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Notes for object MESSIER 051

11 note(s) found in NED.


1. 2008ApJ...679..310G
Re:MESSIER 051
This galaxy is more quiescent than M82 and IC 342. Its band ratios show less
variation (Fig. 8) throughout the galaxy, although they are in good agreement
with the general correlations of Figure 3. The correlation coefficients are ~=
0.6 (Table 2), slightly lower than those for M82 and IC 342, essentially because
of the lower S/N of the spectra. The spatial distribution of the I_6.2_/I_11.3_
ratio (Fig. 11) follows the PAH emission remarkably well enhanced along the
spiral arms and the bulge. This band ratio reaches its maximum on the central
ring and decreases somewhat in the center.

2. 2007A&A...461.1209D
Re:MESSIER 051
M 51: Fukazawa et al. (2001) claimed the Compton-thick nature of this
low-luminosity AGN, studying its ~0.1-100 keV BeppoSAX spectrum. Here we
confirm their results.

3. 2004MNRAS.350.1087S
Re:MESSIER 051
M 51: the overall disc does not obey an exponential law. For r> 40
arcsec the galaxy shows a flat profile, while for smaller radii the
surface brightness distribution can be fitted to an exponential profile
with small scalelength. This behaviour has also been reported by Boroson
(1981), who finds a flat disc for r> 52 arcsec. The shape of the surface
brightness profile can be explained by the presence of a nearby
companion galaxy, NGC 5195.

4. 2003ApJS..146..249B
Re:MESSIER 051
5.11. M51
The kilomaser in the mildly active nucleus of M51 was first detected
by Ho et al. (1987) and has been studied more recently by Hagiwara et
al. (2001). This maser has not been a part of our monitoring program,
but we present a sensitive GBT spectrum in Figure 2. The blueshifted
feature evident in the 2001 January spectrum (Hagiwara et al. 2001)
had diminished by the 2002 May spectrum shown here. A new feature
appears at 546 km s^-1^ and two equal intensity (~0.1 Jy) components
are found at 564 and 567 km s^-1^.

5. 2002A&A...390...47S
Re:MESSIER 051
M 51: M 51 is a high metallicity face-on Sc galaxy with a
well-defined spiral structure. In Fig. 16 our slit position
for M 51 is shown. Two star forming regions were covered by
slit, which are marked by the letters "A" and "B". They
correspond respectively to CCM71 and CCM72 of Carranza et al.
(1969). Both "A" and "B" regions have strong emission in
H{gamma} and H{delta} lines. For the region "B" emission
fills fully the absorption and it was impossible to measure
its absorption component.

6. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:MESSIER 051
NGC 5194/5195
Hubble Atlas, pp. 26, 31
Sbc(s)I-II
SB0_1_ pec
PH-201-MH
May 14/15, 1950
103aO
20 min
NGC 5194 (M51) is similar to NGC 1566
on the preceding panel. The surface brightness of
the two principal grand design arms is high, seen
best in the print on the right. This lighter print
shows the intricate but well-organized dust lanes
inside the two major inner arms. Dust is also
present in the inter-arm region, well silhouetted
against the background disk light at the rim of
the bright central bulge where the short dust
lanes emerge almost radially from the bulge
before breaking into the general spiral pattern.
The heavy print on the left shows the smooth
luminosity that envelops the companion whose
classification is outside the classification system,
although it has variously been classified as SB0
pec and Amorphous. The dust lanes from one of
the branched arms of M51 are silhouetted
against the companion, which obviously is behind
the arm that sweeps across its image.
The strength of the spiral pattern is well
shown in the composite photographs given by
Zwicky (1955), where the dust pattern is also
particularly well seen. The prevalent dust lanes
in the central bulge close to the nucleus are
shown in a greatly enlarged image of the center
on page 31 of the Hubble Atlas.
The distance to M51 is considerably smaller
than the distance to the Virgo Cluster, as judged
by the ease of resolution into brightest stars and
HII regions. The redshift of M51 is v_o = 541 km/s.
This value is consistent with the distance
modulus of m - M = 30, estimated from the ease
of resolution into stars.
This agreement shows that any random
(non-cosmological) velocity is near zero within
the distance of 10 Mpc from the Local Group.
This conclusion follows because the velocity-distance
ratio (i.e., the local value of the Hubble
constant) for M51 itself is 54 km/s Mpc^-1^ using
the M51 distance modulus of m - M = 30 (D = 10
Mpc), and noting that this local ratio is the same
as the global value of the Hubble constant
(Sandage and Tammann 1990).

7. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:MESSIER 051
NGC 5194/5195
Hubble Atlas, pp. 26, 31
Sbc(s)I-II
SB0_1_ pec
PH-3922-S
March 30/31, 1962
103aE + H{alpha} interference
120 min
The H{alpha} interference filter image of
NGC 5194/5195 on the facing page illustrates why the
spiral pattern of this galaxy is of the grand
design, despite the superficial appearance of
multiple arms in the deep prints on panel 172. The
numerous HII regions outline the two principal
arms, which can each be traced for nearly a
whole revolution.
The most unusual feature of the pattern
concerns the arm that begins near but not on the
rim of the inner disk on the right-hand side of the
image here (the opposite side of the major axis
from NGC 5195). This principal arm is detached
from the rim, in contrast to its opposite mate,
which can be traced continuously inward until it
meets the rim.
The largest HII regions have cores that
resolve at the 10" level. This is consistent with
the calibration of HII linear core sizes in
luminosity class I-II late-type spirals (Sandage
and Tammann 1974a), putting M51 at a distance
of 10 Mpc, as described earlier (panel 172).

8. 1977A&AS...28....1V
Re:VV 403
Plate 7 Ejection of the Twin Satellites
Messier 051 nucleus.
Twin blue galaxies ejected or gemmated.

9. 1977A&AS...28....1V
Re:VV 001
Plate 12 Galaxies of the M51 Type.
MCG +08-25-012, 014 = VV 001 = Arp 085 = Messier 051 = NGC 5194,5195;
8.88m and 10.47m, CI=0.53 and 0.98, V_0_=+546 and +552 (RC1). However
in various sources {DELTA}V_0_ vary from 15 to 300! B-V=0.73,
U-B=0.06.
Figure 1a. Summary view from the Palomar diapositive printed by our
method which compares inner and outer isophotes.
Figure 1b is the stream of stars and dust leading directly to the
companion above. Was overlooked by everybody.
Figure 1c is the structure of the centre of the SB0/a companion.
Figure 1d is the tidal model of M 51 calculated by Toomre (1972). None
of the filaments at the companion which are predicted by the theory are
observed (at least on the photographs published so far), however the
direct streams to it (which are not predicted) are observed. From
Figure 1a it appears that it is rather the companion which absorbs the
light of the "horizontal" (on the picture) spiral arm. Consequently
the companion cannot be below the left spiral arm at the distance of 11
kpc, as claims the theory. The velocity field was studied by the
Burbidges (1964), Tully (1972) and others. Tully declares the inner
parts of the spiral arms to be primordial but the outer parts to be
formed by the tides. It can be seen that, as a rule, the tidal
filaments are much more open and begin from arbitrary points of
galaxies with no relation to original spiral system. The latter even
often remains unperturbed: VV 301, VV244, VV 209 (plate 17), Arp 090
etc. For detailed review of all data concerning M 51, see Vorontsov
(1975b and 1975d). Other examples of direct streams between two
galaxies are given below: VV 019 and VV 020.

10. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:MESSIER 051
= Arp 85
= VV 1
= Holm 526
= Kara[72] 379
Interacting pair (NGC 5194 + NGC 5195) at 4.8 arcmin, connected with
outer streamers.
Description, Structure, and Properties (NGC 5195).
Ap. J., 146, 593, 1966.
P.A.S.P., 85, 815, 1973.
A.J., 79, 1242, 1974.
Diameter of Nucleus (NGC 5194):
Ap. J. (Letters), 155, L129, 1969.
Photograph:
Ap. J., 140, 1445, 1964.
Ap. J., 194, 559, 1974.
Ap. J. Suppl., 27, No. 251, 1974.
P.A.S.P., 78, 495, 1966.
P.A.S.P., 79, 600, 1967.
P.A.S.P., 85, 815, 1973.
P.A.S.P., 86, 92, 1974.
Observatory, 88, 91, 1968.
A.J., 74, 515, 1969.
Astrophys. Lett., 4, 117, 1969.
Astr. Ap., 1, 479, 1969.
Astr. Ap., 3, 418, 1969.
Astr. Ap., 17, 468, 1972.
Izv. Crimea Obs., 43, 101, 1971.
IAU Symp. No. 29, 434, 1968.
IAU Symp. No. 38, 75, 1970.
IAU Symp. No. 38, 79, 1970.
IAU Symp. No. 44, 56, 1972.
IAU Symp. No. 58, 354, 1974.
Photometry (pg Isophotometry):
P.A.S.P., 78, 125, 1966.
Photometry (B-V maps):
P.A.S.P., 86, 92, 1974.
Photometry (12 Color):
Ap. J., 145, 36, 1966.
Photometry (5 Color):
A.J., 73, 313, 1968.
Photometry (9 Color):
Izv. Crimea Obs., 43, 101, 1971.
Izv. Crimea Obs., 44, 40, 1972.
Photometry (UBV):
Bull. A.A.S., 4, 224, 1972.
M.N.R.A.S., 162, 359, 1973.
Photometry (I.R., 1-10 microns):
Ap. J. (Letters), 161, L203, 1970.
Ap. J. (Letters), 176, L95, 1972.
M.N.R.A.S., 162, 359, 1973.
Spectrum:
Ap. J., 140, 1445, 1964.
Ap. J., 142, 634, 1965.
Ap. J., 159, 405, 1970.
Ap. J. (Letters), 155, L129, 1969.
Ap. J. Suppl., 27, No. 251, 1974.
A.J., 74, 515, 1969.
Astr. Ap., 1, 479, 1969.
Bull. A.A.S., 4, 332, 1972.
Velocity Field:
Bull. A.A.S., 1, 362, 1969.
IAU Symp. No. 38, 79, 1970.
Ap. J. Suppl., 27, No. 251, 1974.
Bull. A.A.S., 6, 321, 1974.
Spectrophotometry:
Ap. J., 154, 33, 1968.
Ap. J., 168, 327, 1971.
Ap. J., 178, 617, 1972.
Ap. J., 182, 381, 1973.
Ap. J., 186, 29, 1973.
Ap. J., 190, 19, 1974.
Sov. A.J., 13, 593, 1970.
Sov. A.J., 16, 628, 1973.
Bol.Tonantzintla, 6, No. 37, 97, 1971.
Bull. A.A.S., 5, 9, 349, 1973.
IAU Symp. No. 44, 55, 1972.
Astrophys. Lett., 14, 1, 1973.
Spectrophotometry (molecular absorption, H_2_O, CO):
Astrophys. Lett., 14, 1, 1973.
Polarization:
Lowell Obs. Bull., VI, No. 123, 1964.
P.A.S.P., 79, 600, 1967.
A.J., 72, 783, 1967.
Astrofizika, 4, 409, 1968.
Astrofizika, 7, 417, 1971.
Dynamics, Mass Determinations, and Encounter Models:
Ap. J., 140, 1445, 1964.
Ap. J., 178, 623, 1972.
Ap. J., 184, 735, 1973.
Ap. J. Suppl., 27, No. 251, 1974.
Astr. Ap., 1, 479, 1969.
Bull. A.A.S., 4, 424, 1972.
HII Regions:
Ap. J., 168, 327, 1971.
Ap. J., 194, 559, 1974.
IAU Symp. No.38, 83, 1970.
Bull. A.A.S., 5, 349, 1973.
HII Regions (10, 20 microns):
Ap. J. (Letters), 193, L7, 1974.
Interferometry H{alpha}:
Astr. Ap., 1, 479, 1969.
Ap. J. Suppl., 27, No. 251, 1974.
SN1945A (in NGC 5195)
HAC No. 704, 1945.
IAU Circ. No. 1018, 1945.
HI 21cm:
Ap. J., 150, 8, 1967.
Astr. Ap., 6, 165, 1970.
Astr. Ap., 24, 59, 1973.
IAU Symp. 58, p.124, 1974.
Source R2 (A.&.A., 3, 292, 1969) rejected.
Radio Observations:
Ann. Ap., 26, 343, 1963.
Ap. J., 144, 553, 1966.
Ap. J. (Letters), 176, L101, 1972.
Sov. A.J., 13, 881, 1970.
Astr. Ap., 17, 468, 1972.
M.N.R.A.S., 159, 15P, 1972.
Nature, 241, 260, 1973.
Bull. A.A.S., 3, 36, 1971.
Bull. A.A.S., 3, 369, 1971.
Bull. A.A.S., 5, 29, 1973.
IAU Symp. No. 58, 376, 1974.
IAU Symp. No. 58, 385, 1974.
Proc. 1st European Ast. Meet.,Vol.3, 1, 1974.
Possible SN Remnant:
Astr. Ap., 26, 105, 1973.
"Supernovae & SN Remnants", Ap. & Space Sc. Lib., 45, 56, 1974.

11. 1959VV....C...0000V
Re:VV 001
= NGC 5194 (M51) + NGC 5195
Prototype S -> G.


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