Date and Time of the Query: 2022-01-26 T01:26:47 PST
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Notes for object MESSIER 051b

13 note(s) found in NED.

1. 2005ApJ...622..217W
Re:NGC 5195
NGC 5194 and NGC 5195.
NGC 5195, the smaller part of M51, has an independent (SBF) distance;
there appears to be no separate determination for NGC 5194, at least
of moderate to high quality. I have assigned them the same distance.
Normally I strenuously avoid anything like this "companion" or
"member of the same group" argument for distance, but in this case
there appears to be no choice. Note that NGC 5194 is not used in any
peculiar velocity calculations, only in those of the luminosity

2. 2002A&A...386...60G
Re:NGC 5195
6.2 NGC 5195
In the case of NGC 5195 we observe extended X-ray emission
peaking ~5" away from the optical (UV) center of the galaxy.
In particular, the X-ray emission peaks at {alpha}(2000)=13h29'59.5",
{delta}(2000)=+47^deg^15'57" while the UV nuclear coordinates are
{alpha}(2000)=13h29'59.2",{delta}(2000)=+47^deg^15'59" (Maoz et al.
1996). The coordinates of the nucleus in the radio are
{alpha}(2000)=13h29'59.5", {delta}(2000)=+47^deg^15'57" according
to the NASA Extragalactic Database, (based on VLA observations by
Ho & Ulvestad 2001), coincident with the X-ray peak (offset 0.1" ).
Given the limited photon statistics it is impossible to discriminate
whether this peak corresponds to an additional point source. The
nuclear X-ray source has 10 counts (0.5-7 keV) in a 2 region
(assuming it is pointlike), translating to a luminosity of
L_2-10 keV_ ~ 2x10^38^ erg s^-1^. Thus it contributes only a small
fraction of the total galaxy X-ray emission. The brightest source
has a luminosity of L_2-10 keV_ ~ 3x10^38^ erg s^-1^ while strong
diffuse X-ray emission can be clearly seen up to 40" (1 kpc) with
L_2-10 keV_ ~ 10^39^ erg s^-1^. Note that the derived nuclear
luminosity in the case of NGC 5195 lies above the upper limit of
Ho et al. (2001). This discrepancy is probably explained by the
different nuclear positions used by us and Ho et al. (2001). Indeed,
in the case of NGC 5195, Ho et al. (2001) use the optical nuclear
coordinates from the POSS plate while we are using the coordinates
of the central X-ray source (which we assume to be coincident with
the radio nucleus within the errors of the Chandra astrometry).

3. 1999AJ....118.2331V
Re:NGC 5195
A single 230s F547M image and a pair of 700 s F218W images is
available for NGC 5195. We used the nuclear offset position for the
SN I 1945A (6" west and 4" south) from the online Asiago catalog. Dust
lanes cut across the diffuse starlight in the SN environment. The
deeper F218W image is completely blank in this field, indicating no
detectable UV emission from stars or nebulae in this environment and
implying either a possible lack of recent star formation or appreciable
extinction, or both. The extinction toward NGC 5195 has been estimated
to be between A_V_ = 1.3 (Thronson, Rubin, & Ksir 1991) and A_V_ = 2.0
(Smith et al. 1990), at least partly because of dust from the arm of
NGC 5194 obscuring the nucleus of NGC 5195 (Zwicky 1957; Van Dyk 1987).
Based on the environmental evidence, it is not certain to which subclass
SN 1945A belongs; however, its probable lack of association with massive
star formation suggests a SN Ia.

4. 1998ApJ...496..133B
Re:NGC 5195
NGC 5195.--This galaxy has been classified both as an amorphous irregular (I0)
and as type SB. The LINER classification is uncertain, as the [O I] and [O III]
lines are extremely weak.

5. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 5195
Hubble Atlas, p. 26
SB0_1_ pec
Feb 13/14, 1950
30 min
NGC 5195 is outside the classification
system. Its form is undoubtedly affected, at some
level, by the encounter with M51. The type
assigned here is based on a guess as to the
luminosity profile if the overlying dust pattern
were removed.
The description in the Hubble Atlas (p. 26)
suggests that the morphology has similarities to
the Amorphous class (panels 333-340), which
includes M82 and NGC 3077.
Color-subtraction images of M51 and NGC
5195 were given by Zwicky (1955).

6. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 5195
[With] NGC 5194 [=] MESSIER 051
Hubble Atlas, pp. 26, 31
SB0_1_ pec
May 14/15, 1950
20 min
NGC 5194 (M51) is similar to NGC 1566
on the preceding panel. The surface brightness of
the two principal grand design arms is high, seen
best in the print on the right. This lighter print
shows the intricate but well-organized dust lanes
inside the two major inner arms. Dust is also
present in the inter-arm region, well silhouetted
against the background disk light at the rim of
the bright central bulge where the short dust
lanes emerge almost radially from the bulge
before breaking into the general spiral pattern.
The heavy print on the left shows the smooth
luminosity that envelops the companion whose
classification is outside the classification system,
although it has variously been classified as SB0
pec and Amorphous. The dust lanes from one of
the branched arms of M51 are silhouetted
against the companion, which obviously is behind
the arm that sweeps across its image.
The strength of the spiral pattern is well
shown in the composite photographs given by
Zwicky (1955), where the dust pattern is also
particularly well seen. The prevalent dust lanes
in the central bulge close to the nucleus are
shown in a greatly enlarged image of the center
on page 31 of the Hubble Atlas.
The distance to M51 is considerably smaller
than the distance to the Virgo Cluster, as judged
by the ease of resolution into brightest stars and
HII regions. The redshift of M51 is v_o = 541 km/s.
This value is consistent with the distance
modulus of m - M = 30, estimated from the ease
of resolution into stars.
This agreement shows that any random
(non-cosmological) velocity is near zero within
the distance of 10 Mpc from the Local Group.
This conclusion follows because the velocity-distance
ratio (i.e., the local value of the Hubble
constant) for M51 itself is 54 km/s Mpc^-1^ using
the M51 distance modulus of m - M = 30 (D = 10
Mpc), and noting that this local ratio is the same
as the global value of the Hubble constant
(Sandage and Tammann 1990).

7. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 5195
[With] NGC 5194 [=] M 51
Hubble Atlas, pp. 26, 31
SB0_1_ pec
March 30/31, 1962
103aE + H{alpha} interference
120 min
The H{alpha} interference filter image of
NGC 5194/5195 on the facing page illustrates why the
spiral pattern of this galaxy is of the grand
design, despite the superficial appearance of
multiple arms in the deep prints on panel 172. The
numerous HII regions outline the two principal
arms, which can each be traced for nearly a
whole revolution.
The most unusual feature of the pattern
concerns the arm that begins near but not on the
rim of the inner disk on the right-hand side of the
image here (the opposite side of the major axis
from NGC 5195). This principal arm is detached
from the rim, in contrast to its opposite mate,
which can be traced continuously inward until it
meets the rim.
The largest HII regions have cores that
resolve at the 10" level. This is consistent with
the calibration of HII linear core sizes in
luminosity class I-II late-type spirals (Sandage
and Tammann 1974a), putting M51 at a distance
of 10 Mpc, as described earlier (panel 172).

8. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 5195
= M51b
= Arp 85b
= VV 1b
= Holm 526b
= Kara[72] 379b
Interacting pair with NGC 5194 at 4.8 arcmin, connected with outer streamers.
Description, Structure, and Properties (NGC 5195):
Ap. J., 146, 593, 1966.
P.A.S.P., 85, 815, 1973.
A.J., 79, 1242, 1974.
HAC No. 704, 1945.
IAU Circ. No. 1018, 1945.

9. 1973UGC...C...0000N
Re:UGC 08494
VV 1b, Arp 85
I0 pec (de Vaucouleurs), Ir II (Holmberg)
See UGC 08493
SN 1945a

10. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 5195
= Holm 526b
Part of M51
Well-known interacting pair with NGC 5194 at 4.8 arcmin separation.
In the M101 Group.
B magnitude (source F) is NGC 5194+95.
Ap. J., 32, 34, 1910.
Ritchey, L'Evolution de Astrophographie..., S.A.F., Paris 1929.
Handbuch der Ap., 5, 2, 843, 1933.
Medd. Lund, I, 170, 1950.
P.A.S.P., 67, 232, 1955.
P.A.S.P., 75, 222, 1963.
Ap. J., 46, 206, 1917.
Ap. J., 50, 385, 1919.
Ap. J., 83, 424, 1936.
Ap. J., 91, 528, 1940.
Ap. J., 108, 415, 1948.
Sov. A.J., 32, 16, 1955.
Izv. Pulkovo, 20, No.156, 87, 1956.
Publ.Byurakan, XXV, 15, 1958.
Medd. Lund, I, 170, 1950.
Medd. Lund, II, 128, 1950.
Ap. J., 116, 66, 1952.
Ap. J., 135, 734, 1962.
HII Regions:
Observatory, 79, 54, 1959.
Zeit. fur Ap., 50, 168, 1960.
Radio Emission:
M.N.R.A.S., 122, 479, 1961.
Ap. J., 133, 322, 1961.
Handbuch der Phys. 53, 253, 1959.
HI Emission:
Ap. J., 126, 471, 1957.
P.A.S.P., 72, 368, 1960.
B.A.N., 15, 506, 314, 1961.
SN 1945 (in NGC 5195)
P.A.S.P., 57, 174, 1945.

11. 1961Hubbl.B...0000S
Re:NGC 5195
Part of M51
May 14/15, 1950
20 min
Enlarged 4.8X
NGC 5194 is one of the most magnificent spirals in the sky.
The entire spiral pattern is dominated by the dust lanes.
The two most opaque dust lanes lie on the inside of the
two brightest spiral arms. These two principal arms plus
their associated dust lanes wind into the central region
along an almost perfect spiral path. The dust arms are
very highly branched. Thin filaments break away from
the main dust path and cross the luminous arms almost
at right angles. Multiple secondary dust lanes exist
throughout the central lens. lndividual dust lanes of the
secondary pattern cannot be traced, but, rather, separate
segments exist which, when viewed with other segments,
form a rough spiral structure. The two main arms can be
traced for one and a half revolutions. Branching occurs
from one luminous arm to the other after about three-quarters
of a revolution. Each branch continues as a separate
arm, giving the spiral the appearance of having a
multiple-arm structure. Actually the multiplicity is not
like that of NGC 2841 or NGC 0488 because, in these, two main arms
cannot be traced but the multiple filaments begin
immediately at the periphery of the amorphous central lens.
The companion galaxy NGC 5195 is an Irr of the M82
type. The dust from the northeast arm of NGC 5194 crosses in
front of NGC 5195 on the eastern edge, but there are dust
patches internal to NGC 5195 itself on the west side. NGC 5195
closely resembles NGC 3077 (pg. 41) and M82. Holmberg
has found the international color index of the companion
to be 0.98. This is redder than his measures of M82 (CI
= 0.81) and NGC 3077 (CI = 0.68), but part of the redness may
be due to internal absorption. NGC 5194 is close enough
to us to be easily resolved into stars along the spiral arms.
Many HII regions are present. No clusters, either globular
or open, have been identified with certainty. The
distance modulus of these two galaxies must be about
(m-M) = 27.5, which is slightly more distant than the
M81 group.
Negative photographs of NGC 5194/5195 showing the
dust lanes in both galaxies to good advantage have been
published by Zwicky (Publ. A. S. P., 67, 232, 1955).
Also the characteristics of the two principal luminous
arms are well revealed by a superposition trick of negatives
taken in different colors. Plate IV of Zwicky's paper
shows the intricate dust lanes quite well.
The details of the dust lanes in the center of NGC 5194 are
of interest. The nuclear regions are shown on page 31 of
this Atlas.

12. 1959VV....C...0000V
Re:VV 001b
= NGC 5195
Note the appendage of VV 001b!
V = +650 km/sec;
V = +650 km/sec from H(alpha-delta)
(Page, T., Ap. J., 116, 63, 1952)
Yerkes Type: Ip-Ep

13. 1918PLicO..13....9C
Re:NGC 5195
NGC 5194 and NGC 5195
Vol VIII, Plate 47. The beautiful spiral M.51 in Canes Venatici. Including very
faint matter to the north of 5194, scareely visible in any of the very numerous
published reproductions, it covers an area about 12' x 6' in p.a. approximately
30^deg^. A sharp stellar nucleus in 5194, and the whorls show a multitude of
stellar condensations. The satellite nebula, 5195, has a bright, elongated
nucleus; its nebulosity is of a more diffuse type, without discernible spiral
structure, and with several rifts which suggest absorption effects. See Abs.
Eff. 22 s.n.

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