(A 0147 + 21)??
Nov 2/3, 1962
103aO + GG13
This galaxy is not in the Shapley-Ames but
is shown here to illustrate how difficult was the
problem in the 1940's and 1950's to settle the
question of whether the spiral arms opened in a
direction leading the rotation or following it like
a pinwheel rocket. The problem was settled by
Hubble (1943) and was discussed again by de
Vaucouleurs (1958) in a review of the history
and an analysis with new data.
The problem requires identifying the near
side of a galaxy's disk either by the position of
the dust lane across the bulge (as in the galaxies
on this panel) or by the asymmetry of the
luminosity pattern in the disk caused by the dust.
The opening geometry of the spiral pattern must
then be determined. Finally the sense of the
rotation must be known from spectra. The most
difficult part of this three-piece requirement is to
determine the spiral opening geometry, i.e., the
sense of the spiral angles. Generally, in galaxies
that are tipped enough to the line of sight to
determine the near edge, the spiral geometry is
uncertain (see de Vaucouleurs 1958).
In the galaxy here, no question remains as
to which is the near side, as judged by the dust
lane. The sense of the spiral opening can also be
determined by the luminosity pattern at the ends
of the major axis and by the very faint arm
pattern sweeping out of the plane, visible on the
48-inch Schmidt Sky Survey prints but not
The coordinates of this galaxy have been
copied from the general observing log book
(Sandage was the observer). They are clearly
incorrect because no galaxy with this image
appears at the stated position, shown by inspection
of the POSS prints. We have been unable to
identify the galaxy or to find its true position in
the sky, but its morphology is so interesting that
we include it here. Its eventual identification will
be of great interest. [The galaxy is NGC 678; Sandage's
coordinates in the header are nearly correct. H. Corwin.]
In a group with NGC 0680, NGC 0691, NGC 0694, NGC 0695, NGC 0697 and IC 0167.
Paired with UGC 01286 at 5.5, 107
In the NGC 0678-0697 Group.
Spindle-shaped; an edgewise spiral 3.5' long in p.a. 80^deg^, with a clear-cut
absorption lane passing along its length at one side of the center. Central
portion fairly bright. See Abs. Eff.