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Date and Time of the Query: 2022-01-26 T01:26:47 PST
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## Notes for object MESSIER 051b

### 13 note(s) found in NED.

 1. 2005ApJ...622..217W Re:NGC 5195 NGC 5194 and NGC 5195. NGC 5195, the smaller part of M51, has an independent (SBF) distance; there appears to be no separate determination for NGC 5194, at least of moderate to high quality. I have assigned them the same distance. Normally I strenuously avoid anything like this "companion" or "member of the same group" argument for distance, but in this case there appears to be no choice. Note that NGC 5194 is not used in any peculiar velocity calculations, only in those of the luminosity field. 2. 2002A&A...386...60G Re:NGC 5195 6.2 NGC 5195 In the case of NGC 5195 we observe extended X-ray emission peaking ~5" away from the optical (UV) center of the galaxy. In particular, the X-ray emission peaks at {alpha}(2000)=13h29'59.5", {delta}(2000)=+47^deg^15'57" while the UV nuclear coordinates are {alpha}(2000)=13h29'59.2",{delta}(2000)=+47^deg^15'59" (Maoz et al. 1996). The coordinates of the nucleus in the radio are {alpha}(2000)=13h29'59.5", {delta}(2000)=+47^deg^15'57" according to the NASA Extragalactic Database, (based on VLA observations by Ho & Ulvestad 2001), coincident with the X-ray peak (offset 0.1" ). Given the limited photon statistics it is impossible to discriminate whether this peak corresponds to an additional point source. The nuclear X-ray source has 10 counts (0.5-7 keV) in a 2 region (assuming it is pointlike), translating to a luminosity of L_2-10 keV_ ~ 2x10^38^ erg s^-1^. Thus it contributes only a small fraction of the total galaxy X-ray emission. The brightest source has a luminosity of L_2-10 keV_ ~ 3x10^38^ erg s^-1^ while strong diffuse X-ray emission can be clearly seen up to 40" (1 kpc) with L_2-10 keV_ ~ 10^39^ erg s^-1^. Note that the derived nuclear luminosity in the case of NGC 5195 lies above the upper limit of Ho et al. (2001). This discrepancy is probably explained by the different nuclear positions used by us and Ho et al. (2001). Indeed, in the case of NGC 5195, Ho et al. (2001) use the optical nuclear coordinates from the POSS plate while we are using the coordinates of the central X-ray source (which we assume to be coincident with the radio nucleus within the errors of the Chandra astrometry). 3. 1999AJ....118.2331V Re:NGC 5195 A single 230s F547M image and a pair of 700 s F218W images is available for NGC 5195. We used the nuclear offset position for the SN I 1945A (6" west and 4" south) from the online Asiago catalog. Dust lanes cut across the diffuse starlight in the SN environment. The deeper F218W image is completely blank in this field, indicating no detectable UV emission from stars or nebulae in this environment and implying either a possible lack of recent star formation or appreciable extinction, or both. The extinction toward NGC 5195 has been estimated to be between A_V_ = 1.3 (Thronson, Rubin, & Ksir 1991) and A_V_ = 2.0 (Smith et al. 1990), at least partly because of dust from the arm of NGC 5194 obscuring the nucleus of NGC 5195 (Zwicky 1957; Van Dyk 1987). Based on the environmental evidence, it is not certain to which subclass SN 1945A belongs; however, its probable lack of association with massive star formation suggests a SN Ia. 4. 1998ApJ...496..133B Re:NGC 5195 NGC 5195.--This galaxy has been classified both as an amorphous irregular (I0) and as type SB. The LINER classification is uncertain, as the [O I] and [O III] lines are extremely weak. 5. 1994CAG1..B...0000S Re:NGC 5195 Hubble Atlas, p. 26 SB0_1_ pec PH-57-MH Feb 13/14, 1950 103aO 30 min NGC 5195 is outside the classification system. Its form is undoubtedly affected, at some level, by the encounter with M51. The type assigned here is based on a guess as to the luminosity profile if the overlying dust pattern were removed. The description in the Hubble Atlas (p. 26) suggests that the morphology has similarities to the Amorphous class (panels 333-340), which includes M82 and NGC 3077. Color-subtraction images of M51 and NGC 5195 were given by Zwicky (1955). 6. 1994CAG1..B...0000S Re:NGC 5195 [With] NGC 5194 [=] MESSIER 051 Hubble Atlas, pp. 26, 31 SB0_1_ pec PH-201-MH May 14/15, 1950 103aO 20 min NGC 5194 (M51) is similar to NGC 1566 on the preceding panel. The surface brightness of the two principal grand design arms is high, seen best in the print on the right. This lighter print shows the intricate but well-organized dust lanes inside the two major inner arms. Dust is also present in the inter-arm region, well silhouetted against the background disk light at the rim of the bright central bulge where the short dust lanes emerge almost radially from the bulge before breaking into the general spiral pattern. The heavy print on the left shows the smooth luminosity that envelops the companion whose classification is outside the classification system, although it has variously been classified as SB0 pec and Amorphous. The dust lanes from one of the branched arms of M51 are silhouetted against the companion, which obviously is behind the arm that sweeps across its image. The strength of the spiral pattern is well shown in the composite photographs given by Zwicky (1955), where the dust pattern is also particularly well seen. The prevalent dust lanes in the central bulge close to the nucleus are shown in a greatly enlarged image of the center on page 31 of the Hubble Atlas. The distance to M51 is considerably smaller than the distance to the Virgo Cluster, as judged by the ease of resolution into brightest stars and HII regions. The redshift of M51 is v_o = 541 km/s. This value is consistent with the distance modulus of m - M = 30, estimated from the ease of resolution into stars. This agreement shows that any random (non-cosmological) velocity is near zero within the distance of 10 Mpc from the Local Group. This conclusion follows because the velocity-distance ratio (i.e., the local value of the Hubble constant) for M51 itself is 54 km/s Mpc^-1^ using the M51 distance modulus of m - M = 30 (D = 10 Mpc), and noting that this local ratio is the same as the global value of the Hubble constant (Sandage and Tammann 1990). 7. 1994CAG1..B...0000S Re:NGC 5195 [With] NGC 5194 [=] M 51 Hubble Atlas, pp. 26, 31 SB0_1_ pec PH-3922-S March 30/31, 1962 103aE + H{alpha} interference 120 min The H{alpha} interference filter image of NGC 5194/5195 on the facing page illustrates why the spiral pattern of this galaxy is of the grand design, despite the superficial appearance of multiple arms in the deep prints on panel 172. The numerous HII regions outline the two principal arms, which can each be traced for nearly a whole revolution. The most unusual feature of the pattern concerns the arm that begins near but not on the rim of the inner disk on the right-hand side of the image here (the opposite side of the major axis from NGC 5195). This principal arm is detached from the rim, in contrast to its opposite mate, which can be traced continuously inward until it meets the rim. The largest HII regions have cores that resolve at the 10" level. This is consistent with the calibration of HII linear core sizes in luminosity class I-II late-type spirals (Sandage and Tammann 1974a), putting M51 at a distance of 10 Mpc, as described earlier (panel 172). 8. 1976RC2...C...0000d Re:NGC 5195 = M51b = Arp 85b = VV 1b = Holm 526b = Kara[72] 379b Interacting pair with NGC 5194 at 4.8 arcmin, connected with outer streamers. Description, Structure, and Properties (NGC 5195): Ap. J., 146, 593, 1966. P.A.S.P., 85, 815, 1973. A.J., 79, 1242, 1974. SN1945A HAC No. 704, 1945. IAU Circ. No. 1018, 1945. 9. 1973UGC...C...0000N Re:UGC 08494 VV 1b, Arp 85 I0 pec (de Vaucouleurs), Ir II (Holmberg) See UGC 08493 SN 1945a 10. 1964RC1...C...0000d Re:NGC 5195 = Holm 526b Part of M51 Well-known interacting pair with NGC 5194 at 4.8 arcmin separation. In the M101 Group. B magnitude (source F) is NGC 5194+95. Photograph: Ap. J., 32, 34, 1910. Ritchey, L'Evolution de Astrophographie..., S.A.F., Paris 1929. Handbuch der Ap., 5, 2, 843, 1933. Medd. Lund, I, 170, 1950. P.A.S.P., 67, 232, 1955. P.A.S.P., 75, 222, 1963. Photometry: Ap. J., 46, 206, 1917. Ap. J., 50, 385, 1919. Ap. J., 83, 424, 1936. Ap. J., 91, 528, 1940. Ap. J., 108, 415, 1948. Sov. A.J., 32, 16, 1955. Izv. Pulkovo, 20, No.156, 87, 1956. Publ.Byurakan, XXV, 15, 1958. Medd. Lund, I, 170, 1950. Medd. Lund, II, 128, 1950. Spectrum: Ap. J., 116, 66, 1952. Ap. J., 135, 734, 1962. HII Regions: Observatory, 79, 54, 1959. Zeit. fur Ap., 50, 168, 1960. Radio Emission: M.N.R.A.S., 122, 479, 1961. Ap. J., 133, 322, 1961. Handbuch der Phys. 53, 253, 1959. HI Emission: Ap. J., 126, 471, 1957. P.A.S.P., 72, 368, 1960. B.A.N., 15, 506, 314, 1961. SN 1945 (in NGC 5195) P.A.S.P., 57, 174, 1945. 11. 1961Hubbl.B...0000S Re:NGC 5195 Part of M51 Irr PH-201-MH May 14/15, 1950 103aO 20 min Enlarged 4.8X NGC 5194 is one of the most magnificent spirals in the sky. The entire spiral pattern is dominated by the dust lanes. The two most opaque dust lanes lie on the inside of the two brightest spiral arms. These two principal arms plus their associated dust lanes wind into the central region along an almost perfect spiral path. The dust arms are very highly branched. Thin filaments break away from the main dust path and cross the luminous arms almost at right angles. Multiple secondary dust lanes exist throughout the central lens. lndividual dust lanes of the secondary pattern cannot be traced, but, rather, separate segments exist which, when viewed with other segments, form a rough spiral structure. The two main arms can be traced for one and a half revolutions. Branching occurs from one luminous arm to the other after about three-quarters of a revolution. Each branch continues as a separate arm, giving the spiral the appearance of having a multiple-arm structure. Actually the multiplicity is not like that of NGC 2841 or NGC 0488 because, in these, two main arms cannot be traced but the multiple filaments begin immediately at the periphery of the amorphous central lens. The companion galaxy NGC 5195 is an Irr of the M82 type. The dust from the northeast arm of NGC 5194 crosses in front of NGC 5195 on the eastern edge, but there are dust patches internal to NGC 5195 itself on the west side. NGC 5195 closely resembles NGC 3077 (pg. 41) and M82. Holmberg has found the international color index of the companion to be 0.98. This is redder than his measures of M82 (CI = 0.81) and NGC 3077 (CI = 0.68), but part of the redness may be due to internal absorption. NGC 5194 is close enough to us to be easily resolved into stars along the spiral arms. Many HII regions are present. No clusters, either globular or open, have been identified with certainty. The distance modulus of these two galaxies must be about (m-M) = 27.5, which is slightly more distant than the M81 group. Negative photographs of NGC 5194/5195 showing the dust lanes in both galaxies to good advantage have been published by Zwicky (Publ. A. S. P., 67, 232, 1955). Also the characteristics of the two principal luminous arms are well revealed by a superposition trick of negatives taken in different colors. Plate IV of Zwicky's paper shows the intricate dust lanes quite well. The details of the dust lanes in the center of NGC 5194 are of interest. The nuclear regions are shown on page 31 of this Atlas. 12. 1959VV....C...0000V Re:VV 001b = NGC 5195 Note the appendage of VV 001b! F5 V = +650 km/sec; V = +650 km/sec from H(alpha-delta) (Page, T., Ap. J., 116, 63, 1952) Yerkes Type: Ip-Ep 13. 1918PLicO..13....9C Re:NGC 5195 NGC 5194 and NGC 5195 Vol VIII, Plate 47. The beautiful spiral M.51 in Canes Venatici. Including very faint matter to the north of 5194, scareely visible in any of the very numerous published reproductions, it covers an area about 12' x 6' in p.a. approximately 30^deg^. A sharp stellar nucleus in 5194, and the whorls show a multitude of stellar condensations. The satellite nebula, 5195, has a bright, elongated nucleus; its nebulosity is of a more diffuse type, without discernible spiral structure, and with several rifts which suggest absorption effects. See Abs. Eff. 22 s.n.

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