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Notes for object NGC 4388

29 note(s) found in NED.

1. 2009ApJ...702.1127R
Re:NGC 4388
This highly inclined disk galaxy is spectroscopically classified as a Sy2
nucleus (Phillips & Malin 1982). However, Shields et al. (1996) report the
detection of weak, broad H{alpha} emission. The ground-based L-band point
introduces a bump in the SED around 3-4 {mu}m, which likely represents starlight
contamination (Section 5.2). Indeed, the galaxy appears very extended in the L
band (Alonso-Herrero et al. 2003), making difficult to isolate the nuclear
emission. Thus, the fit correctly reproduces the near-IR and the N-band points
but severely underestimates the Q-band measurement. The probability
distributions establish lower limits of {sigma}>53^deg^ and i > 38^deg^, and
upper limits of q < 1.6 and {tau}_V_ < 14 at a 68% confidence level. The median
value of the number of clouds is N_0_ = 9+/-^4^_3_. Along the line of sight,
A_V_ < 80 mag. The silicate feature appears in shallow absorption in the fitted
models ({tau}^app^_10 {mu}m_ = 0.51), allowing us to estimate an optical
obscuration of A^app^_V_ = 13 mag. As for most of the galaxies in the sample, we
found N^LOS^_H_ < N^X-rays^_H_.

2. 2009A&A...502..457G
Re:NGC 4388
A.1.5 NGC 4388 Combined analysis from several missions shows a simple PL above a
few keV absorbed by a column N_H_ = 2.7 x 10^23^ cm^-2^, but with highly
variable fluxes and obscuring column (Iwasawa et al. 2003; Risaliti et al. 2002;
Cappi et al. 2006; Beckmann et al. 2004). Using the mean of the broad range
found in XMM-Newton by Cappi et al. (2006) and recent INTEGRAL results by
Beckmann et al. (2006), for a distance of 16.7 Mpc, results in a mean log
L_2-10_=42.24, to which we attach a large 1-{sigma} error in dex of 0.3.

3. 2006A&A...448..499B
Re:NGC 4388
3.2.4 NGC 4388 Iwasawa et al. (2003) analyzed in detail both the image and the
spectrum of the Chandra observation of this source. They found a strongly
absorbed (N_H_ ~= 4 x 10^23^ cm^-2^) spectrum, together with an extended soft
X-ray emission, whose most likely origin is in a gas photoionized by the central
AGN. Interestingly, Iwasawa et al. (2003) suggested a common origin for the [O
III] and the soft X-ray emission. Moreover, they also reported that no
significant variations are found in the spectral shape along the radius of the
extended emission, so that the ionization parameter remains fairly constant,
thus implying a density which decreases with the distance roughly like r-^2^.

4. 2005MNRAS.357..361S
Re:NGC 4388
NGC 4388. Unfortunately, this edge-on Virgo spiral (i= 79^deg^) was observed
under rather poor weather conditions and was not detected at 450 {mu}m. The S/N
at 850 {mu}m is much better, and three submillimetre peaks are seen: the central
one coincides with the brightest optical region, the eastern peak is offset by
~28 arcsec and the weaker western peak by ~37 arcsec. These angular distances
correspond to 2.7 and 3.5 kpc, respectively, at the assumed distance to the
Virgo cluster. They may be explained as the increased column density seen
through a spiral arm on each side of the galactic core. The submillimetre core
itself is only slightly brighter than the eastern peak.

5. 2003ApJS..148..327S
Re:NGC 4388
5.35. NGC 4388
This Seyfert 2 was one of the first galaxies in which a conically
shaped NLR was detected (Pogge 1988b; Yoshida et al. 2002). Galactic
scale outflows have been detected by Veilleux et al. (1999), and Matt
et al. (1994) detected soft X-ray emission extended over 4.5 kpc in
observations with ROSAT. The observations presented here, as well as
radio observations, are discussed in detail by Falcke et al. (1998).
This galaxy is also known to have polarized broad emission lines
(Young et al. 1996). The [O III] image (Fig. 10, bottom left) shows a
V-shaped NLR with opening angle of 90^deg^ toward the south, extended
over 6.1" (1000 pc) in this direction. The extent along the
perpendicular direction is 7.8" (1270 pc). Most of the emission comes
from regions south of the nucleus, except for some emission
corresponding to the counter-cone, which is observed to the NE side
of the nucleus. Most of the counter-cone emission is obscured by the
host galaxy.

6. 2003ApJS..146..353M
Re:NGC 4388
NGC 4388 (HI/C)
While there is a copious amount of dust, the inclination is too great
for a meaningful classification.

7. 2003A&A...406..505R
Re:NGC 4388
NGC 4388 has been identified as the first Seyfert 2 galaxy in
the Virgo cluster (Phillips & Malin 1982), and has been studied
extensively in various wavelength regimes, including optical line
imaging and spectroscopy (e.g., Keel 1983; Corbin et al. 1988; Pogge
1988), radio continuum (e.g., Stone et al. 1988; Hummel & Saikia
1991), and in the high energy waveband extended soft X-ray emission out
to a radius of 4.5 kpc has been reported (Matt et al. 1994). From the
optical morphology and kinematics it was derived that NGC 4388
possesses complex gas kinematics and is composed of several nucleated
emission line regions. A prominent feature reaches out to ~18" at PA
~10deg (Heckman et al. 1983). The radio continuum maps revealed a
double peaked radio source close to the optical nucleus plus a cloud of
radio emitting material, apparently ejected from the nucleus (e.g.,
Stone et al. 1988; Irwin et al. 2000).
Some speculation on the true membership to the Virgo cluster exists,
although NGC 4388 is located near the core of the Virgo cluster. This
is because of its relatively high systemic velocity. However, most
authors assume it is a member of the Virgo cluster. Therefore, ram
pressure stripping seems to play a role as NGC 4388 interacts with the
ambient intracluster medium (ICM). Optical narrowband imaging in
H{alpha} and [O III] has revealed that the morphology of the extended
ionized gas is composed of two opposed radiation cones (Pogge 1988),
which give rise to a hidden Seyfert 1 nucleus, as favored in the
unification scheme of AGN. Recent investigations of NGC 4388 using
Fabry-Perot imaging techniques have revealed a complex of highly
ionized gas ~4 kpc above the disk (Veilleux et al. 1999). They found
blueshifted velocities of 50-250 km s^-1^ NE of the nucleus.
Furthermore they assume the velocity of the extraplanar gas to be
unaffected by the inferred supersonic motion of NGC 4388 through the
ICM of the Virgo cluster, and suggest that the galaxy and high-|z| gas
lies behind the Mach cone.
Our narrowband imaging of NGC 4388 (see Fig. 7) reveals also extended
emission which is pointing away from the galactic disk to the halo in
the NE direction. Furthermore a faint eDIG layer is visible. Very
recently deep H{alpha} images obtained with the Subaru telescope
revealed very extended emission-line region in H{alpha} and [O III] at
distances of up to ~35 kpc (Yoshida et al. 2002).

8. 2002ApJS..143...73E
Re:NGC 4388
NGC 4388.---SB(r)a: Elliptical nuclear region embedded in a moderately
bright bulge. System is close to edge-on. Two well-defined and tightly
wrapped spiral arms form a nearly complete ring. The arms have a
number of concentrations in them, but these are larger and more diffuse
than typical H II region knots. At fainter isophotes this bulge/ring
system begins to look like a boxy bulge embedded in a disk. There is
an LSB extension to the disk beyond the arms/ring.

9. 2002AJ....124..675C
Re:UGC 07520
CfA Seyfert 2 (Huchra & Burg 1992).

10. 2001MNRAS.327..459L
Re:NGC 4388
NGC 4388: This galaxy is almost edge-on, so any obscuration hiding the
BLR may actually be due in part to the host galaxy rather than a nuclear
torus. Weak, broad H{alpha} has been detected in direct light in
off-nuclear positions by Shields & Filippenko (1996). They find that this
is best explained as evidence for an HBLR, even though the direct evidence
from polarimetry is actually marginal (Young et al. 1996a). The combination
of both observations, however, gives greater confidence in the
classification of this galaxy as an HBLR.

11. 2001ApJS..133...77H
Re:NGC 4388
NGC 4388 (S1.9). - Our maps show a strong central source which resolves
into two peaks separated by ~1.9" (150 pc) along P.A. ~ 15^deg^. Neither
peak coincides with the position of the optical nucleus. A long
(~15 or 1.2 kpc) plume of emission extends to the northeast, at the end of
which it appears to bend abruptly. In the tapered 6 cm map we find an
additional "tongue" of emission, ~20" long, extending east of the central
source. We fitted the central source with a two-Gaussian model. The
northern peak (labeled "core-N" in Table 3) is brighter than the southern
one ("core-S") at 6 cm, but the situation is reversed at 20 cm. The
spectral indices for the northern and southern peak are, respectively,
{alpha}_6_^20^ = -0.32 and -0.80. The overall morphology and flux densities
derived from our maps agree very well with previous VLA studies conducted
at similar resolutions (Stone, Wilson, & Ward 1988; Hummel & Saikia 1991).
Higher resolution maps of NGC 4388 have been made at 2 cm (Carral et al.
1990), 3.6 cm (Kukula et al. 1995; Falcke, Wilson, & Simpson 1998;
Mundell et al. 2000) and 6 cm (Mundell et al. 2000). These studies
collectively show that the northern peak has a flat, or perhaps even
slightly inverted, spectrum up to 2 cm, and that it is unresolved with a
size upper limit of 70 mas. These characteristics suggest that the northern
peak marks the true location of the nucleus, which is obscured at optical

12. 2001ApJ...562..139M
Re:NGC 4388
NGC 4388. - This edge-on galaxy has an extremely chaotic appearance at
small scales, at least partially because of a host galaxy dust lane
passing to the immediate north of the nucleus and significantly
attenuating even the H-band light. This galaxy cannot be well fitted with
elliptical isophotes.

13. 2001AJ....122..637H
Re:NGC 4388
NGC 4388. - Antonelli, Matt, & Piro (1997) fitted a simple absorbed
power law to obtain a flux of 6 x 10^-13^ ergs cm^-2^ s^-1^, which is
consistent with our value within the expected errors. However, they propose
that a Raymond-Smith model with low metal abundance provides a better
description of the spectrum.

14. 2000ApJ...529..816M
Re:NGC 4388
NGC 4388 is a nearby, edge-on spiral galaxy [SB(s)b pec; Phillips &
Malin 1982] that is thought to lie close to the center of the Virgo
cluster (Phillips & Malin 1982) and may be tidally disturbed by nearby
cluster core galaxies M84 or IC 3303 (Corbin, Baldwin, & Wilson 1988).
Ionization cones extend approximately perpendicular to the disk (Pogge
1988; Corbin et al. 1988; Falcke, Wilson, & Simpson 1998), and the
kinematics of the ionized gas in the narrow-line region (NLR) shows a
complex combination of rotation and outflow (Corbin et al. 1988;
Veilleux 1991; Veilleux et al. 1999). The nucleus is variously
classified as Seyfert type 1 or 2, with the high galactic inclination
and obscuring dust lanes making unambiguous classification difficult
(Falcke et al. 1998). Shields & Filippenko (1988) report broad,
off-nuclear H{alpha} emission, but subsequent IR searches for broad
lines such as Pa{beta} (Blanco, Ward, & Wright 1990; Ruiz, Rieke, &
Schmidt 1994) and Br{alpha} and Br{gamma} (Veilleux, Goodrich, & Hill
1997) have failed to detect a broad nuclear component.
Previous radio continuum images of NGC 4388 (Stone, Wilson, & Ward
1988; Carral, Turner, & Ho 1990; Hummel & Saikia 1991; Falcke et al.
1998) show complex, extended structure, both along the galactic plane
and perpendicular to it. A recent 3.5 cm VLA image of the extended radio
emission (Falcke et al. 1998) shows, in more detail, the
"hourglass-shaped" radio outflow to the north of the galactic plane, and
the compact (~1.9" separation) central double, which were suggested by
earlier images. In section 4.3.1 we concentrate on the radio emission
from the northern component of the compact radio double, which shows a
flat spectrum up to 2 cm (Carral et al. 1990) and is thought to be the
nucleus, and in section 4.3.2 we discuss the extended emission to the

15. 2000AJ....119.1592I
Re:NGC 4388
NGC 4388 is located near the core of the Virgo cluster and has
been identified to have an active nucleus from a variety of
observations. Optical spectra of the nucleus have led to its
classification as a Seyfert 2 galaxy (Phillips & Malin 1982; Phillips,
Charles, & Baldwin 1983). There are cones of highly ionized gas
extending above and below the stellar disk, which are possibly due to
photoionization by a strong nonthermal source (Colina et al. 1987; Pogge
1988; Corbin, Baldwin, & Wilson 1988; Petitjean & Durret 1993).
Filippenko & Sargent (1985) reported a weak, broad wing to the H{alpha}
line, while Shields & Filippenko (1988, 1996) found broad off-nuclear
H{alpha} emission from within the biconical cones (Pogge 1988). These
are believed to arise due to scattering of line emission from a hidden
Seyfert 1 nucleus. A strong hard X-ray source has been detected (Hanson
et al. 1990; Takano & Koyama 1991; Lebrun et al. 1992), and its 2-10 keV
luminosity is within the range of a Seyfert 1 galaxy. The soft X-ray
emission may also be the scattered continuum of the obscured central
source (Iwasawa et al. 1997).
Radio continuum observations show collimated ejection on opposite
sides of a flatter spectrum nuclear component (Stone, Wilson, & Ward
1988; Hummel & Saikia 1991). The high-resolution observations reveal a
jetlike structure and a compact component toward the south of the
nucleus, as well as a diffuse blob of emission toward the north of the
plane. Our radio image is similar to the published ones. The P.A. of the
radio axis is closely related to the ionization cones, although the
[O III] emission extends well beyond the radio lobes. Evidence of
outflow has also been suggested from spectroscopic observations. The
H{alpha} line exhibits a distinct blue asymmetry in the circumnuclear
region compared with the disk of the galaxy (Rubin, Kinney, & Young
1997). This is usually believed to be due to a combination of dust
obscuration and outflow from the nucleus (Osterbrock 1991, 1993).
Giovanelli & Haynes (1985) found its H I deficiency to be one of the
highest in the Virgo cluster, but it has been detected in CO (Kenney &
Young 1988, Boselli, Casoli, & Lequeux 1995).

16. 1998ApJ...500..685P
Re:NGC 4388
8. NGC 4388.--NGC 4388 has a Seyfert 2 type nucleus hosted by an SAb
galaxy. Spectroscopic observations have detected broad wings in the H {alpha}
emission line, attributed to a hidden Seyfert 1 type nucleus (Shields &
Filippenko 1996). Broadband images show very prominent dust lanes and
star-forming regions along the arms. The nucleus is also hidden by dust. Three
thermal components are required to fit the SED of this galaxy. As in NGC 4235
there is a rise at the warm edge of the temperature spectrum. The SED is,
however, adequately fitted when this feature is neglected. The central
temperatures of the three components are 13, 37, and 112 K, with total widths of
15, 25, and 100 K, respectively. The cold component is the larger one in this

17. 1998ApJ...495..196A
Re:NGC 4388
3.5.9. NGC 4388
NGC 4388 is a highly inclined (i~72^deg^) Seyfert 2 galaxy that shows
substantial dust obscuration. This galaxy displays a complex morphology in
emission-line images (Pogge 1988; Corbin, Baldwin, & Wilson 1988). The H{alpha}
+[N II] image highlights H II regions in the disk of the galaxy. The [O III]
{lambda}5007 image, however, shows a conical shape along P.A.=35^deg^ extending
approximately 40" (3.3 kpc) northeast and 20" (1.6 kpc) southwest of the
nucleus. Pogge (1988) argues that the [O III] {lambda}5007-emitting gas is
likely to be either photoionized by a nuclear continuum or shock ionized.
On large scales, our J- and K-band model-divided images clearly trace the H II
regions in the spiral arms of this galaxy (positive residuals in Fig. 10
[Pl. 8]). In addition, another two structures outlined by positive residuals
can be seen, the first extending at least 16" (1.3 kpc) along P.A.~45^deg^,
and the second approximately 12" (1 kpc) along P.A.~228^deg^.

18. 1997ApJS..112..391H
Re:NGC 4388
NGC 4388.--Originally classified as a Seyfert 2 galaxy (Phillips & Malin 1982),
the nucleus of NGC 4388 in fact contains very faint wings of broad H{alpha}
emission (Stauffer 1982; Paper I) with FWZI~6000 km s^-1^ (Shields & Filippenko
1988, 1996). In addition, Shields & Filippenko discovered broad H{alpha}
emission in at least two off-nuclear positions, which they interpreted as
scattered radiation from a largely hidden Seyfert 1 nucleus similar to that
seen in NGC 1068 (Miller et al. 1991). As in most nuclei discussed in this
study, the narrow lines themselves have extended, asymmetric wings; these have
to be properly removed to accurately measure the broad H{alpha} flux
(Fig. 12c)' Using a model profile derived from [S II], each narrow line is well
represented by a combination of three Gaussians. The resulting broad line (FWHM
~3900 km s^-1^) contains a mere 2%+/-2% of the flux of the entire blend.
Because of the scale of the plot, the broad line is barely visible in Figure
12, but Figure 14 of Paper I more clearly illustrates its presence.

19. 1997ApJ...477..631V
Re:NGC 4388
There is no evidence for broad Pa{beta} emission in NGC 4388 (Blanco et
al. 1990; Paper I). This result was recently confirmed by Ruiz et al.
(1994). We now report on new attempts to detect a broad line in Br{gamma}
and Br{alpha}. The new spectra show no obvious sign of a broad component
to any of these lines (Figs. 1g and 1h). Since both the line-to-continuum
contrast and S/N of the new data are slightly lower than in the J-band
data presented in Paper I, the constraints on broad Br{gamma} and broad
Br{alpha} are relatively weaker than that on broad Pa{beta}:
F(Pa{beta}_b_) < 1.5 x 10^-14^ ergs s^-1^ cm^-2^, F(Br{gamma}_b_) < 1.3 x
10^-14^ ergs s^-1^ cm^-2^, F(Br{alpha}_b_) < 7.6 x 10^-14^ ergs s^-1^
cm^-2^. Our failure to detect broad-line emission from the nucleus of
this galaxy is surprising in view of the reported off-nuclear broad
H{alpha} in this galaxy (Shields & Filippenko 1988).
With the exception of the color excess derived from
Br{gamma}_n_/H{alpha}_n_, there is a general tendency for the amount of
reddening derived from the narrow lines in NGC 4388 to increase toward
longer wavelengths (see Table 3). This suggests the presence of an
obscured source of narrow-line emission only visible at infrared

20. 1996ApJS..105...75C
Re:NGC 4388
4.1.9. NGC 4388
We did not obtain any new images or spectra of NGC 4388, since there is already
good evidence for a galactic outflow in this galaxy. Corbin et al. (1988) and
Pogge (1988) have shown that conical structures of ionized gas extend outward
from the nucleus, both above and below the disk. These authors argue that some
of the line-emitting gas may have been ejected from the nucleus. Radio maps of
this galaxy (Hummel et al. 1983; Stone, Wilson, & Ward 1988) reveal diffuse
emission extending outward from the nucleus, perpendicular to the galactic

21. 1996ApJ...467..551C
Re:NGC 4388
3.1.12. NGC 4388
We did not obtain new radio images of NGC 4388. Large-scale radio maps (Condon
1987; Hummel et al. 1983) reveal diffuse emission extending out along the minor
axis from the nuclear region. In Figure 1h, we reproduce a contour map (from
Hummel et al. 1983) of the 5 GHz radio emission that shows the large-scale
radio structures. In a higher resolution radio image by Stone, Wilson & Ward
(1988), one can resolve individual "fingers" extending out of the disk into the

22. 1995MNRAS.276.1262K
Re:NGC 4388
NGC 4388: (Arp 120) Type 2. Host galaxy: Sb (UGC). Radio: resolved by C-
array into an elongated source with a halo of fainter emission. The
bright C-array component contains a compact double source connected by a
bridge of emission. The radio source is displaced from the optical
nucleus by 6 arcsec (~1 kpc).

23. 1995ApJS...98..477H
Re:NGC 4388
The discovery of a broad component to the H{alpha} emission line in the
nuclear spectrum of this Seyfert 2 galaxy was reported in Paper I.
Subsequently, Shields & Filippenko (1988) revealed off-nuclear broad
H{alpha} emission which presumably is scattered radiation from a hidden
Seyfert 1 nucleus, similar to the case NGC 1068 (Antonucci & Miller

24. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 4388
VCC 836
Feb 1/2, 1979
103aO + Wr2c
45 min
The classification of this nearly edge on Virgo Cluster galaxy is
based on the similarity of the dust patterns to those in NGC 3312 and
NGC 5037 on this panel.
The disk can be well seen on the original plate. It extends both
to the left and right borders of the print here.

25. 1993ApJS...86....5K
Re:NGC 4388
NGC 4388; Sab, Seyfert 2.
This Seyfert 2 galaxy shows evidence that it harbors an obscured Seyfert
1 nucleus. Corbin, Baldwin, & Wilson (1988) and Pogge (1988) have
reported high-ionization gas distributed in two cones, with apices at the
nucleus, and extending above and below the disk. Shields & Filippenko
(1988) detected broad H{alpha} emission off the nucleus and suggested
that this emission originates from an obscured Seyfert 1 broad-line
region (BLR) which is reflected into our line of sight by dust in the
interstellar medium. The IUE spectra were analyzed by Ferland &
Osterbrock (1986) and by Kinney et al. (1991a). They both found a steep
spectral slope and found that the number of recombination photons is much
larger than predicted based on the strength of the ionizing continuum.
Thus the UV source in NGC 4388 appears to be occulted from direct view.

26. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4388
= Holm 403c
Astrofizika, 2, 53, 1966.

27. 1973UGC...C...0000N
Re:UGC 07520
SBc (de Vaucouleurs)

28. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4388
= Holm 403c
Irregular dark lane, perhaps a bar seen end-on.
Minor-axis diameter (3.2 arcmin) in Lund 10 is an error, or a misprint
and was rejected.

29. 1918PLicO..13....9C
Re:NGC 4388
An elongated, rather irregular spiral 3' x 0.4' in p.a. 90^deg^. Nuclear portion
fanshaped; an irregular dark lane along the major axis. See Abs. Eff.

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