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Notes for object ARP 244

9 note(s) found in NED.

1. 2004AJ....127.3235S
Re:ARP 244
NGC 4038/9. The emission originates between the galaxy centers in the
region where the disks overlap, which is consistent with the results of
Vigroux et al. (1996).

2. 2001MNRAS.324..580D
Re:[DBA2001] FA 33
FA33 This corresponds to both Antennae galaxies, NGC 4038 and 4039. Both
have very long tidal tails. NGC 4038 is a barred spiral [SB(s)mpec] with
a heliocentric radial velocity of 1642 +/- 12 km s^-1^. The northern part
of the Antennae, it has very bright knotty areas. NGC 4039 is a barred
spiral [SA(s)mpec] with a heliocentric radial velocity of
1641 +/- 9 km s^-1. The southern part of the Antennae, it shows both
loops and plumes, presumably the result of tidal interactions.

3. 2001AJ....121..710S
Re:Arp 244
4.3. Arp 245, NGC 3561, and NGC 4038/9
If the tentative detection of CO in the NGC 4038/9 tail (Gao et al.
2001) is confirmed by more sensitive observations, it places this
tail in the same category as the NGC 3561 and Arp 245 features: it is
richer in CO than dwarf galaxies, relative to its H{alpha} flux. The
metallicity in this feature has been estimated to be somewhat lower
than that in the Arp 245 feature, 12 + log (O/H) ~ 8.4 (Mirabel et
al. 1992).

4. 2000ApJ...541..644X
Re:Arp 244
Arp 244=NGC 4038/9 (Figs. 1d-1f).-The "Antennae" are regarded as
another local example of a galaxy merger (Rubin et al. 1970; Toomre &
Toomre 1972; Schweizer 1978; Hummel & van der Hulst 1986; Vigroux et al.
1996; Mirabel et al. 1998; Evans, Harper, & Helou 1998; Whitmore et al.
1999). ISO CAM images at 6.7 and 15 micron have been published (Vigroux
et al. 1996; Mirabel et al. 1998). Our 9.7 and 15 micron maps cover a
larger area (6" x 6"). The brightest region in this system at MIR
wavelengths involves an extranuclear starburst (Source A) about 15"
northeast of the NGC 4039 nucleus (see Vigroux et al. 1996; Mirabel et
al. 1998). There is an H{alpha} peak at Source A, but much fainter than
the emission from the NGC 4039 nucleus. Apparently much of the optical
emission associated with Source A is extinguished by dust. More
intriguingly, the FIR (60, 100, and 160 micron) KAO maps (Evans et al.
1998; Bushouse et al. 1998) show that the FIR peak is displaced north of
Source A, at the position of a dark patch in the optical images (e.g.,
the HST WFPC2 images by Whitmore et al. 1999). New SCUBA maps (Haas et
al. 2000) at 450 and 850 micron (15" resolution) reveal large amounts
(10^6-7^ M_sun_) of cold dust (<20 K) in the overlap region. There are
corresponding radio continuum peaks at both the MIR and FIR peaks
(Hummel & van der Hulst 1986). The CO observations (Stanford et al.
1990; Gao et al. 1998; Gruendl et al. 1998) demonstrate that most of the
molecular gas in this system is extended throughout the overlap region.
The [C II] 158 micron emission also peaks at the dark patch north of
Source A (Nikola et al. 1998). All of these observations indicate that,
even in MIR, much of the star formation activity in Arp 244 is hidden by
dust. Our MIR maps also show some weak emission at the location where
the southern tail starts. A similar feature is observed in the radio
continuum (Hummel & van der Hulst 1986).
The f_15 micron_/f_9.7 micron_ ratio map also peaks around Source A
with a value of (f_15 micron_/f_9.7 micron_) ~ 3. Given that most of
the molecular gas is found near this region (Gao et al. 1998), and very
strong extinction (AV ~ 70) is found from an SWS study of MIR
lines in the same region (Kunze et al. 1996), the high
(f_15 micron_/f_9.7 micron_) level is likely due to significant silicate
In a separate ISO CAM observation (Arp 244-02, Table 2), we obtained
ISO CAM LW3 images further down along the southern tail, including the
end of the tail where a dwarf galaxy was found (Schweizer 1978; Mirabel,
Dottori, & Lutz 1992). No MIR emission is detected in these tidal

5. 1998MNRAS.297..143R
Re:ARP 244
NGC 4038/9, the Antennae (Arp 244), is a classic example of an interacting
system with two equally long tails and distinct central masses. Although it
occurs first in the Toomre sequence, CO (Stanford et a!. 1990), radio (Hummel &
van der Hulst 1986) and X-ray observations (Read et al. 1995) indicate that the
discs have begun to merge, and the Antennae therefore should really be placed at
some time after the Mice.

6. 1997AJ....114.1797W
Re:Antennae Galaxy
NGC 4038/4039 (Whitmore & Schweizer 1995): NGC 4038/4039, the "Antennae
Galaxies," is the "youngest" of the 11 prototypical mergers from the Toomre
(1977) sequence. Figures 14 and 18 show that it also has the bluest clusters,
as expected. The upper envelope of blue clusters, with V-I~-0.2 mag, is in good
agreement with the dynamical prediction since the youngest clusters have ages
of 1-3 Myr. This shows that active star cluster formation currently occurring
in NGC 4038/4039, as already indicated by the presence of many giant H II
regions (Rubin et al. 1970) and predicted by the Mihos et al.(1993) simulation.
Our estimate of 0.03_-0.025_^+0.07^ Gyr for the mean age of the clusters is
probably biassed toward the younger clusters, since our procedure uses the
brightest, and hence youngest clusters to estimate {DELTA}V.

7. 1985ApJS...57..643D
Re:VV 245
See Toomre, A., and Toomre, J. 1972, Ap.J., 178, 623.

8. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:ARP 244
= VV 245
Colliding system (NGC 4038 + NGC 4039) with long streamers.
Non-interacting pair with NGC 4027 at 41 arcmin.
Ap. J., 145, 661, 1966.
Ap. J., 160, 801, 1970.
IAU Symp. No.29, p.414, 1968.
Astrofizika, 6, 367, 1970.
Astr. Ap., 28, 379, 1973.
Astrofizika, 6, 367, 1970.
Spectrum and Velocity Field:
Ap. J., 145, 661, 1966.
Ap. J., 160, 801, 1970.
Dynamics and Encouter Model:
Ap. J., 178, 623, 1972.
IAU Symp. No.58, 358, 1974.
IAU Circ. No. 2653, 2663, 2664, 1974.
HI 21cm:
A.J., 79, 767, 1974.
Radio Observations:
Australian J. Phys., 21, 193, 1968.
M.N.R.A.S., 159, 15P, 1972.
M.N.R.A.S., 167, 251, 1974.
Ap. J., 183, 791, 1973.
Astr. Ap., 28, 379, 1973.
Nature, 241, 260, 1973.

9. 1959VV....C...0000V
Re:VV 245
= NGC 4038 + NGC 4039
A striking object, especially the long antennae.
Upper photograph is from Payne-Gaposhkin:
"Stars in the Making", 1953.
Lower photograph is from Morgan,
(Publ. A.S.P., 70, 363, 1958).
Right photograph is from Sci. American, Sept., 1956

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