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Notes for object MESSIER 066

26 note(s) found in NED.

1. 2012ApJ...754...67F
Re:NGC 3627
NGC 3627 .SXS3..-Prominently barred galaxy with wide, open arms, interacting
with the Leo group. High contrast dust lanes that extend to the very center are
seen in HST F606W and let Fisher & Drory (2008) classify this as a pseudobulge.
After a fast rise the rotational velocity forms a shelf between 3" and the bulge
radius of about 11". Toward larger radii the velocity rises again. The velocity
dispersion rises inward, starting already far outside the bulge radius. At ~=4"
it flattens out and stays essentially constant. The h_3_ moments are
anti-correlated with velocity inside of 9" but change sign at larger radii and
become correlated with velocity. While the minor axis rotation is compatible
with zero at larger radii it exhibits significant rotation inward of about 7"
that is also seen in anti-correlated h_3_ moments.

2. 2011AJ....141...23B
Re:NGC 3627
A.13. NGC 3627
NGC 3627 is a spiral galaxy at an adopted distance of
D = 9.3 Mpc and is a member of the Leo Triplet. Its high
inclination (i = 61.8^deg^) meant we were only able to detect
18 holes in NGC 3627, two of them being type 3. One holes
worth noting is 7 which has unusually high expansion velocities
of 65 kms^-1^respectively the highest observed in the entire

3. 2009A&A...503..409H
Re:NGC 3627
NGC 3627 (M66): Bright polarized emission is detected in this galaxy, with a
conspicuous north-south gradient of the fractional polarization. It originates
in both optical spiral arm and in interarm regions. The polarized fraction at 22
cm is less than 1% in the bright optical bar and inner disk of the galaxy, and
increases in the regions outside of the spiral arms to as much as 15% on the
eastern minor axis. The lowest brightness of polarized emission occurs near the
receding major axis (PA = 173^deg^, as tabulated in Table 1). The magnetic field
orientation closely follows the optical spiral structure, except at the largest
radii where it generally becomes more radial. Some possible systematic variation
in the Faraday depth can be discerned which we will comment on in Paper III.
Note that Soida et al. (2001) have published VLA and Effelsberg observations of
this galaxy at 4.8 and 8.5 GHz which detect many of the same trends, although
not detecting the same northern extent. The brighter lobe of a background triple
sou rce permits assessment of the Galactic foreground RM of +13 +/- 1 rad m^-2^.
Other field sources are scattered around this value.

4. 2008MNRAS.385..553D
Re:NGC 3627
NGC 3627 (M66): This member of the Leo triplet shows a highly perturbed
H{alpha} morphology and velocity field. Streaming motions can be seen
along the spiral arms and a warp can be fitted on the southern, receding
side of the disc. The H{alpha} kinematics is consistent with CO and H I
data obtained by Helfer et al. (2003) and Regan et al. (2002),
respectively. A molecular and H{alpha} ring has been found lying at the
position of the ultraharmonic resonance induced by the bar pattern speed
(Chemin et al. 2003). The proposed explanation for the asymmetric and
perturbed gas morphology is a tidal interaction with NGC 3628 (Afanasiev
& Sil'chenko 2005; see also Zhang, Wright & Alexander 1993).

5. 2007MNRAS.379.1249D
Re:NGC 3627
NGC 3627 is an SAB spiral galaxy hosting a Seyfert 2 nucleus. It is part of the
Leo Triplet system, interacting with NGC 3623 and with evidence of a past
interaction with NGC 3628 (Zhang, Wright & Alexander 1993). Previous radio and
optical observations show asymmetric structures in the velocity field,
non-circular gaseous motions and a molecular CO inner ring (Chemin et al. 2003).
More recently, IFS data obtained by Afanasiev & Sil'chenko (2005) have shown
evidence for strong gaseous radial motions.
The SAURON stellar continuum map shows an elongated structure along the
photometric PA ~ 170{degree} (Fig. 4c). The velocity field presents a
regular rotation pattern, with a slight twist of the zero-velocity line in the
very central parts (r < 3 arcsec). The stellar rotation follows the orientation
of the photometric major-axis. The stellar velocity dispersion rises towards the
central regions up to 120 km s^-1^.
The [O III] emission is concentrated in the inner 5 arcsec, with some
emission in an elongated structure, along the photometric PA (Fig. 4c). As for
[O III], H{beta} emission is observed to be predominant in the central parts,
with an additional bright spot about 15 arcsec south of the nucleus. The [O III]
and H{beta} kinematics are quite similar (Figs 4c and B1). Their velocity fields
show strong deviations from axisymmetry: the orientation of the kinematic
major-axis changes from the external regions where it is aligned with the
stellar kinematics, toward the nucleus where the ionized gas kinematic
major-axis deviates by ~40{degree} from the stellar one. Afanasiev & Sil'chenko
(2005) suggested that strong radial motions may exist in the central parts of
this galaxy. Both [O III] and H{beta} velocity dispersion maps are almost
featureless, with a slight depression in the very centre. Finally, the [O
III]]/H{beta} line ratio reaches its highest values in the inner 2 arcsec.

6. 2007A&A...461.1209D
Re:NGC 3627
NGC 3627: The origin of the X-ray emission of this source is probably
due to a number of off-nuclear objects that indicate the strong
contribution of a starburst to the high energy emission (Georgantopoulos
et al. 2002).

7. 2005ApJS..157...59L
Re:NGC 3627
NGC 3627 (M66) is an Sb spiral galaxy at a distance of 8.75 Mpc with great
quantity of dust throughout the disk. ULX1 is on the outer edge of a spiral arm
and close to a very faint feature on the DSS image.

8. 2004A&A...418..429F
Re:NGC 3627
NGC 3627 The soft X-ray emission extends over about 2' in a
Northwest-Southeast direction, similar to the extent and orientation of
the triple-radio source (Filho et al. 2000). No obvious nuclear X-ray
source - hard or soft - was found on the Chandra image (see also Ho et
al. 2001). Although the source detection procedure (wavdetect) found a
source positionally coincident with the VLA core (Filho et al. 2000;
Nagar et al. 2000, 2002), it is the weakest source on the image and we
prefer to consider it an upper limit (see also Ho et al. 2001).

9. 2003ApJS..146..353M
Re:NGC 3627
NGC 3627 (C)
The high inclination of this relatively nearby galaxy makes it
difficult to discern the circumnuclear structure at distances much
larger than a few hundred parsecs. The central region is dominated by
several straight dust lanes that are parallel to the host galaxy
semimajor axis.

10. 2002ApJ...573..306E
Re:NGC 3627
NGC 3627
Prior observations of NGC 3627 were found in Hummel et al. (1987;
1.49 GHz), Crane (1977; 2.7 and 8.1 GHz), Zhang, Wright, & Alexander
(1993; CO and H I), and Hodge (1974; optical H II). Source {alpha}
has a nonthermal spectral index and a position within the uncertainty
(10") for the galactic center. It lies directly over the CO peak in
the center of the galaxy from Zhang et al. (1993) and is probably
associated with the galactic center. Hummel et al. observe a source
less than 0.5" from {alpha} with an integrated flux over the inner 2"
of 15+/- 2 mJy. We measure the integrated flux over approximately the
same region to be 12.5 +/- 0.1 mJy.
H{alpha} observations taken on the 18 inch (0.5 m) telescope at
the University of Oklahoma by W. Romanishin (1997, unpublished) reveal
an emission region lying over {beta}.
Hodge (1974) reports observations of H II regions expressed as
offsets and plots them relative to the galactic center. If we superpose
{alpha} with the position for the galactic center on the plot, we find
that {beta} lies directly over two H II regions (Nos. 12 and 13 in
Hodge), indicating that {beta} may be an H II region. Source {gamma}
has no counterpart in Hodge (1974).
Source {epsilon} has a position that is coincident with the
position of an H II region (No. 47) reported by Hodge (1974). This
coincidence assumes that the center of the galaxy is at {alpha}.
Examination of the fluxes at two wavelengths indicates that the
emission from {epsilon} is nonthermal. This probably indicates that
there is an SNR nearby or possibly associated with the H II region.
If we again assume that {alpha} is the center of the galaxy, we find
that {pi} lies 4" from the position of an H II region (No. 50), so it
is not clear whether {pi} is associated with an H II region or not.

11. 2002AJ....124.2581S
Re:NGC 3627
NGC 3627 (Fig. 2): The bar in NGC 3627 is oriented at
a P.A. of 161^deg^. The molecular gas is mostly on the
leading side the stellar bar, with a P.A. of ~164^deg^,
but note that, at the southern end of the bar, the
molecular gas morphology turns sharply toward the
trailing side of the bar. The H{alpha} emission is
offset toward the leading side of the CO. The CO
intensity decreases from the inner ends of the bar
toward the outer ends, i.e., from C3-> C2-> C1 in the
northern half, and from C4-> C5-> C6 in the southern
half. This behavior is consistent with the predictions
of the hydrodynamic models (Sheth et al. 2000).
In the northern half of the bar, there is only
one bright, compact H{alpha} structure, labeled "H1,"
located 30" north of the nucleus and 3-5" east and
toward the leading side of the CO ridge connecting
C1 and C2. Diffuse H emission connecting H1 to the bar
end is also present on the leading edge of the CO. As
in NGC 2903 there is a paucity of H{alpha} emission
on the trailing side of the CO. Additional CO and
H{alpha} emission associated with an inner ring
(dashed segments) circumscribing the bar is also
present; this inner ring is discussed in detail in
Regan et al. (2002).
In the southern half of the bar all three compact
H{alpha} structures (H2, H3, and H4) are also on the
leading edge of the CO emission, 3-4" west of the CO
ridge connecting C4, C5, and C6. As in the northern
half diffuse H{alpha} emission connects H2, H3, and
H4; most of this emission is also on the leading edge
of the CO.

12. 2002A&A...386...60G
Re:NGC 3627
6.1 NGC 3627
In order to study the spatial properties of the X-ray emission
of these galaxies we used archival data obtained with the
Chandra ACIS-S instrument. Public Chandra data exist only for
NGC 3627 and NGC 5195. These have been observed on 3-11-1999
(exposure 1.1 ksec) and on 23-01-2000 (exposure 1.7 ksec)
respectively. Preliminary results from these data have been
published by Ho et al. (2001), but their study has been focused
on the luminosity of the nucleus alone. From the raw data we
extracted images in the 0.5-7 keV band which were adaptively
smoothed. Contours from these images overlaid on DSS optical
images of the galaxies are presented in Fig. 3. Sources were
detected using the wavelet WAVDETECT) algorithm of the
CIAO v.2.0 software package. In the case of NGC 3627, an X-ray
point source close to the radio nucleus (offset 2.6") is
marginally detected. Note that the astrometry error of the
Chandra images is usually within 2" and therefore the Chandra
nuclear X-ray source may be slightly offset from the radio
nucleus. More specifically, the coordinates of the nucleus as
derived from radio observations (Filho et al. 2001) are
{alpha}(2000)=11h20'15.0"; {delta}(2000)=+12^deg^59'30" while
those of the X-ray source are {alpha}(2000)=11h20'15.1",
{delta}(2000)=+12^deg^59'28" . The coordinates of the nucleus
derived from UV observations, {alpha}(2000)=11h20'15.1",
{delta}(2000)=+12^deg^59'22", (Maoz et al. 1996) are far off
from both the radio and the X-ray source (offset >6" ). We
detect 15 counts from the nucleus translating to an X-ray
luminosity of L_2-10 keV_ ~ 4x10^37^ erg s^-1^; we used a
radius of 2" which encompasses over 90% of the light at
2 keV from an on-axis point source. For the conversion from
counts to luminosities we use a power-law model with {GAMMA}=1.9
absorbed by the Galactic column density. Note that Ho et al.
(2001) derive an upper limit of L_2-10 keV_ ~ 4x10^37^ erg s^-1^
for the luminosity of the radio nucleus. At least 7 other
X-ray point sources are apparently associated with NGC 3627.
The X-ray emission is dominated by an off-nuclear source
(with J2000 coordinates {alpha}(2000)=11h20'20.9",
{delta}(2000)=+12^deg^58'45" ) with a luminosity of
L_2-10 keV_ ~ 10^39^ erg s^-1^. The 8 point sources (including
the nucleus) account for about 60 per cent of the X-ray
emission within a radius of 2' in the 0.5-7 keV band.

13. 2001MNRAS.324..737R
Re:NGC 3627
A1 NGC 3627
NGC 3627 (M66) is an interacting galaxy in the Leo triplet. HFS classify
it as T2/S2 type, indicating some ambiguity in its optical emission-line
ratios leading to doubt as to whether the nucleus is a LINER/H II composite
or Seyfert 2 like (with the former being the most probable option).
Filho et al. (2000) report the presence of a variable, flat-spectrum radio
source in the nucleus of NGC 3627 consistent the presence of a LLAGN.
NGC 3627 was detected with a count rate of ~0.1 count s^-1^ in the
ROSAT All-Sky Survey, but the only previously reported observation is from
a ROSAT PSPC image of NGC 3628, where NGC 3627 is 36 arcmin off-axis
(Dahlem et al. 1996). The strong off-axis degradation of the instrument
point spread function prevented any useful spatial analysis, but spectral
analysis was possible. The data were reasonably well fitted by a combined
thermal plasma and power-law continuum model (kT = 0.34 +/- 0.69 keV,
{GAMMA} = 2.0 +/- 0.59 respectively) with no evidence for absorption above
the Galactic line-of-sight value. The inferred 0.1-2.0 keV luminosity was
5 x 10^39^ erg s^-1^ for an assumed distance of 6.6 Mpc.

14. 2000ApJS..129...93F
Re:NGC 3627
NGC 3627 (M66). - This interacting galaxy belongs to the Leo
triplet. The 8.4 GHz maps show a 2' triple source aligned with the inner
bar of the optical galaxy. The outer radio components are related to
star formation in the disk of the galaxy (Urbanik, Grave, & Klein 1985).
We measure 3.9 mJy integrated emission in the compact central component,
while ~ 25 mJy are distributed in the northwest and southeast
components. From comparison with low-resolution surveys
(NVSS: 324.9 mJy; WB92: 434 mJy; BWE91: 141 mJy), we infer that most of
the radio emission of this steep-spectrum radio source is resolved out
by our observations. The triple radio structure was also observed by
Saikia et al. (1994), at 5 GHz with 2" resolution. Combining our data
with the Saikia et al. (1994) and the Hummel et al. (1987) data, we
conclude that the nuclear radio source in NGC 3627 must be of variable,
flat-spectrum nature. More recently, high resolution (0.15") 15 GHz
observations detected an unresolved 1.4 mJy core (N. Nagar 2000, private

15. 1999AJ....118.2331V
Re:NGC 3627
A pair of archival F606W images of NGC 3627, which is also host to
SN 1989B (see section 3.3.13), was obtained. These images were taken
well before the SN IIn 1997bs was discovered (Treffers et al. 1997).
Although SN 1997bs has an absolute position (Cavagna 1997), we used
ground-based images, HST images from later Cycles, and the discovery
images to locate the SN environment, which we show in Figure 7a. We are
able to assign a 1" radius uncertainty in the position. Within the error
circle is a star with m_F606W_ = 22.86 +/- 0.16 mag on 1994 December 28.
For distance modulus m - M = 30.28 (Saha et al. 1997), this corresponds
to M_V_ ~ -7.4 mag for the star. In Figures 7b and 7c we show the same
field in subsequent WFPC2 F555W images made as part of program GO 6549.
On 1997 November 12 (Figure 7b), nearly 7 months after the SN's
discovery, the star's position is coincident with that of the SN, which
had m_F555W_ = 21.42 +/- 0.03 mag. On 1998 January 10 (Figure 7c) the
star had faded to m_F555W_ = 23.37 +/- 0.05 mag, below its original
brightness. Thus, we conclude that this star was the progenitor of
SN 1997bs. Although we have no color information for this star, its
absolute magnitude is consistent with it having been an extremely
luminous supergiant star. This is only likely the fourth SN progenitor
to be identified in pre-explosion images (see section 1).
Goodrich et al. (1989) and Filippenko et al. (1995b) analyze the
case of SN 1961V, concluding that it was a superoutburst of a luminous
blue variable star, resembling the enormous eruptions sometimes
experienced by {eta} Car. Supernovae with relatively similar spectra and
low luminosities include SN 1999bw and SN 1997bs; they might be
additional examples of such outbursts (Filippenko, Li, & Modjaz 1999).
Unlike normal SNe II, in which the progenitor destroys itself and
creates a compact remnant (neutron star or black hole), here the
progenitor survives the explosion reasonably unharmed. Thus, in a sense
these are not "genuine" SNe. The detection of a very luminous progenitor
to SN 1997bs provides some evidence for this hypothesis, but the real
test will be whether the star is still visible in future HST images
obtained years after the outburst.

16. 1999AJ....118.2331V
Re:NGC 3627
A pair of F606W images of NGC 3627 was obtained (see section
3.1.11). We show the SN Ia 1989B environment in Figure 21, based on the
absolute SN position from the Sternberg SN catalog. The SN occurred
along an inner spiral arm in an environment of bright stellar objects,
diffuse emission, and dust, consistent with the relatively large
reddening (E[B-V] = 0.37 mag) found by Wells et al. (1994) from the SN
light curves. The resolved stars within the 2" radius error circle have
m_F606W_ = 22.0 to 20.9 mag, which for a distance modulus m - M = 30.28
(section 3.1.11), correspond to M_V_ ~ -8.3 to -9.4 mag; these are
either extremely luminous single stars or, more likely, small compact
star clusters.

17. 1999A&AS..138..253B
Re:NGC 3627
NGC 3627 - SNe 1973R, 1989B: in the case of SN 1973R a bright blue
elongated object is visible. Almost at the location of SN 1989B a
roundish fuzzy and very blue (in both B-V and V-R) patch of light is
present. The emission we see is within a 3{sigma} detection limit. Both
SN environments are part of spiral arms and very crowded. On the basis
of our selection criteria, both supernovae are classified as candidates
(see Table 3).

18. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 3627
Hubble Atlas, p. 23
Nov 29/30, 1946
10 min
The principal feature of the spiral pattern
in NGC 3627 is the great quantity of dust
throughout the disk. The disk surface brightness
is very high, judged from the intense disk image
in the facing print, made with the very short
exposure for this plate. (Note the 1946 date,
signifying the inevitably slow emulsion speeds of
plates of that era, and also note the even slower
IIaO, fine-grained emulsion used here compared
with the usual faster 103aO emulsion type.
Clearly, the disk surface brightness is abnormally
Many HII regions exist throughout the disk
of NGC 3627, often on the outside of the principal
dust lanes that define the spiral pattern.
The HII regions resolve at about the 2-3" level.
The redshift is small at v_o = 593 km/s, but the
resolution into stars is much less pronounced
than in NGC 4258 (panel 135), which has about
the same redshift.

19. 1993A&AS...97..887B
Re:NGC 3627
NGC 3623, NGC 3627 and NGC 3628 make up the Leo Triplet. NGC 3623 is an
Sa galaxy that has defied several detection attempts, placing it below
the FIR-CO relationship. NGC 3627 is a LINER (SM) where we detect CO(2-1)
out to 2' (5.4 kpc) to the North and South (as far out as observed) and
distinguish the arm/interarm regions. NGC 3628 has a higher dust
temperature and stronger CO emission. NGC 3628 is discussed further in
Boissey et al. (1987) and Reuter et al. (1991) and NGC 3627 in our Paper
IV on radial distributions and rotation curves of the better observed
sample galaxies.

20. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 3627
= Messier 66
= Arp 016 & 317
= Holm 246a
Non-interacting pair with NGC 3623 at 20' (Leo Group).
A.J., 79, 671, 1974.
Photometry (5 Color):
A.J., 73, 313, 1968.
A.J., 79, 671, 1974.
10 microns:
Ap. J. (Letters), 176, L95, 1972.
Astr. Ap., 27, 433, 1973.
HII Regions:
"Atlas and Catalogue", Univ. Washington, Seattle, 1966.
Ap. J. Suppl., 27, No. 239, 1974.
IAU Circ. No. 2615, 2624, 1974.

21. 1975ByuO...47....1A
Re:ARK 288
(= NGC 3627)
Galaxy is of type Sb.
Radial velocity = +524 km/sec.
According to Mayall and de Vaucouleurs, (1962, A. J., 67, 363)
the 3727 line is observed in the spectrum.

22. 1973UGC...C...0000N
Re:UGC 06346
VV 308a, Arp 16 and 317
SAB(s)b (de Vaucouleurs), Sb+ (Holmberg)
Extremely faint corona
Brightest in a subgroup in Leo group
"Large concentration at end of south arm" (Arp)
VV picture is incorrect, shows UGC 06350 = NGC 3628
See UGC 06328
UGC 06350 at 37., 0

23. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 3627
= Messier 066
= Holm 246a
Small, very bright nucleus in a complex bar and lens with many dark lanes.
2 main partially resolved arms.
Non-interacting pair with NGC 3623 at 20 arcmin.
In the Leo Group.
Ap. J., 50, 384, 1919.
Izv. Pulkovo, 20, No.156, 87 1956.
Sov. A.J., 32, 16, 1955.
Ap. J., 135, 734, 1962.
Ap. J., 97, 117, 1943.
HII Regions:
Zeit. fur Ap., 50, 168, 1960.

24. 1961Hubbl.B...0000S
Re:NGC 3627
Messier 066
Jan.30/31, 1925
90 min
Enlarged 7.2X
NGC 3627 and the other two galaxies shown on the page
contain a great deal of dust. Since dust cannot be detected
in galaxies unless it is silhouetted against a bright
background, it shows best in galaxies that are highly inclined
to the line of sight. Numerous good examples are shown
in the Atlas, among which we mention NGC 2841 (pg. 14),
NGC 5055 (pg. 15), NGC 3521 (pg. 15), NGC 7331 (pg. l7), M31 (pg. 18),
NGC 4594 (pg. 24), all the galaxies on page 25, M83 (pg. 28), and
the nuclei of M51 and M101 (pg. 31). The dust pattern in
NGC 3627 is particularly heavy. The lane going from the
southeast to the northeast quadrant is located on the
inner edge of the luminous spiral arm. The lane associated
with the opposite arm bisects the luminous matter.
The contrast of the reproduction is high. On the original
plate, faint dust lanes are scattered throughout the
central lens and between the outer arms and the nuclear

25. 1959VV....C...0000V
Re:VV 308a
= NGC 3627
V = +633 km/sec
Yerkes Type: fgS4p

26. 1918PLicO..13....9C
Re:NGC 3627
Vol. VIII, Plate 28. A very bright, beautiful, spiral 8' x 2.5' in p.a.
180^deg^. Bright, slightly elongated nucleus; the whorls are somewhat irregular
and show numerous condensations. M. 66.

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