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Notes for object NGC 1097

28 note(s) found in NED.


1. 2008MNRAS.385..553D
Re:NGC 1097
NGC 1097: This large SBb galaxy exhibits a bright circumnuclear ring
with an associated steep velocity gradient. Radial streaming motions
from the nuclear ring to the galactic centre and a nuclear spiral are
believed to be part of a mechanism by which gas is fuelled to the
supermassive black hole (Fathi et al. 2006). Those large streaming
motions are most likely responsible for the steep velocity gradient (up
to nearly 300 km s^-1^, see Fig. C1) seen towards the centre. The PA of
the bar is aligned with both the galaxy's PA and companion, NGC 1097 A.
The H I gas is distributed fairly symmetrically in the prominent spiral
arms and in the bar. Non-circular motions are found in and around the
bar as shown by the S-shaped distortion of the H I velocities and the
spiral arms display large streaming motions indicating the presence of
strong density waves (Ondrechen, van der Hulst & Hummel 1989). CO
emission is detected mostly in the nuclear ring and the high inferred
H_2_ mass can be explained by the secular action of the bar enhanced by
the interaction with NGC 1097 A (Gerin, Combes & Nakai 1988).

2. 2007ApJ...671.1388D
Re:NGC 1097
A2.4. NGC 1097 In NGC 1097, the first evidence for recent star formation near
the nucleus was in the form of a reduction in the stellar velocity dispersion.
Emsellem et al. (2001) proposed that this could be explained by the presence of
a dynamically cold nuclear disk that had recently formed stars. Direct
observations of a spiral structure in the central few arcseconds, from K-band
imaging (Prieto et al. 2005) and [N II] streaming motions (Fathi et al. 2006),
have since confirmed this idea. However, some issues remain open, such as why
there are three spiral arms rather than the usual two, and why gas along one of
them appears to be outflowing. Our data, at a resolution of 0.25" measured from
the H-band nonstellar continuum, also reveal the same spiral structure. Indeed,
we find that it is traced by the morphology of the CO band head absorption, as
well as by the 2.12 {mu}m H_2_(1-0) S(1) line. Interestingly, 1-0 S(1) emission
is stronger where the stellar features are weaker. This suggests that
obscuration by gas and dust plays an important role. Figure 17 shows that an
r^1/4^ law, typical of stellar bulges, with effective radius R_eff_ is a good
fit to the stellar radial profile at 0.5" < r M 1.8". It therefore seems
reasonable to argue that at these radii it is only the gas that lies in a disk.
In this picture the spiral structure in the stellar continuum arises solely due
to extinction of the stars behind the disk. Extrapolating this fit, convolved
with the PSF, to the nucleus indicates that at r < 0.5" there is at least 25%
excess stellar continuum. There could be much more, given that it coincides with
a change in the dominant kinematics.

3. 2007ApJ...671.1388D
Re:NGC 1097
For NGC 1097 we parameterized the kinematics of the gas and stars
quantitatively using kinemetry. Based on the uniformity of the velocity field,
we made the simplifying assumption that across the central 4" the gas lies in a
single plane whose center is coincident with the peak of the nonstellar
emission. We were then able to derive the position angle and inclination of the
disk (see {section} 2). The 2D kinematics of the stars is traced via the CO(2-0)
absorption band head, and that of the gas through the 1-0 S(1) emission line.
These independently yielded similar parameters: both gave a position angle of
-49{degrees}, and their inclinations were 43{degrees} and 32{degrees},
respectively. These are fully consistent with values found by other authors
(Storchi-Bergmann et al. 2003; Fathi et al. 2006). The resulting rotation curves
and velocity dispersions are shown in Figure 18. The residuals, which can be
seen in the velocity field of the gas but not the stars, and their relation to
the spiral structure described above will be discussed elsewhere (R. I. Davies
et al. 2008, in preparation). The important result here is that at our spatial
resolution, we find that the central stellar dispersion is {sigma}_*_ = 100 km
s^-1^, less than the surrounding 150 km s^-1^ and also less than that in the
seeing-limited spectra of Emsellem et al. (2001). In the same region we find
that the rotation velocity of the gas starts to decrease rapidly, and its
dispersion increases from {sigma}_gas_ ~ 40 to ~80 km s^-1^.
Figure 18 also shows that while the kinematics of the stars and gas is rather
different at large (>0.5") radii, it is remarkably similar at radii <0.5". This
certainly provides a strong indication that in the nuclear region the stars and
gas are coupled, most likely in a (perhaps thick) disk, and that the stars in
this disk, which are bright and hence presumably young, give rise to the excess
stellar continuum observed. Evidence for a recent starburst has been found by
Storchi-Bergmann et al. (2005) through optical and UV spectra. They argued that
a number of features they observed could only arise from a 10^6^ M_sun_
instantaneous starburst, which occurred a few million years ago and is reddened
by A_V_ = 3 mag of extinction. Using STARS, we have modeled this starburst as a
10^6^ M_sun_ burst beginning 8 Myr ago with an exponential decay timescale of 1
Myr. The age we have used is a little older to keep the Br{gamma} equivalent
width low, and at this age, the model predicts W_Br{gamma} = 4 A. As Figures 19
and 20 show, the observed Br{gamma} is weak, although perhaps slightly resolved.
Corrected for the nonstellar continuum, we measure only W_Br{gamma} ~ 1 A.
However, the bulge population may account for a significant fraction of the
K-band stellar continuum. Correcting also for this could increase W_Br{gamma} to
2-5 A, consistent with that of the model, assuming that the Br{gamma} is
associated with the starburst rather than the AG N. To within a factor of a few,
the scale of the model starburst is also consistent with that measured: In the
central 0.5" we measure a Br{gamma} flux of 2 * 10^-19^ W m^-2^, compared to
that predicted by the model of 5 x 10^-19^ W m^-2^. Given the uncertainties
(factors of a few) both in the parameters of the starburst model and also in the
corrections we have applied to the data, we consider this a good agreement.

4. 2007ApJ...671.1388D
Re:NGC 1097
We cannot constrain the starburst further due to its compactness.
Storchi-Bergmann et al. (2005) found that it was occurring in the central 0.2",
whereas our resolution is only 0.25". The Br{gamma} emission is confined to the
central 0.4"-0.5", although its size is hard to measure due to its weakness with
respect to the stellat absorption features. In this region K-band stellar
luminosity is 4.5 * 10^6^ L_sun_. To estimate the dynamical mass, we use the
mean kinematics of the stars and gas, i.e., V_rot_= 40 km s^-1^ (corrected for
inclination) and {sigma} = 90 km s^-1^ (this is the central value, which is
least biased by bulge stars), yielding 1.4 * 10^8^ M_sun_. This is actually
dominated by the black hole, which has a mass of (1.2+/-2) x 10^8^M_sun_(Lewis &
Eracleous 2006). The difference between these implies a mass of gas and stars of
~2 * 10^7^ M-sun_, although with a large uncertainty. The associated
mass-to-light ratio is M/L_K_~4 . On its own, this implies that over the
relatively large area that it encompasses, the maximum characteristic age for
the star formation is a few hundred million years. If one speculates that star
formation has been occurring sporadically for this timescale, then the starburst
seen by Storchi-Bergmann et al. (2005) is the most recent active episode. In
order to make a rough estimate of the supernova rate in the central region, we
make use of measurements reported by Hummel et al. (1987). They find an
unresolved component (size <0.1") with 5 GHz flux density 3.5+/- 0.3 mJy, but at
lower resolution there is a 4.1 +/- 0.3 mJy component of size 1". As discussed
in {section} 3, we assume that the difference (albeit with only marginal
significance) of 0.6+/- 0.4 mJy is due to star formation in the central region,
which implies a supernova rate of 6 * 10^-4^ yr^-1^ and hence 10^10
{nu}_SN_/L_K_ ~ 1.3 , a value consistent with rather more recent star formation.
Indeed, when compared to Figure 4, this and the low W_Br{gamma}_ imply a young
age and short star formation timescale. For T_SF_ Myr the age is 60-70 Myr; for
an instantaneous burst of star formation, the age would be ~10 Myr, broadly
consistent with that of Storchi-Bergmann et al. (2005). Thus, although our data
do not uniquely constrain the age of the starburst in the nucleus of NGC 1097,
they do indicate that recent star formation has occurred, and they are
consistent with a very young compact starburst similar to that derived from
optical and UV data.

5. 2006A&A...457...61R
Re:NGC 1097
NGC 1097. Classified originally as LINER on the basis of its optical
spectrum (Keel 1983), NGC 1097 was later reclassified by
Storchi-Bergmann (1997) as a Seyfert 1 galaxy after observing the
appearance of broad Balmer line emission and a featureless blue
continuum. It has a bright star-forming ring of diameter approx 20",
with the nucleus contributing negligibly to the integrated H{alpha} and
Br{gamma} emission, as well as to the total MIR emission (Kotilainen et
al. 2000). The NIR spectrum resembles anything but a Seyfert 1 galaxy.
From 0.8 microns to 1.7 microns, a poor emission line spectrum is
detected, with [S III] 9068, 9531 Angstrom the most prominent ones,
although intrinsically weak. Absorption bands and lines dominate the
NIR region, confirming that the nucleus contributes little to the
integrated emission line spectrum. In the K-band, the only emission
lines detected are those of molecular hydrogen. The 2.3 microns CO
absorption bandheads dominate the red edge of the spectrum. Similar re
sults are found from the 1.5-2.5 microns spectrum reported by Reunanen
et al. (2002).

6. 2005ApJ...633..105D
Re:NGC 1097
1. NGC 1097-The classification of NGC 1097 as a Seyfert 1 is based on its broad
H{alpha} line (Storchi-Bergmann et al. 1993) and hard X-ray excess (Iyomoto et
al. 1996), although the AGN has low luminosity. The black hole mass is
nevertheless expected to be 10^7-^-10^8^ M_sun_, based on the stellar velocity
dispersion and M_BH_-{sigma} relation (Storchi-Bergmann et al. 1993)-an order
of magnitude more massive than that in the very active NGC 7469 (Collier et al.
1998). Monitoring the broad H{alpha} over a time span of 11 yr,
Storchi-Bergmann et al. (2003) indicated that the luminosity decreased to
one-third of its initial value over this period. During our observations there
was no evidence of broad Br{gamma}, and assuming a velocity width of 7500 km
s^-1^ FWHM (similar to that for the total broad H{alpha} line), we can impose a
3 {sigma} limit of 8.5 x 10^-19^ W m^-2^ (1" aperture), just consistent with
the broad H{alpha} flux measured toward the end of 2001 if extinction is
negligible. However, it is plausible and more likely that the broad component
continued dimming toward the middle of 2002, when our data were taken. The
narrow Br{gamma} is also weak in the nucleus, with a flux of 7.6 x 10^-19^ W
m^-2^ in a 1" aperture, indicating that there is little current star formation.
The last episode may have ceased relatively recently, as suggested by the very
deep absorption features, which even with the use of supergiant templates we
have difficulty matching. NGC 1097 therefore offers an excellent opportunity to
study the distribution and dynamics of the stars in the region close around a
(quiescent) AGN. Our detection of strong H_2_ 1-0 S(1) in the nuclear region is
in stark contrast to the lack of such emission in the spectrum of Sosa-Brito et
al. (2001), and we can offer no explanation for this difference.
NGC 1097 exhibits a very clear and well-studied circumnuclear ring (Gerin et
al. 1988; Storchi-Bergmann et al. 1996; Kotilainen et al. 2000), which is also
apparent in our data from the increase in Br{gamma} flux at radii of 8"-9".

7. 2004A&A...419..501F
Re:NGC 1097
NGC 1097- This strongly barred Liner/Seyfert galaxy has a bright
star-forming ring of diameter {approx}20" (e.g. Hummel et al. 1987;
Kotilainen et al. 2000). The nucleus, which is resolved and separable
from the ring in our maps, contributes negligibly to the integrated
H{alpha} and Br{gamma} emission (Storchi-Bergman et al. 1996; Kotilainen
et al. 2000), as well as to the total MIR emission. We used an aperture
of 45", encompassing the whole emission from the ring (Roussel et
al. 2001b). We corrected for the average extinction based on the results
of Kotilainen et al. (2000) derived from H{alpha}/Br{gamma} ratios. We
recomputed the weighting by the Br{gamma} luminosity, with adjustments for
the [N II] contribution to their H{alpha} data and the different extinction
laws adopted.

8. 2004A&A...415..941E
Re:NGC 1097
NGC 1097: Shaw et al. (1993) and Buta & Crocker (1993). Outer-bar
measurements are from the 2MASS H-band image, except that {epsilon}_max_
is from the I-band ellipse fits of Wozniak et al. (1995), which are
higher resolution, and L_bar_ is from spiral arms trailing off the ends
of the bar, as seen in the 7 micron ISO image (Roussel et al. 2001,
available via NED). Inner-bar measurements are based on those of
Quillen et al. (1995) and the ellipse fits in Shaw et al. (1993) and
Friedli et al. (1996). Outer-disk PA and inclination are from H I and
emission-line kinematics (Ondrechen et al. 1989; Storchi-Bergman et al.
1996).

9. 2002ApJS..140..303L
Re:NGC 1097
NGC 1097 (Fig. 41).-The spectrum indicates an O-star population. O VI
and N V are in emission, and Si IV as well as C IV have broad,
blueshifted absorption. We find an age of about 10 Myr. Apparently, the
HUT aperture includes several bright star clusters and H II regions in
the vicinity of the LINER nucleus. The high metallicity of NGC 1097 is
evident from the strong B star blanketing longward of 1500 {Angstrom}.
This galaxy has one of the largest reddening corrections in the sample.
The agreement between the dereddened spectrum and the continuum model
suggests that the mean obscuration law of equation (14) is appropriate
for NGC 1097.

10. 2002ApJS..139....1T
Re:NGC 1097
NGC 1097 (L2/S1.5). An analysis of the ASCA data is presented in lyomoto
et al. (1996). The ROSAT HRI image shows a distinct nucleus and weak
extended emission due to a circumnuclear star-forming ring
(Perez-Olea & Colina 1996). A recent Chandra observation shows that
the hard X-ray emission is dominated by the nucleus (Y. Terashima &
A. S. Wilson 2001, private communication).

11. 2002A&A...391...83B
Re:NGC 1097
NGC 1097 (Fig. 5) has one of the intrinsically longest bars in
our sample (~16 kpc) and is the most interesting galaxy
concerning radio polarization. The nucleus (Seyfert 1 type,
Storchi-Bergmann et al. 1997) and the circumnuclear starburst
ring of 17" (~1.3 kpc) radius (see Hummel et al. 1987;
Gerin et al. 1988) are prominent in total radio intensity.
Polarized radio emission in this region reveals a spiral
magnetic field extending from the circumnuclear ring towards
the centre (Beck et al. 1999). NGC 1097 also features strong
polarized emission upstream of the shock fronts (identified
with the dust lanes offset from the bar major axis), where the
regular magnetic field makes a large angle with the bar's major
axis and then, upstream of the dust lanes, turns to become
aligned with the bar. This strong turning of polarization
vectors leads to beam depolarization, so that the upstream
regions appear as two elongated minima of polarized emission
in Fig. 25. The enhancement of total and polarized emission in
the dust lanes is only moderate and much weaker than the gas
density enhancement (Beck et al. 1999). Extended polarized
emission with apparent magnetic field orientation perpendicular
to the optical spiral arms (Fig. 25) is visible in the northeast
and southwest. The spiral arms outside the bar region exhibit
only weak radio emission. Faraday rotation between {lambda}22 cm
and {lambda}6 cm is generally weak, with |RM|<=10 rad m^-2^,
except in the central region where RM varies between -35 rad m^-2^
and +35 rad m^-2^. RM between {lambda}6 cm and {lambda}3 cm is
generally higher, it varies between +160 rad m^-2^ in the upstream
region and -150 rad m^-2^ in the downstream region of the southern
bar, and between +200 rad m^-2^ and -170 rad m^-2^ near the centre.
The increase of RM with decreasing wavelength is typical for spiral
galaxies (Sokoloff et al. 1998).

12. 2002A&A...389...68G
Re:NGC 1097
NGC 1097: our two methods agree well for the values of IA, but
the discrepancy is higher for the PA. The first method gives
rounder arms, so its PA and IA values must have been highly
influenced by a Stocke's effect (Stocke 1955), while the second
gives a rounder central part. These latter values agree very
well with the HI kinematical values from Ondrechen (1989) as
well as with three of the photometrical estimates, so we will
adopt the values from the second method.

13. 2001ApJS..136...61S
Re:NGC 1097
5.6. NGC 1097 (=Arp 77)
NGC 1097 was classified originally as LINER on the basis of its optical
spectra (Keel 1983), but Storchi-Bergmann, Wilson, & Baldwin (1996b)
reclassified it as a Seyfert 1 galaxy after observing the appearance of
broad Balmer line emission and a featureless blue continuum. Br{gamma}
nuclear emission is not detected by Kotilainen et al. (2000) or in our
spectrum of the nucleus, while H_2_ emission is prominent in their
spectrum as well as ours. In the K-band image of Kotilainen et al. (2000)
a ringlike structure 10" from the nucleus (outside our field of view) is
clearly seen. This region corresponds to a ring of active star formation
and appears to be located between two inner Lindblad resonances (see also
Storchi-Bergmann et al. 1996b). Perez-Olea & Colina (1996) present
high-resolution ROSAT X-ray image of the nucleus and found that the
circumnuclear ring accounts for 20% of its total X-ray luminosity. Hard
X-ray emission from a pointlike source is reported by Iyomoto et al.
(1996) suggesting the existence of a low-luminosity AGN. The nucleus of
NGC 1097 also exhibits a complex system of jets discovered by
Wolstencroft & Zealey (1975) which are 15" wide and extend 5'-19' from the
nucleus.

14. 2001A&A...368...52E
Re:NGC 1097
NGC 1097, Seyfert 2, 1" ~ 81 pc: The luminosity profile along Slit 1 falls
down to a plateau near the end of the nuclear bar, and then decreases
longward ~10" with a roughly exponential law characteristic of a disc
population. This is fully consistent with the 10.3" semi-major axis extent
of the nuclear bar measured by Friedli et al. (1996). The luminosity along
Slit 2 follows the same behaviour, but with a bump just after the plateau
due to its well-known circumnuclear clumpy ring (actually a tightly wound
spiral structure in the NIR; e.g. Kotilainen et al. 2000).
The velocity profile along Slit 1 is quite flat, reflecting the fact
that it is nearly perpendicular to the kinematical line of nodes (which we
assume to be given by the major-axis photometric position angle of the
outer disc of the galaxy). The global shape of the rotation curve along
Slit 2 roughly resembles the H{alpha} velocity curve derived (along a
position angle of 130^deg^) by Storchi-Bergmann et al. (1996). The maximum
stellar velocity along Slit 2 (V_max,2_ ~ 210 km s^-1^) is reached in the
circumnuclear ring, similarly to the ionised gas for which Storchi-Bergmann
et al. (1996) measures maxima of V_max_[H{alpha}] ~ 225 km s^-1^. We thus
measure a roughly constant stellar velocity gradient of
~290 km s^-1^ kpc^-1^. Our good spatial resolution however allows to reveal
a richer velocity structure. Inside R = 5", the velocity profile along
Slit 2 exhibits an S-shape with nearly flat ends. Those plateaus in the
velocity correspond to maxima in the dispersion profile
({sigma}_2_ ~ 220 km s^-1^), whereas the inner part is characterised by a
quite surprising drop in the dispersion (down to {sigma}_2_ ~ 145 km s^-1^
at the centre). Velocities increase almost linearly from a radius of 5"
reaching a maximum near the edge of the circumnuclear ring at ~9", where
they then starts to decrease. Outside , the dispersion decreases outwards
down to ~95 km s^-1^. Note that the dispersion drop and local maxima in the
dispersion are also present along Slit 1.

15. 1999A&AS..137..457M
Re:NGC 1097
NGC 1097: Originally classified as a LINER by the optical emission-line
spectrum, the recent appearance of broad Balmer-line emission and a
featureless blue continuum implies that it has a Seyfert 1 nucleus
(Storchi-Bergmann et al. 1993). The radio structure (Fig. 1) comprises
an unresolved point source and the well-known star-forming ring. A
detailed radio study of this object was performed by Hummel et al.
(1987) and shows an overall steep spectrum ({alpha} between -0.6 and
-0.8) and an inverted spectrum ({alpha}= 1.0) for the nuclear component.
The flux of the nucleus measured from our data is very similar to that
found by Hummel et al. (1987). An upper limit to the core flux
(S_13 cm_ < 5 mJy) has been obtained from PTI observations by Sadler et
al. (1995, hereafter S95).

16. 1997A&A...319...33A
Re:NGC 1097
NGC 1097 This powerful radio and X-ray Seyfert has the most extensive system of
optical jets originating from it of any known galaxy. (Wolstencroft and Zealy
1975; Arp 1976; Lorre 1978). X-ray observations with the Einstein telescope
revealed strong X-ray sources in the region of the strongest optical jets.
Optical identifications were made and resulted in spectroscopic confirmation of
six quasars (Wolstencroft et al. 1983). Later a 2.85x2.85 degree field around
NGC 1097 was searched with objective prism Schmidt plates and 31 quasars were
confirmed with slit spectra (Arp, Wolstencroft and He 1984). The density of
quasars was in excess of background, extended to about one degree radius from
the galaxy and reached a factor of >20 excess in a region centered between the
two jets.
There are no conspicuous pairings of X-ray sources present in the newer ROSAT
observations so no additional X-ray maps are shown here. (Although there is an
alignment of X-ray sources over the larger ROSAT survey area - observations by
Arp in preparation). But it is important to note that the previously published
results (1983, 1984) had already established clearly that there are a number of
quasars associated at <=1^deg^ with this particularly active Seyfert galaxy.
Hence, more than a decade earlier, an independent investigation on this one
Seyfert had established the same association of quasars that we are finding
here for Seyferts as a class.

17. 1996ApJS..105...93E
Re:NGC 1097
4.3. NGC 1097
Although originally classified as a LINER on the basis of the optical
emission-line spectrum (Keel 1983b), the recent appearance of broad Balmer-line
emission and a featureless blue continuum implies that NGC 1097 contains a
Seyfert 1 nucleus (Storchi-Bergmann, Baldwin, & Wilson 1993). A nuclear ring of
H II regions delineates a massive burst of star formation that may be related
to the inner Lindblad resonance (e.g., Hummel, Van Der Hulst, & Keel 1987;
Storchi-Bergmann et al. 1995). Storchi-Bergmann, Calzetti, & Kinney (1994)
determine from the UV to near-IR spectral energy distribution of the starburst
ring that the metal abundances in the gas are enhanced slightly relative to the
solar values. Gaseous abundances for individual H II regions both in the ring
and further out along the bar, as well as the gradient of oxygen abundance, are
obtained by Storchi-Bergmann et al. (1995).
Numerous complexes of giant H II regions are associated with the bar beyond
~50" from the nucleus. They are readily visible tracers of the structure of
the spiral arms from where the arms connect to the ends of the bar to well
beyond 3' radius. Outside the nucleus starburst ring, the brightest and largest
H II region complexes are located near the regions in which the bar and the
inner spiral arms intersect. The star formation rate in these complexes may be
enhanced through the interaction of radial gas flows along the bar with the
rotational flows in the spiral structure.

18. 1996ApJS..103...81C
Re:NGC 1097
NGC 1097.--Seyfert 1. High-resolution VLA maps of the circumnuclear starburst
ring at 1.465 and 4.885 GHz in Hummel, van der Hulst, & Keel (1987).

19. 1996A&AS..118..461F
Re:NGC 1097
NGC 1097. Our BVRI profiles obtained in Paper I were similar to those obtained
in the K-band by Shaw et al. (1993) and clearly indicated the presence of two
bars separated by a ring. However, the present data in JHK-bands give a
completely new view of the nuclear region. Indeed, the circumnuclear ring is
not closed. Like Quillen et al. (1995), we have found a small secondary bar
ended by a trailing spiral-like structure which seems to be an extension of the
dust lanes. The isophote twists just outside the end of the secondary bar are
due to this spiral-like structure. The resolution of Shaw et al. (1993)
(1.24"/pixel) did not allow them to clearly detect this peculiar structure
although the isophote shape of their Fig. 1a suggests some spiral structure at
the secondary bar end. Knapen et al. (1995) have found a similar feature in
NGC 4321 but in that case additional leading spiral arms are also present. Dust
prevents the detection of the secondary bar on HST V-images(Barth et al. 1995).
The nature of the spiral-like structure is yet unclear. Is it a ring crossed by
two dust lanes in such a way that it appears not closed or does the star
formation occur on an actual spiral density wave (giving rise to a "hotspot"
look to the ring in the K-band)? The western dust lane, interpreted by Quillen
et al. (1995) to be on the near side of the galaxy, appears on the colour map
but is more difficult to see on the K-image. Moreover, the spiral-like pattern
has also been observed in mid-infrared (Telesco et al. 1993) and radio
observations (Hummel et al. 1987). However, as the dust is also visible on the
K-band in the region of the primary bar, we cannot exclude that, even at
2.2 microns, isophotes could be distorted by the darkening. Note that due to
poor weather conditions during the observations, we are not able to display any
colour maps in Fig. 1.

20. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 1097
Hubble Atlas, p. 46
RSBbc(s)I-II
H-2025-H
Oct 21/22, 1938
Agfa Blue
90 min
The reproduction here is from the same
original Mount Wilson 100-inch plate that was
used for the print in the Hubble Atlas. In the
meantime the plate has suffered surface scratches
that may not have been completely removed in
the reproduction here.
The central region in NGC 1097 is an oval
rather than a well-defined bar as in NGC 1300
(SBb; panels 154, S8). Nevertheless, the two
straight dust lanes characteristic of SBb spirals
are present, presumably resulting from the
shocks caused, as usual, by the response of the
gas to the rotation of the oval gravitational field.
A tightly wound high-surface-brightness
spiral pattern exists in the nucleus, similar to but
not as well defined as in NGC 4314 (SBa; Hubble
Atlas, p. 44; panels 95, 106 here). The complex
structure is shown by Sersic in Observatory
(1958) and in the insert print here.
The outer arms are of low surface brightness.
The star-formation rate is low, The HII
regions do not resolve at the 2" level. The
redshift of NGC 1097 is v_o = 1284 km/s.

21. 1993ApJS...86....5K
Re:NGC 1097
NGC 1097; SBbc, hot spot + LINER.
This galaxy has been called a LINER by Keel (1983b) based on optical
emission lines. The UV spectrum is flat with strong absorption features,
which places the nucleus of NGC 1097 in the low activity range among the
class of LINERs (cf. the emission lines of more active LINERs such as NGC
3031 or NGC 4579). NGC 1097 is a barred spiral with a ring of star
formation surrounding the nucleus (a "hot spot" galaxy) at a radius of
~10", or ~1.5 kpc, which is barely outside the IUE aperture. The ring
emits in radio wavelengths, in the ^12^CO (J = 1-0) line, at 10 microns,
and in H{alpha} (Phillips et al. 1984; Hummel, van der Hulst, & Keel
1987a; Gerin, Nakai, & Combes 1988). NGC 1097 also contains a weak,
compact, flat-spectrum radio source at the center (Wolstencroft, Tully, &
Perley 1984) and has two pairs of optical jets extending from the nucleus
out to 90 kpc (see Lorre 1978 for spectacular images). Its large-scale
morphology suggests dynamical disturbance, perhaps by interaction with
the companion galaxy NGC 1097A.

22. 1985SGC...C...0000C
Re:NGC 1097
Plate 1044
Overexposed center, bright bar, dist arms, very faint dist envelope with
extremely faint jets.

23. 1982ESOU..C...0000L
Re:ESO 024411-3028.9
=ESO 416- G 20
involving ESO 416- G 19

24. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 1097
= Arp 077 with companion NGC 1097A.
Peculiar nucleus with inner spiral structure.
Description and Classification:
P.A.S.P., 77, 287, 1965.
P.A.S.P., 79, 152, 1967. Bull.
A.A.S., 4, 237, 1972.
J.R.A.S. Canada, 68, 117, 1974.
Photograph:
P.A.S.P., 77, 287, 1965.
Ap. J., 192, 279, 1974.
J.R.A.S. Canada, 68, 117, 1974.
Photometry:
Atlas Gal. Australis, 1968.
Photometry: (JHKL)
M.N.R.A.S., 164, 155, 1973.
Photometry: (UBV)
Ap. J., 192, 279, 1974.
Spectrophotometry:
Astr. Ap., 33, 331, 1974.
Astr. Ap., 33, 337, 1974.
Ap. J., 192, 289, 1974.
Rotation Curve and Systemic Velocity:
Astr. Ap., 8, 364, 1970.
HI 21cm:
Source R2 (Astr. Ap., 3, 292, 1969), quality D, rejected.
Radio Observations:
Austral. J. Phys., 16, 360, 1963.
Austral. J. Phys., 19, 565, 1966.
Austral. J. Phys., 19, 883, 1966.
Proc. Astr. Soc. Australia, 2, 159, 1972.

25. 1974UGCA..C...0000N
Re:UGCA 041
UGCA 041:
= NGC 1097
SB(s)b (RC1)
disturbed; broad "elliptical" bar with internal Z structure;
disturbed by superimposed companion (MCG-05-07-022)
at 3.5, 324, 0.8 x 0.5, S0?, very high surface brightness

26. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 1097
Extremely bright, small nucleus: 0.5 arcmin x 0.4 arcmin
with innermost nucleus and spiral structure forming
pseudo (r): 0.4 arcmin x 0.3 arcmin
Broad bar: 3.0 arcmin x 1.0 arcmin (with dark lanes)
2 main filamentary knotty arms form
(R): 6.2 arcmin x 5.0 arcmin.
Small elliptical companion (= NGC 1097A) at 3.5 arcmin.
Photograph:
M.N.R.A.S., 8, 1019, 1925.
P.N.A.S., 26, 33, 1940.
P.A.S.P., 52, 309, 1947.
Obs., 78, 125, 1958.
Ap. J., 132, 30, 1960.
Photometry:
Revista Ast., XXIX, No.13, 1957.
Obs., 78, 123, 1958.
Spectrum
Ap. J., 132, 30, 1960.
Ap. J., 135, 697, 1962.

27. 1961Hubbl.B...0000S
Re:NGC 1097
SBb(s)
H-2025-H
0ct.21/22, 1938
Agfa Blue + GG1
90 min
Enlarged 3.1X
There is a reproduction of NGC 1097 in Observatory,
78, 125, 1958, by J. L. Sersic, which shows the complex
nuclear structure. The two straight dust lanes, seen on
the face of the broad bar, spiral toward a central point as
they reach the bright, overexposed part of the reproduction.
This is similar to the pattern near the center of M100
(pg. 31 of the Hubble Atlas) and resembles somewhat that
of NGC 4314 (pg. 44).

28. 1956AJ.....61...97H
Re:NGC 1097
HMS Note No. 018
North-preceding part of double nucleus.
HMS Note No. 019
South-following part of double nucleus.


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