Date and Time of the Query: 2022-01-19 T21:35:16 PST
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Notes for object NGC 4565

22 note(s) found in NED.

1. 2007AJ....134..648M
Re:NGC 4565
NGC 4565 (Figs. 7.23, 9.23, 20.23): This is a nearby edge-on galaxy. The
nuclear region is thus very obscured at this wavelength, with conspicuous
dust absorption. The nucleus appears partially resolved.

2. 2005ApJS..157...59L
Re:NGC 4565
NGC 4565 is an edge-on Sb spiral galaxy at a distance of 17.46 Mpc. ULX1(IXO 67)
is an extreme ULX with L_X_ ~ 25 * 10^39^ ergs s^-1^. It has been identified to
a globular cluster in the halo of NGC 4565 with Chandra and HST WFPC2
observations (Wu et al. 2002).

3. 2005ApJ...627..674A
Re:NGC 4565
NGC 4565.This Seyfert 1.9 galaxy is relatively weak in our VLBA imaging with a
peak of only 1.9 mJy; self-calibration only partially corrected residual phase
errors from the original calibration steps. At most we can only say that the
object appears to be compact on VLBI scales. Falcke et al. (2000) found a peak
brightness of 3.2 mJy beam^-1^ in their 1997 June 16 observations at 5.0 GHz,
and 15 GHz VLA A-configuration imaging by Nagar et al. (2000) found 3.7 mJy
beam^-1^. Although the September P_{chi}^2^ value of 0.06 is above our
variability cutoff level, Figure 2c (in the electronic edition) clearly shows
variations on a ~4 day timescale. This is borne out in Figure 6, which shows
that the structure function values for time lags of several days are well above
the noise level, even if the entire variability does not meet our {chi}^2^

4. 2003ApJ...583..145T
Re:NGC 4565
NGC 4565 (S1.9). The nuclear region is dominated by two sources: the
nucleus and an off-nuclear source that is brighter than the nucleus.
The observed Chandra fluxes of these two source in the 2-10 keV band
(3.2 x 10^-13^ and 5.8 x 10^-13^ ergs s^-1^ cm^-2^) are slightly lower
than those obtained with ASCA (5.3 x 10^-13^ and 1.1 x 10^-12^ ergs
s^-1^ cm^-2^; Mizuno et al. 1999; Terashima et al. 2002),
respectively. These differences appear not to be significant given the
statistical, calibration, and spectral modeling uncertainties. (The
uncertainties on the Chandra fluxes are dominated by the statistical
errors, which are ~30% for the off-nuclear source and ~50% for the
nucleus, while the error in the ASCA fluxes is dominated by
calibration uncertainties of ~10%.)
The Chandra spectrum of the off-nuclear source can be fitted by an
absorbed power-law model with a photon index of {GAMMA} = 1.89
+0.24/-0.19 and N_H_ = 1.5 +0.5/-0.3 x 10^21^ cm^-2^. A multicolor
disk blackbody model also provides a good fit with best-fit parameters
kT_in_ = 0.90 +0.14/-0.16 keV and N_H_ = 4.2 +3.5/-4.0 x 10^20^ cm^-2^.

5. 2002ApJS..139....1T
Re:NGC 4565
NGC 4565 (S1.9).-Mizuno et al. (1999) presented ASCA results for NGC
4565. The nucleus and an off- nuclear source 0.8' away, previously
detected with ROSAT (PSPC: Yogler, Pietsch, & Kahabka 1996; HRI: Mizuno
et al. 1999, Halderson et al. 2001), are seen in the ASCA 515 images,
but they are not resolved in the GIS images. The source coincident with
the nucleus appears pointlike in a ROSAT HRI image (Halderson et
al. 2001). The off-nuclear source is ~2 times brighter than the
nucleus. As the spatial resolution of ASCA is insufficient to resolve
the two sources, we extracted a single spectrum for both sources. Among
the models we examined, the most successful fit was obtained with a
partially covered power law plus a RS plasma. A partial covering model
without the RS component yielded a slightly worse result
({DELTA}{chi}^2^ = +4.6). A simple power-law model seems inappropriate
in view of the systematic, wavy residuals it generated. We also
attempted a multicolor-disk blackbody model (Mitsuda et al. 1984),
which was examined by Mizuno et al. (1999), and obtained results
consistent with theirs. The best-fit parameters for this model are kT_in_
1.49 +/- 0.08 keV and N_H_ = 1.2^+2.5^ _-1.2_ x 10^20^ cm^-2^;
{chi}^2^= 151.4 for 112 dof.
Inspection of the one-dimensional projected profiles in the hard
and soft-energy bands shows that the two sources have similar spectral
hardness. Thus, the nucleus and the off-nuclear source each contributes
about one-third and two-thirds, respectively, to the total luminosity
(1.8 x 10^40^ ergs s^-1^). The intrinsic luminosity depends on the
assumed model. Tables 13 and 14 show the intrinsic flux and luminosity
for the case of a partially covered power law plus RS model.
Mizuno et al. (1999) interpreted that both sources are luminous
accreting black hole binaries (see also Makishima et al. 2000). They
suggest that the derived absorption column density (N_H_ <2 x 10^21^
cm^-2^) is too low for the nucleus of an edge-on galaxy. We argue that
an LLAGN is a likely origin for the nuclear source. First, the nucleus
shows an optical spectrum classified as a type 1.9 Seyfert (Ho et
al. 1997a). The detection of broad H{alpha} emission provides strong
support for the presence of an AGN. Second, the L_X_/L_H{alpha} ratio
(20) is in good agreement with those of LLAGNs and luminous AGNs
(Terashima et al. 2000a). Third, the internal reddening determined
from the Balmer decrement, E(B-V)_int_ = 0.47 mag (Ho et al. 1997a),
corresponds to N_H_ = 2.7 x 10^21^ cm^-2^ for the conversion E(B-V)
= N_H_/(5.8 x 10^21^) cm^-^2 mag (Bohlin, Savage, & Drake 1978). This
value of N_H_ is consistent with the mild absorption observed in the
X-ray spectrum. Finally, the radio properties further support the AGN
interpretation: the nucleus contains a compact radio core which has a
flat spectrum (Nagar et al. 2000; Falcke et al. 2000) and is variable
(Falcke et al. 2001; Ho & Ulvestad 2001). Further X-ray observations
with higher spatial resolution would be extremely useful.

6. 2002AJ....124..675C
Re:UGC 07772
Very extended radio source.

7. 2002A&A...392..817F
Re:NGC 4565
3.8 NGC 4565
We find seven sources inside the D_25_ ellipse, but since this galaxy is
edge-on, there could be additional sources projected along the minor axis
above the plane of the disk. Examination of Fig. 3 suggests that this indeed
might be the case, although interestingly none of the sources seem to coincide
with known globular clusters (Kissler-Patig et al. 1999).
For three ULX (2, 4, and 6) it is possible to perform spectral fitting.
Specifically, ULX4 has the highest counts in all the present catalog. The best
fit is still the power law with photon index 1.9 +/- 0.1
({chi^2^=43.7, {nu} = 46). The flux and the corresponding luminosity are
2.2 x 10^-13^ erg cm^-2^ s^-1^ and 2.5 x 10^39^ erg s^-1^, respectively.
It is worth noting that, with the exception of the BB model, all of the
other models give an acceptable spectral fit for ULX4. In addition, it is
also the only source that is fitted well with the unsaturated Comptonization
model. Specifically, the BR model is fitted with kT = 3.4 +/- 0.8 keV
({chi^2^=48.4, {nu} = 46), the MCD with kT = 0.8 +/- 0.1 keV
({chi^2^=83.1, {nu} = 46), and the CST has kT = 1.8 +/- 0.6 keV with
optical depth {tau}_e_ = 16 +/- 7 ({chi^2^=42.8, {nu} = 45).
ULX2 is best fitted with the black body model at kT = 0.9 +/- 0.1 keV
({chi^2^=17.7, {nu} = 13). The flux and luminosity for this model are
7.5 x 10^-14^ erg cm^-2^ s^-1^ and 8 x 10^38^ erg s^-1^, respectively. Other
reasonable fits are obtained with PL (see Table 3) and with MCD, with the
temperature of the inner disk of 2+/-1 keV ({chi^2^=20.8, {nu} = 13).
ULX6 also is best fitted with BB, but with kT = 0.52 +/- 0.07 keV
({chi^2^=13.5, {nu} = 10). In this case the flux is 3.9 x 10^-14^
erg cm^-2^ s^-1^
and the luminosity is 4 x 10^38^ erg s^-1^. Yet other statistically acceptable
models are the PL (see Table 3) and the MCD, with temperature of the inner disk
of 1.0 +/- 0.3 keV ({chi^2^=15.1, {nu} = 10).
Four of the ULX sources have already been detected by ROSAT
(Vogler et al. 1996), namely RXJ1236.2+2600 (ULX2), RXJ1236.2+2558 (ULX4),
RXJ1236.3+2600 (ULX5), RXJ1236.4+2557 (ULX6). For ULX4, ROSAT observations
suggest an additional intrinsic absorption, with values from 3.4 to
3.6 x 10^20^ cm^-2^, in addition to the Galactic column density
(1.3 x 10^20^ cm^-2^). Instead, the best fit from ASCA data gives an
upper limit of 2x10^20^ cm^-2^ (Mizuno et al. 1999). In our sample, only ULX2
indicates a possible extra absorption in addition to the Galactic N_H_, with
95% significance (cf. Table 3). Additional absorption in the fitting of ULX4
and ULX6 has low significance (68% and 82%, respectively). The values of
N_H_ are < 1x10^21^ cm^-2^ and 2x10^21^ cm^-2^, respectively.
It is useful to note that Mizuno et al. (1999) suggest, on the basis of
ASCA data, that this galaxy has no X-ray nucleus and that the twin bright
sources in the middle of the galaxy could be two ULX. XMM-Newton has
sufficient angular resolution to separate the two sources, one of them
being ULX4; this is consistent with the ROSAT results. We identify the
other source with the active nucleus.

8. 2001ApJS..137..139S
Re:NGC 4565
NGC 4565. - We adopt the result of Forbes (1996), which is based on an
average of the results from the globular cluster luminosity function, SBF,
and the planetary nebula luminosity function (PNLF).

9. 2001ApJS..133...77H
Re:NGC 4565
NGC 4565 (S1.9). - VLA flux densities measured with ~1" resolution have
been published by van der Hulst et al. (1981) and Hummel et al. (1987),
and a {DELTA}{theta} = 5" 20 cm detection is available from the FIRST
survey. There is a spread of about a factor of 2 among the various
measurements, including ours, suggesting that the nucleus may be variable.

10. 2001AJ....122..637H
Re:NGC 4565
NGC 4565. - Optically thin thermal plasma and power-law models were
tested by Vogler, Pietsch, & Kahabka (1996) on various sources associated
with this object. For the central source, both models lead to fluxes
consistent with ours.

11. 2000ApJ...542..186N
Re:NGC 4565
NGC 4565.-Hummel et al. (1987) find a core 20 cm flux density of
1.2 mJy in the central 2" of their 1.3" resolution VLA map. FIRST lists
a peak flux density of 1.5 mJy beam^-1^ at 20 cm in a 5 " resolution
map, with extended emission in P.A. 36^deg^, along the minor axis of
the host galaxy. Combined with our 2 cm peak flux density of
3.7 mJy beam^-1^ at 0.15" resolution, the nonsimultaneous spectral index
is {alpha}_2_^20^ >= 0.5. This galaxy has the lowest broad H{alpha}
luminosity found in any known active nucleus (Ho et al. 1997b).

12. 1998PASJ...50..427S
Re:NGC 4565
NGC 4565: This is an edge-on galaxy of Sb type. The nuclear component is
weak in the H{alpha} emission, while being rather strong in [N II]. This
may be due to a superposed broad stellar absorption feature of the
H{alpha} damped Balmer wing due to the nuclear stellar disk and bulge
stars. The nuclear [N II] feature in the PV diagram indicates a steep
rise within ~ 2", representing a rapidly rotating nuclear disk. A rigidly
rotating PV feature runs across this nuclear PV feature in both the
H{alpha} and [N II] lines, which is due to the outer disk component. The
rotation curve is flat beyond R ~ 50". Since interstellar extinction by
the disk is significant, the nuclear rotation curve may not correctly
show up at the present wavelength; the nuclear rise may be much sharper.
In fact, the CO line data, which do not suffer from extinction, show a
high velocity in the central 5 kpc, where the rotation velocity remains
at almost around 250 km s^-1^ (Sofue 1997).

13. 1997ApJS..112..391H
Re:NGC 4565
NGC 4565.--The large [O III]/H{beta} (~9) and [N II]/H{alpha} (~2.5) ratios
qualify NGC 4565 as a Seyfert galaxy. A relatively faint (f_blend_~16%) broad
H{alpha} component is seen in the H{alpha}+[N II] blend after fitting the
narrow lines with a model of [S II] {lambda}6731 (Fig. 13a). If this detection
is correct, the broad H{alpha} luminosity (8x10^37^ ergs s^-1^) is the lowest
yet found in any active nucleus, even smaller than that of NGC 4395. As in the
case of NGC 3031 (Fig. 1b), [S II] {lambda}6716 is narrower than [S II]

14. 1996ApJ...458..120S
Re:NGC 4565
NGC 4565
This is an almost edge-on (i = 86^deg^) Sb galaxy at a distance of 10.2 Mpc.
A CO + H I composite PV diagram similar to Figure 1 has been obtained by Sofue
et al.(1994), who used CO data from NRO (Sofue & Nakai 1994) and H I from the
VLA (Rupen 1991). The CO PV diagram shows a significant asymmetry in the
intensity distribution: the CO emission in the southeast few kiloparsec region
is very weak, so that the CO rotation in this region is not clear. However,
except for this region, the total rotation characteristics are almost symmetric
and mimic those of NGC 891. On the other hand, the H I diagram shows an almost
perfect symmetry in both intensity and rotation velocity.
The rotation curve as obtained from these diagrams is shown in Figure 7, which
is similar to that for NGC 891. It has a nuclear-disk component rotating at
260 km s^-1^, followed by a flat rotation until 20-25 kpc at a velocity as
high as ~ 250 km s^-1^. This galaxy is one of those with extremely flat
rotation even in the outskirts, suggesting a large extended massive halo.

15. 1995A&A...302..691D
Re:NGC 4565
This galaxy shows a weak central source and a clear asymmetry along the
major axis, in the sense that a second and fainter maximum is visible
northwest of the nucleus. This maximum could also be seen in the
{lambda}20.3 cm map of Sukumar & Allen (1991). However, it disappears
when smoothing their map to the resolution of our {lambda}2.8 cm map,
which indicates a flatter spectrum for this maximum than for the rest of
the galaxy. The thickness of the continuum radio disk is much less than
in NGC 891.
The appearance of the polarized intensity is a bit patchy. It is
visible in some locations mainly on the southwestern side of the major
axis. In the {lambda}20.3 cm map of Sukumar & Allen (1991), however, it
is strongly concentrated on the southeastern part of the galaxy, which
may be due to stronger Faraday depolarization in the northwestern part.
The orientation of the observed magnetic field vectors is again
parallel to the plane.

16. 1993A&AS...97..887B
Re:NGC 4565
NGC 4565 was studied at the Bell Labs 7m telescope by Richmond and Knapp
(1986) in CO(1-0) with a 100" beam. The disk CO,(2-1) emission decreases
marginally more quickly than the CO(1-0).

17. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4565
= Holm 426a
3 small anonymous galaxies nearby (Holm 426b,c,d).
Photometry (5 Color):
A.J., 73, 313, 1968.
Isophotometry of the Central Regions:
IAU Symp.58, p.336, 1974.
Red Halo:
Bull. A.A.S., 6, 333, 1974.
Rotation Curve:
Systemic Velocity Astr. Ap., 8, 364, 1970.

18. 1973UGC...C...0000N
Re:UGC 07772
SA(s)b? (de Vaucouleurs), Sb+ (Holmberg)
Companion 6.1, 359, 0.6: x 0.5:, dwarf
UGC 07758 at 13.4

19. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4565
= Holm 426a
3 small anonymous nearby galaxies (= Holm 426b,c,d).
B.A.N., 16, 1, 1961.
Handbuch der Ap., 5, 2, 1933.
Handbuch der Ap., 5, 843, 1933.
Ap. J., 104, 214, 1946.
Izv. Pulkovo, 20, No.156, 87, 1956.
Sov. A.J., 32, 16, 1955.
B.A.N., 16, 1, 1961.
P.A.S.P., 69, 302, 1957.
Ap. J., 127, 487, 1958.
Stockholm Ann., 15, No 4, 1948.
Radio Emission:
M.N.R.A.S., 122, 479, 1961.

20. 1961Hubbl.B...0000S
Re:NGC 4565
Apr. 15/16, 1950
25 min
Enlarged 1.2X
All galaxies on the facing page are nearly on edge.
The pictures show the change in the nuclear bulge along the
sequence of classification and the concentration of the
dust to a fundamental plane. Note how flat the central
cross section of NGC 4565 is. The nuclear bulge is not so large
as that of NGC 4594 but is larger than that of NGC 0891. NGC 4594 is
an Sa or very early Sb. NGC 4565 is classed as an intermediate
Sb, and NGC 0891 as a very late Sb. De Vaucouleurs illustrates
and discusses NGC 4565, NGC 4216, and others in his article on the
direction of tilt (Ap. J., 137, 487, 1958).

21. 1957HPh....53..275d
Re:NGC 4565
(Plate 41)
The still smaller spheroidal component (as compared to NGC 5746)
is surrounded by an extensive flat component in which bright and
dark spiral arms show much clumpiness and branching.
Compare with NGC 7205 (Plate 18), NGC 1084 (Plate 19), and
NGC 5962 (Plate 23).

22. 1918PLicO..13....9C
Re:NGC 4565
Vol. VIII, Plate 40. 15' x 1.1'; the largest and most beautiful example of an
edgewise spiral with dark absorbing lane. This runs down the central line,
just north of the nucleus, which is bright and almost stellar. P.a. 134^deg^.
Several almost stellar condensations. See Abs. Eff. 51 s.n.

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