposing our radio map with it,
we can attempt to identify probable H II regions. Sources {alpha},
{beta}, {gamma}, {epsilon} and {eta} have excellent positional
coincidences with H{alpha}-emitting regions and are all probably
H II regions. Hartmann, Geller, & Huchra (1986) list positions of
H II regions, and their source H59 lies 3" from the peak position
of source {rho}. This source is likely to be an H II region. In
addition, the Hartmann et al. (1986) source H48 lies 3" from the
strongest source in the {eta} complex. H54 and H55 lie close enough
(5.5" and 2", respectively) to the peak positions of {beta} and {alpha}
to make their identification probable.

10. 2002AJ....124..675C
Re:UGC 07278
Very large galaxy.

11. 2000AJ....120..244B
Re:NGC 4214
NGC 4214: NGC 4214 is a nearby (4.1 Mpc) Magellanic irregular
galaxy, with an inner blue starburst region and an older red disk. It is
described at various wavelengths by Fanelli et al. (1997), Martin
(1998), and Van Dyk, Hamuy, & Filippenko (1996). It has a complex and
interesting structure: there are two distinct emission regions, each
breaking up into several smaller clumps, in a north-south S shape and
the western end of the northern region is an almost semicircular arc.
This arc corresponds to an emission arc around a hole seen in the
H{alpha} map. The overall structure of the radio and H{alpha} maps
agree, and the two radio emission peaks in the southern source and the
brightest clump in the northern are coincident with H{alpha} peaks, but
there are many radio clumps with no H{alpha} counterparts. NGC 4214
contains a very bright dominant UV source (Maoz et al. 1996) located in
the radio-H{alpha} emission hole, slightly offset from the center. This
structure suggests that the UV source has blown out a hole in the ISM
and that the same process may have compressed the surrounding ISM and
triggered star formation there. The galaxy also contains many smaller UV
sources, probably stars, none of which correspond to any radio or
H{alpha} source.
The radio spectrum of this galaxy is strongly rising. In the
southern source the 2 cm flux density is more than twice the 6 cm value.
The 20 cm emission in the southern source is both weak and very
concentrated on the 6 and 2 cm emission peaks. The 20 cm emission is
usually more extended than that at shorter wavelengths because of
contributions from expanded supernovae. The small size and the very
thick 20/6 cm spectrum of the southern source argue that it is very
young. In the northern source, the 20 cm is more extended and has a
nonthermal component (there have been historical supernovae in NGC 4214
but not in the central starburst sources); however, there is also an
unusual extended thermal component evident in both the 2 cm and spectral
index maps. The 6 and 2 cm maps show that regions of spectral index
close to the pure thermal value of -0.1 and regions with spectral index
close to +1.0 are mixed throughout both the southern and northern arcs.
The sizes and other derived quantities in Table 5 are taken from the
brightest sources in the north and south, respectively.
In this galaxy the sources with the most ionization and largest
deduced stellar population are not the strongest at 6 cm. While the
influence of optical depth on the appearance of astronomical sources is
a well-known problem at optical wavelengths, it is usually assumed that
the radio is free of this influence. We see here that the effects of
high emission measure may disguise the true radio structure as
effectively as dust does the optical appearance, and we see further in
this paper that this may not be at all uncommon in young starbursts.

12. 1999A&AS..136...35S
Re:NGC 4214
NGC 4214 -- WR signatures in this galaxy were found independently by
Mas-Hesse & Kunth (1991; cf. also 1998) and Sargent & Fillippenko
(1991). The observations of the former show a broad WR bump around
4650A and C IV {lambda}5808 due to WC stars. The latter detect WR
signatures of N III {lambda}4640, C III {lambda}4650, possibly also
C III {lambda}4658, and He II {lambda}4686 in two knots. From the C
lines they also suspected the presence of WC stars. Broad
He II {lambda}4686 and C IV {lambda}5808 in several regions has also
been signaled by Martin & Kennicutt (1997). A broad H{alpha} component,
attributed to WN stars, was also detected by Sargent & Fillippenko in
one knot. Recent UV spectroscopy of NGC 4214 with HST was obtained by
Leitherer et al. (1996). Detailed spectroscopic spatial mapping by
Maiz-Apellaniz et al. (1998) shows the presence of He II {lambda}4686
(broad and narrow) in several regions of NGC 4214.

13. 1999A&A...349..424T
Re:NGC 4214
NGC 4214: Becker et al. (1995) have mapped NGC 4214 simultaneously in
the 1-0 and 2-1 lines of ^12^CO using the 30-m telescope of IRAM. They
detected a large region of emission, about 1000 pc x 700 pc in size,
near the center of the galaxy. This emission shows structure on scales
of ~ 500 pc, which was approximately the resolution limit of those
observations. One feature which is well resolved has a virial mass of
~ 10^7^ M_sun_, larger than what we have seen in NGC 1569. Clouds of
this size are rare in surveys of Galactic GMCs (e.g. Sodroski 1991;
Sanders et al. 1985), so perhaps these features in NGC 4214 are simply
collections of unresolved smaller clouds. When observed with a large
enough beam, the GMCs we see in NGC 1569 do appear as a single large
cloud of diameter ~ 150-200 pc (Greve et al. (1996)).
Becker et al. find a 2-1/1-0 line ratio of 0.4 +/- 0.1 for
NGC 4214. Their data have relatively low spatial resolution (13" in
^12^CO 2-1) and NGC 4214 is more than twice as far away as NGC 1569.
Therefore their line ratio represents not a value for an individual
cloud, but an average over multiple clouds belonging to a molecular
cloud complex. In addition, they used a single-dish telescope, so they
do not have the problem of missing flux due to a lack of short spacings.
It would be interesting to obtain interferometric CO observations of
NGC 4214 in order to derive line ratios on smaller physical scales than
was possible for Becker et al. and see if any dense clouds with high
line ratios are present, such as we find in the case of GMC 1+2 in
NGC 1569.

14. 1998ApJ...506..222M
Re:NGC 4214
Several bubbles are found to be associated with the young star-forming
region in NGC 4214 (Sargent & Filippenko 1991; Leitherer et al. 1996).
About one-half the ultraviolet light from the starburst comes from the
4-5 Myr old cluster NGC 4214 No. 1, which lies within the southern edge
of a circular ring in the H{alpha} emission (Leitherer et al. 1996).
This ring has a diameter of 8.3" (145 pc) and is identified as complex A
in Figure 2. Echellegram NGC 4214-1 shows the H{alpha} emission across
it splits into two velocity components near the location of the peak
continuum emission. Hence, the ring is probably the projection of the
shell surrounding an expanding cavity. The shell must not be spherical,
however, since the diameter of the Doppler ellipse is over twice that of
the ring in the image. The line splitting along the edge of shell A at
positions NGC 4214-3 and NGC 4214-2 confirm that the area covered by the
bubble is larger than shell A itself. The obvious explanation is that
our line of sight is parallel to the polar axis of a wasp-waisted
bipolar bubble, and the shell is brightest where its expansion has been
restricted by the higher ambient density in the galactic plane.
Two polar bubbles are detected along NGC 4214-1 and seem to be
breaking out of region A. Bubble B is surrounded by some gaseous
filaments in Figure 2, although only diffuse emission is seen in the
region of complex C. Some faint filaments are found within complex F,
although the line splitting is confined to a few patches with a faint
component redshifted to higher velocity. These wisps reach velocities
~100 km s^-1^ and are unresolved in the spatial dimension; their
physical interpretation is less certain than that of the well-defined
Doppler ellipses.
By observing the overall tilt of each NGC 4214 echellegram, notice
that the rotation of the ionized gas contributes less to the width of
the integrated H{alpha} line profile than these shells and wisps. The
largest gradient in the central velocity of the line profile is 38 km
s^-1^ across NGC 4214-4. The H II complex 1' west of the central
starburst has a lower velocity than the eastern side of the galaxy.
Across NGC 4214-1, NGC 4214-2, and NGC 4214-3, the ionized gas at the
northeast end of the slit is moving 15-26 km s^-1^ faster than that at
the southwest end, so the rotation axis of the ionized gas is closer to
the major axis of the galaxy than the minor axis. The H I rotation axis
and major axis are also oriented at P.A. ~ -20^deg^ (McIntyre 1996).

15. 1998ApJ...506..222M
Re:NGC 4214
The H I rotation axis in NGC 4214 is nearly aligned with the
optical major axis; and McIntyre (1996) suggests that the strong central
isovelocity twist could be the signature of a bar. The extended disk of
H I in NGC 4214 reaches a circular rotation speed of ~70 km s^-1^ at a
radius R = 2.91 kpc (McIntyre 1996). Like NGC 3077, much of the mass in
the inner region of NGC 4214 could, however, be provided by a disk of
stars and gas. The bold, dashed line in the figures shows that the
escape velocity above the center of a disk with central surface density
235 M_sun_ pc-2 and scale length r_0_ = 2.91 kpc. The escape velocity
from an r_0_ = 2.91 kpc halo model is lower, but that from a denser halo
that dominates the interior mass would be higher. Both estimates of the
halo escape velocity 1 kpc from the starburst are somewhat higher than
the shell speeds, which range from 28 to 100 km s^-1^.

16. 1995ApJS...98..477H
Re:NGC 4214
Sargent & Filippenko (1991) discuss this W-R galaxy in some detail.
Several luminous star clusters are present; the spectrum shown in Figure
53 is extracted from the brightest region (``Knot 1'' in the notation of
Sargent & Filippenko), approximately centered on the galaxy. The weak,
broad bump at ~4650 A is a blend of several features (see discussion
concerning NGC 1156) found in W-R stars of type WC and WN. As noted by
Sargent & Filippenko, the H{alpha} line exhibits a weak, broad base.

17. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 4214
CVn I Cloud
B4 Group
Hubble Atlas, p. 40
April 15/16, 1960
103aO + GG13
20 min
NGC 4214 is a highly resolved Magellanic
Cloud-type galaxy in the nearby CVn I Cloud
(the B4 Group), which also contains NGC 4190,
NGC 4395, NGC 4449, and IC 4182, among
other well-resolved very-late-type galaxies. A
description of the group is in the paragraphs for
NGC 4395 (panel 324). The redshift of NGC 4214
is v_o = 290 km/s.
Preliminary photometry of the brightest
resolved stars in NGC 4214 gives a distance
modulus of m - M = 28.4 based on V = 20.4 for
the brightest red supergiants. The apparent
magnitude for the brightest blue supergiants is
B = 18.8, also from this preliminary photometry.

18. 1993ApJS...86....5K
Re:NGC 4214
NGC 4214; IABm, starburst.
NGC 4214 is a metal-deficient blue Magellanic irregular galaxy. In the UV
study by Huchra et al. (1983), who have carefully centered the IUE
aperture on the optical center of the galaxy, the P Cygni profile of C IV
{lambda}1550 was found to be consistent with the strong winds typical of
O stars, which produce ~50% of the UV emission, while the absorption
features at {lambda} < 1400 A show the presence of B stars. The galaxy
has a complex physical structure, which can be optically resolved into
H II regions and associations. The lack of evolved supergiants and
Wolf-Rayet stars in the UV would seem to rule out a decreasing or
constant star formation rate, suggesting instead a relatively recent
burst of star formation, superposed upon an older population. However,
note that Filippenko & Sargent (1991) find Wolf-Rayet features in some
locations in NGC 4214. Hartmann, Geller, & Huchra (1986) conclude that
the burst of star formation is the result of a merger or strong
interaction with a companion. This consideration is based on the
differences between the velocity fields of the gas and of the older
stellar population of the galaxy.

19. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4214
= NGC 4228
A.J., 74, 516, 1969.
Ap. J., 194, 559, 1974.
A.J., 74, 515, 1969.
Mem. S. A. Ital., 39, 453, 1968.
P.A.S.P., 77, 90, 1965.
HII Regions:
"Atlas and Catalogue", Univ. Washington, Seattle, 1966.
Ap. J., 156, 847, 1969.
Ap. J., 194, 559, 1974.
Ap. J., 168, 327, 1971.
Distance Modulus:
Ap. J., 194, 559, 1974.
P.A.S.P., 75, 505, 1963.
Astr. Ap., 16, 247, 1972.
Ap. J., 182, 225, 1973.
HI 21cm:
Ap. J., 142, 616, 1965.
Ap. J., 150, 8, 1967.

20. 1973UGC...C...0000N
Re:UGC 07278
IAB(s)m (de Vaucouleurs), Ir I (Holmberg)
SN 1954a

21. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4214
= NGC 4228
Short, bright, partially resolved, bar-like core with dark markings:
1.6 arcmin x 1.0 arcmin. Traces of spiral structure. Highly resolved whorls.
Lund 9 minor-axis dimension (0.4 arcmin) is an error.
(B-V) value is interpolated.
Ap. J., 64, 328, 1926.
A. J., 61, 97, 1956.
HII Regions:
Zeit. fur Ap., 50, 168, 1960.
Radio Emission: (undetected)
M.N.R.A.S., 123, 279, 1961.
HI Emission:
Epstein, Harvard Thesis, 1962.
SN 1954
Publ. Bologna, VIC 12, 1955.
L'Astronomie, 69, 393, 1955.
Zeit. fur Ap., 35, 205, 1955.
H.A.C., 1250.
P.A.S.P., 72, 100, 1960.
P.A.S.P., 75, 133, 1963.

22. 1961Hubbl.B...0000S
Re:NGC 4214
Irr I
Mar. 26/27, 1955
103aO + WG2
30 min
Enlarged 1.5X
This galaxy is highly resolved over its entire face into
individual stars and HII regions. This reproduction is
from a plate taken under poor seeing conditions. Furthermore,
the nuclear region is not well shown in the print
because of overexposure. The original plate shows complete
resolution to the center. A supernova was discovered
in this galaxy in 1954 by P. Wild (Harvard Announcement Card 1250).

23. 1956AJ.....61...97H
Re:NGC 4214
HMS Note No. 131
Slit on two brightest patches in bright central bar.
Strong emission-line spectrum (HMS Plate IVr).

24. 1918PLicO..13....9C
Re:NGC 4214
A very irregular aggregation of nebular matter and nebulous stars, which is
about 8' x 4', with the very faint outlying condensations. There is apparently
an almost stellar nucleus. The general appearance of the nebulosity is of the
spiral type, but it is exceedingly irregular; not a nebulosity of the diffuse
type. Quite bright. 13 s.n.

25. 1918PLicO..13....9C
Re:NGC 4228

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