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Notes for object NGC 4253

26 note(s) found in NED.


1. 2007AJ....134..648M
Re:NGC 4253
NGC 4253 (Figs. 7.9, 9.9, 20.9): This is a barred spiral with several bright
star-forming knots and star clusters. An important part of the star formation
seems to be associated with the east part of the bar. The bar itself is visible
in the UV image.

2. 2007A&A...461.1209D
Re:MRK 0766
MARK 766: BeppoSAX observed MARK 766 twice. The first observation was
previously published by Matt et al. (2000b). Present results are
perfectly in agreement with those obtained by Matt et al. (2000b) with
the detection of an edge at E = 7.4 +/- 0.3 keV with {tau} = 0.3 +/- 0.1
and no indication of the presence of an emission FeK{alpha} line. The
second observation was not published before. In this case, no edge has
been measured above ~ 7 keV, while a marginal detection of the
FeK{alpha} line has been obtained at E ~ 6.4 keV .

3. 2006A&A...457...61R
Re:Mrk 0766
Mrk 766. Classified by Osterbrock & Pogge (1985) as NLS1, this barred
SBa galaxy displays a number of interesting features. The HST images of
this object show filaments, wisps and irregular dust lanes around an
unresolved nucleus (Malkan et al. 1998). Radio observations at 3.6 cm,
6 cm and 20 cm (Ulvestad et al. 1995; Nagar et al. 1999) show that the
radio source appears to be extended in both PA ~27deg (on a scale of
0.25") and PA 160 deg (on a scale of 0.3", Nagar et al. 1999). In the
optical, the emission is extended (Gonzalez Delgado & Perez 1996a;
Mulchaey et al. 1996) through a region of a total size greater than
that of the radio source. The NIR spectrum, described well by
Rodriguez-Ardila et al. (2005), is characterized by numerous permitted
lines of H I, He I, He II, and Fe II, and by forbidden lines of [S
II], [S III] and [Fe II] among others. High ionized species such as [Si
IX], [Si X], [S IX] and [Mg VII] were also observed. The continuum
emission has a complex shape, with contributions of the central engine,
circumnuclear stellar populations and dust. This last component is
shown by the presence of an excess of emission, similar in form to what
is reported above for Mrk 1239 but with a much lower strength, peaking
at 2.25 microns, well-fitted by a blackbody function with T_bb_=1200 K
(Rodriguez-Ardila et al. 2005).

4. 2004MNRAS.350..140S
Re:MRK 0766
2.2.9 Mrk 766 Mrk 766 was observed by Goodrich (1989b) as part of a
study of the optical polarization of narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1)
galaxies. In this object, the continuum polarization again increases
strongly to the blue, from ~1.5 per cent at 7000{Angstrom} to ~4.5 per
cent at 4000{Angstrom}. Local increases in p associated with the broad
H{alpha} and H{beta} lines are present, as are sharp dips corresponding
to the [O III]{lambda}{lamdba}4959, 5007 lines. The polarization PA is
reported to be independent of wavelength, at {theta} = 90.0deg+-0.3deg.
Radio observations have been obtained by several different groups
(Ulvestad & Wilson 1984b; Ulvestad, Antonucci & Goodrich 1995; Kukula et
al. 1995; Nagar et al. 1999; Thean et al. 2001), all of whom consider
the radio source to be slightly resolved, with estimates for the PA
ranging from 12deg to 34deg. We follow Nagar et al. in adopting PA =
27deg as representative of the source axis on the smallest
scales. Mulchaey et al. (1996) report [O III] emission slightly extended
in the north-west-south-east (NW-SE) axis but it is not clear if this
traces an ionization cone.

5. 2004A&A...415..941E
Re:NGC 4253
NGC 4253: Suggested as double-barred by Marquez et al. (1999), based on ellipse
fits. Though these are at the probable limit of their resolution, they are
plausible; however, the ellipse fits of Peletier et al. (1999) do not agree with
this. Unfortunately, the NICMOS2 F160W image is marred by saturation and a very
strong diffraction pattern from the Seyfert nucleus. The inner isophotes appear
fairly round and aligned with the (outer?) bar. The diffraction spikes are less
severe in the WFPC2 F606W image, where there is no obvious sign of an inner bar.
Strong dust lanes visible in the optical image could be the cause of the ellipse
fit variations seen by Marquez et al. (1999); they also prevent a clear
determination using the optical image.

6. 2003ApJS..148..327S
Re:Mrk 0766
5.34. Mrk 766
The [O III] emission of this Seyfert 1 galaxy is concentrated around
the nucleus, as can be seen in the middle right panel of Figure 10.
It has a halo-like morphology, with a diameter of 1.9" (470 pc). The
radio emission is slightly extended along P.A. = 32^deg^ (Nagar et
al. 1999).

7. 2003ApJS..146..353M
Re:NGC 4253
NGC 4253 (GD)
This is a Seyfert galaxy with grand-design nuclear dust spirals
extending to the unresolved nuclear region, although as a result of
the distance and bright nuclear point source, the smallest resolved
radii correspond to about 300 pc. The dust lanes along the leading
edge of the large-scale bar, particularly to the east, show star
formation in the dust lane along the bar. The presence of this star
formation is characteristic of weak bars.

8. 2002AJ....124..675C
Re:UGC 07344
Seyfert 1.5, Mrk 766.

9. 2001A&A...372..730V
Re:MRK 0766
Mark 766 (1215+30) is an NLS1 (Osterbrock & Pogge 1985). The H{beta} FWHM
is 1600 (Gonzalez Delgado & Perez 1996) or 2400 km s^-1^ (Osterbrock &
Pogge 1985). Our own measurements give 1150 and 1630 km s^-1^ for the
broad H{alpha} and H{beta} components respectively. The spectrum shows
relatively strong Fe II emission (Meyers & Peterson 1985; Gonzalez Delgado
& Perez 1996) and coronal lines (Veilleux 1988; Gonzalez Delgado & Perez
1996). The nucleus shows circumnuclear emission, the spectrum of which is
well fitted by H II region models (Gonzalez Delgado & Perez 1996).

10. 2000MNRAS.317..907J
Re:MRK 0766
3.7 Mk 766
Mk 766 is a barred spiral galaxy. HST images (Malkan et al. 1998) show
filaments, wisps and irregular dust lanes around an unresolved nucleus.
It has a partially resolved radio core with an extension to the north.
The total size of the source is ~ 200 pc h^-1^ (Ulvestad & Wilson
1984a). The polarization angle of the light emitted by Mk 766 is
approximately perpendicular to the radio axis (Goodrich 1989). The
optical emission is extended (Gonzalez Delgado & Perez 1996;
Mulchaey et al. 1996) through a region the total size of which is
greater than that of the radio source. In X-rays, it is variable on a
few hours time-scale, and presents a strong soft X-ray excess
(Molendi, Maccacaro & Schaeidt 1993). Molendi & Maccacaro (1994)
asserted that the soft X-rays excess and the hard X-ray emission are
produced by two distinct mechanisms. Nandra et al. (1997) reported the
detection of an Fe K{alpha} line in the X-ray spectrum.
It is classified as a narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy
(Osterbrock & Pogge 1985). Much work has been performed on its
emission spectrum (e.g. Veilleux 1991), with the most thorough work
performed by Gonzalez Delgado & Perez (1996). Mk 766 is the only
galaxy in the sample that shows CaT in emission (Persson 1988).
Interestingly, in our spectrum, and also in the one by
Gonzalez Delgado & Perez (1996), the CaT is also seen in absorption
(see Fig. 4).

11. 1999ApJS..120..209N
Re:NGC 4253
NGC 4253 (type 1.5; Fig. 11) - The 20cm source appears more circular
than the beam, and a Gaussian deconvolution indicates a P.A. of
169^deg^. However, this P.A. is in the direction of a sidelobe pattern,
and the source size is only 1.1 times the beam size, so the reality of
the apparent extent is suspect. The lower contours on the 3.6cm source
exhibit extensions both in P.A. ~160^deg^ (in agreement with the
direction of the possible extension at 20cm) and P.A. ~55^deg^. A
Gaussian deconvolution indicates an extension in P.A. 32^deg^ for the
brighter isophotes. This source has also been observed with the VLA in
"A configuration" at 3.6 and 6cm by Ulvestad et al. (1995). They find
the source to have an extension in P.A. 22^deg^ +/- 4^deg^ at 3.6cm
(with a weaker extension in P.A. -30^deg^) and in P.A. 12^deg^ +/-
5^deg^ at 6cm. Ulvestad & Wilson (Paper V) observed this source at 6cm
and derived a P.A. of 16^deg^. Kukula et al. (1995) observed this
source at 3.6cm with similar resolution to ours and find an extension
in P.A. 27^deg^. The source therefore appears to be extended in both
P.A. ~27^deg^ (on a scale of 0.25") and P.A. 160^deg^ (on a scale of
0.3"). We classify this source as "S" and adopt radio P.A. ~27^deg^ as
representative of the source axis on the smallest scales. The 20cm flux
measured here is consistent with the value of 36.4 mJy published in
Paper VII. UGC gives a host galaxy diameter of 0.89' x 0.89' in B and
0.89' x 0.79' in R. Takase & Miyauchi-Isobe (1987) find a galaxy
diameter of 0.9' x 0.7'. MacKenty (1990) finds the galaxy to have a
major axis P.A. of 69^deg^ (at a major axis extent of 41"), and a minor
to major axis ratio (b/a) of 0.89. We used second-generation DSS images
to measure a P.A. of 60^deg^ at an extent of 1.3' x 1.15'.

12. 1999ApJ...526L...9P
Re:NGC 4253
This is a Seyfert 1 galaxy for which Kinney et al. (1999) find that
i = 31^deg^ and {delta} = 35^deg^ +/- 5^deg^. Using ASCA observations of
the Fe K{alpha} line, Nandra et al (1997) determined the inner disk
inclination, +/-{phi}, to be i_disk_ = 34^deg^ +/- 3^deg^, assuming that
the disk is around a Schwarzschild black hole, or i_disk_ = 36^+8^_-7_
degrees for a maximal Kerr black hole. For simplicity, we shall just
make use of the values for the Schwarzschild black hole. Inspection of
the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image of Mrk 766 (Malkan, Gorjian, &
Tam 1998) suggests that the radio jet (P.A. = 32^deg^; Nagar et al.
1999) is seen in projection against the near side of the galaxy. Using
the values given above, together with this knowledge of orientation in
equation (3), we conclude that {beta} ~ 57^deg^.

13. 1999A&AS..140....1M
Re:NGC 4253
NGC 4253 (UGC 7344, Mrk 766)
This galaxy has a thick bar and a weak external ring (Fig. 9a). Its
nucleus is displaced relatively to the centroid of the outer isophotes.
The bar parameters from Fig. 9e are in agreement with previous results
in J (Alonso-Herrero et al. 1998) and K (McLeod & Rieke 1995; Peletier
et al. 1999). Note that this direction is also that of the stellar bar
seen at optical wavelengths (Mulchaey & Wilson 1996; Mulchaey et al.
1996).
The sharp-divided image (Fig. 9b) reveals the presence of a small
structure, possibly a secondary bar, roughly perpendicular to the main
bar. This feature appears even more clearly on the difference image
(Fig. 9c).
The J/K' image shows a double nuclear structure with a (J-K') color
index redder than the rest of the galaxy (Fig. 9d); this structure can
explain the observed decentering. Notice that in the very central zone
(r < 3 arcsec) {epsilon} is not the same in J and K(Fig. 9e). This
feature seems to correspond to that delineated by the dust pattern that
surrounds the innermost 2 arcsec in the HST optical image (Malkan et
al. 1998). Unfortunately, the nucleus is saturated in the infrared HST
image, so we cannot analyse the presence of faint nuclear elongations.
Nevertheless, a curved dust pattern feature with a radius of ~4 arcsec
can be seen along the NE-SW direction (Fig. 30), favouring the presence
of a nuclear bar.
The profile is in good agreement with that given by McLeod & Rieke
(1995). The bulge + disk fit is quite satisfactory (Figs. 9f and 9g).

14. 1998ApJS..117..319A
Re:[ATZ98] D101
Mrk 766 = NGC 4253.

15. 1998ApJS..114...73G
Re:MRK 0766
Section A9. MRK 766
This Seyfert 1.5 galaxy was first detected in X-rays by Einstein (Kriss et
al. 1980) and has since been revealed to be one of the most highly variable
AGNs (see, e.g., Ghosh & Soundararajaperumal 1992b). In our analysis of the
data from the ASCA observation performed in 1993 December, we found Mrk 766
to be the second most variable source in our sample, with evidence that the
amplitude was larger at <~2 keV (Paper I). Leighly et al. (1996b) presented a
more detailed analysis of this data set and came to the same conclusion,
finding the amplitude of the variability to be highest at ~1 keV. They
suggest this is due to the intensity of a soft component decreasing slightly
while the intensity and steepness of the underlying continuum >~1 keV
intensity increased (from {GAMMA} ~ 1.6 to {GAMMA} ~ 2.0). A similar change
in the form of the continuum with flux state was previously suggested on the
basis of ROSAT PSPC results for this source (Molendi & Maccacaro 1994;
Netzer, Turner, & George 1994).
.
From the analysis of the mean spectrum presented here, we find model A(i) to
provide an unsatisfactory description of the spectra. Fits satisfying our
criteria for acceptability are obtained if ~50% of the continuum escapes
without suffering attenuation by neutral material [model A(ii)]. However, yet
superior fits are obtained if the absorbing gas is assumed to be ionized
[model B(ii)] giving {GAMMA} ~ 2, U_X_ ~ 0.1, N_H, z_ ~ 1.6 x 10^22^ cm^-2^,
and D_f_ ~ 0.5. We note that such a model requires no additional soft
component (see, e.g., Fig. 9). Indeed, we find models C(i) and C(ii) to offer
only small improvements in the goodness of fit and thus find no compelling
evidence for significant emission from the ionized gas. In no case is there a
requirement for any addition absorption by neutral gas in excess of
N^ gal^_H,0_. It should be noted, however, that models B(i)-C(ii) all have
P({chi}^2^|dof) < 0.05.
.
Leighly et al. also report the presence of an absorption feature, identified
with O VII, and presented the results of photoionization calculations
assuming a model similar to our model B(i). They find a best-fitting column
density N_H, z_ ~ 6 x 10^21^ cm^-2^, in agreement with our findings (Table
5). Unfortunately, Leighly et al. do not specify the limits on their assumed
continuum, and thus, we are unable to compare their values to U_X_ directly;
however, they do find an increase in ionization parameter with intensity.

16. 1998ApJ...495..196A
Re:NGC 4253
3.5.8. NGC 4253
NGC 4253 (Mrk 766) is a barred SBa galaxy with optical overall orientation P.A.
=69^deg^ (MacKenty 1990). Indeed, the J-band model-divided image (see Fig. 9
[Pl. 7]; also seen in the direct image, Fig. 1i) clearly indicates the presence
of a bar (i.e., positive galaxy minus model residuals) at P.A.~110^deg^, which
may be compared with the P.A.~60^deg^ of the outer isophotes. The bar reaches
7" (2.7 kpc) to the southeast and 9" (3.4 kpc) to the northwest, in good
agreement with the size derived by McLeod & Rieke (1995). This galaxy also
appears to have an asymmetric arm on its northern side that is well traced by
the model-divided image, and a ringlike structure extending to the northeast,
southeast, and west. The [O III] {lambda}5007 morphology (Mulchaey et al. 1996)
shows a core elongated east-west with fainter extensions in the northwest-
southeast direction. The H{alpha} line emission exhibits a plumelike structure
to the east with line ratios well described by H II region models (Gonzalez-
Delgado & Perez 1996). The high excitation gas forms a V-shaped morphology to
the southeast of the nucleus (in P.A.~120^deg^ and extending for 8") with a
weaker northwest extension. The P.A. values of the [O III] {lambda}5007 and
H{alpha} emissions are 112^deg^ and 107^deg^ (Mulchaey et al. 1996),
respectively, in good agreement with the direction of the stellar bar. The P.A.
values of the 3" isophotes in J, H, and K band are 102^deg^-114^deg^,
orientations similar to those of the bar and possible cone.

17. 1997ApJS..108..155G
Re:NGC 4253
This S1 nucleus in an Sba galaxy shows circumnuclear emission extended a
total of 8" (about 2 kpc) along the stellar bar. A detailed spectroscopic
study of the nucleus and the extended emission is presented in Gonzalez
Delgado & Perez (1996a).

18. 1996ApJS..102..309M
Re:NGC 4253
NGC 4253 is a barred S0 or Sa with peculiar asymmetries. The [O III]
morphology is "halo"-like with slight extensions on either side of the nucleus
in the northwest-southeast direction. The circumnuclear H{alpha} emission is
dominated by a curious linear protusion extending from the nucleus to the east.
This feature is weak or absent in the [O III] image. The high excitation gas
forms a somewhat conical morphology to the southeast of the nucleus, with a
weaker extension towards the northwest.

19. 1996A&A...305...53B
Re:MRK 0766
Mrk 766 (NGC 4253)
The flux and spectral variability of Mrk 766 were studied by Molendi et al.
(1993) and Molendi & Maccacaro (1994) based both on ROSAT all-sky survey and
pointed observations. Mrk 766 is found to be variable by a factor of about 3
on timescales of a few hours. Molendi & Maccacaro (1994) have found spectral
variability in which the 0.1-0.9 keV part of the spectrum hardens as the
source brightens while the 0.9-2.0 keV part of the spectrum does not change
significantly. They claim that these variations cannot be explained by changes
in the optical depth of an absorption edge or changes in the ionization
parameter and/or column density of a warm absorber. Emission from an accretion
disc, however, can explain the observed spectrum and spectral variations.
Mrk 766 was another of the outlying Seyferts in the Walter & Fink (1993) ROSAT
all-sky survey correlation between spectral slope and ultraviolet (1375 A) to
2 keV flux ratio.

20. 1995MNRAS.276.1262K
Re:MRK 0766
Markarian, 766: (NGC 4253) Type 1(1.5). Host galaxy: SBa (UGC). Radio:
unresolved in both images. No evidence for emission on intermediate
scales.

21. 1995AJ....109...81U
Re:MRK 0766
Mrk 766 (NGC 4253). This rather nearby galaxy (z = 0.0121) has been
observed with radio interferometers several times in the past. A 6 cm
image was published by Ulvestad & Wilson (1984a), with apparent slight
resolution in a roughly north-south direction. Detections at 20 cm have
been made at Westerbork (Wilson & Meurs 1982) and at the VLA (Ulvestad &
Wilson 1989). We reobserved the galaxy at 6 and 3.6 cm in an effort to
confirm the position angle published by Ulvestad & Wilson (1984a).
The 6 cm flux density of 11.7 mJy is somewhat lower than the value of
15 mJy published previously. A Gaussian fit to the 6 cm image gives a
source size of 0.26" x 0.19" in position angle 12^deg^+/-5^deg^. This is
consistent, within the errors, with the position angle of 16^deg^ derived
by Ulvestad & Wilson (1984a), while the linear size of 60 pc also is
consistent with the value found by those authors. The 3.6 cm image, shown
in Fig. 1, clearly is resolved, with a Gaussian fit giving a size of
0.25" x 0.15" in position angle 22^deg^+/-4^deg^. In addition, there may
be another component slightly farther out to the northwest, in position
angle -30^deg^. (This possible division into several components also is
consistent with an unpublished, 2 cm VLA observation made by Ulvestad &
Wilson.) The total flux densities at 3.6 and 6 cm yield a spectral index
of {alpha}= 0.86+/-0.13 ({alpha} = -d log S_{nu}_/d log{nu}). Mrk 766 has
strong optical continuum polarization of 2.34% in position angle 90^deg^,
70^deg^-80^deg^ from the position angle of the innermost radio axis.

22. 1985AnTok..202.335T
Re:KUG 1215+300
Arms are blue while the bulge is quite red.

23. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4253
Pair with NGC 4245 at 16.5 arcmin

24. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4253
Possible SB(s)a:
Pair with NGC 4245 at 16.5 arcmin.

25. 1918PLicO..13....9C
Re:NGC 4253
This is a small {phi}-type nebulae with a fairly bright, almost stellar nucleus,
and a 'Very bright" cross-arm," which gives it a Saturn-like appearance;. this
line of matter is 0.5' long, and from its ends proceed very faint whorls.

26. 1918PLicO..13....9C
Re:NGC 4253
Vol. VIII, Plate 32. A very bright, approximately round spiral 4.5' in diameter.
Nucleus almost stellar. There are two main whorls, rather open, which show
many almost stellar condensations. M. 99. 47 s.n.


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