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Notes for object NGC 0253

31 note(s) found in NED.

1. 2008A&A...484..341R
Re:NGC 0253
Figure A.1. This nearby starburst galaxy shows complex extended emission in all
observed wavelengths: 8.6, 11.9 and 12.9 microns. All images show two sources,
the bright source seems to be resolved. The extended emission shows an
elongation of 3" to the north east. An additional peak is seen clearly in the
8.6 micron image, and to a lesser extent in the 11.9 micron image, and
corresponds to "peak 3" that Kalas & Wynn-Williams (1994) identify at 3.28
micron and is most likely to be PAH emission. The 12.9 micron image, shows the
structure boarded by the two peaks reported by Boeker et al. (1998) as well as
other authors, and is very similar to the NeII map of these authors and the NeII
maps of Keto et al. (1999). It is most likely to be dominated by a combination
of NeII emission and 12.7 micron PAH emission (Boeker et al. 1998; Forster
Schreiber et al. 2003). Since the 11.9 filter is centered on 11.66 micron with a
FWHM of 1.16 micron it is likely that the 11.9 micron extended emission also
includes 11.3 micron PAH emission. Galliano et al. (2005) show 11.9 micron
deconvolved images and identify six sources, as opposed to four in our 11.9
micron image Comparing the two images, sources M2 and M3 of Galliano et al.
(2005) coincide with our second brightest peak, and sources M5 and M6 with the
two peaks to the North-East. The flux measured by Galliano et al. (2005) for the
main peak (5000 +/- 1000 mJy) is a factor of two higher than the flux measured
in this work. This discrepancy can be attributed to the 2" aperture used by
Galliano et al. (2005) as opposed to out method of measuring the peak value (see
Sect. 4) Identifying out second peak with M2+M3 our flux (1150 mJy) is 50%
higher than the combined flux of M2 and M3.

2. 2007MNRAS.382.1552L
Re:NGC 0253
NGC 253: The star formation in this well-known starburst galaxy is dominated by
the inner 200 pc region (Engelbracht et al. 1998), which is spatially complex,
as can be seen in Fig. 2. The nucleus of the galaxy has been identified at radio
and mid-IR wavelengths (Galliano et al. 2005). HST images show young star
clusters in the centre that trace out a ~ = 50 ring (Forbes et al. 2000). Most
of the compact radio sources lie inside this ring, and are not coincident with
optical or NIR sources. The brightest radio source is likely the galaxy nucleus
(Turner & Ho 1985; Ulvestad & Antonucci 1997). It is coincident with a weak NIR
source (Sams et al. 1994). It is likely that the radio source marks the position
of a low-luminosity AGN (Mohan & Anantharamaiah 2002). A highly obscured hard
X-ray source is detected by Chandra at the radio source position (Weaver et al.

3. 2005ApJS..157...59L
Re:NGC 0253
This Sc spiral galaxy (at a distance of 3.0 Mpc) is a prototype starburst
galaxy. ULX1 is on the outer edge of the galaxy. During 7 years, the source was
detected once at (2.4 +/- 0.1) x 10^39^ ergs s^-1^, and it was below 0.3 x
10^39^ ergs s^-1^ in the other five observations.

4. 2004ApJS..151..193S
Re:NGC 0253
4.2.3. NGC 253 NGC 253, the most massive galaxy in the Sculptor group
(Puche & Carignan 1988), hosts a compact nuclear starburst, although
recent star formation is also widespread throughout the disk (Ulvestad &
Antonucci 1997; Engelbracht et al. 1998; Sofue, Wakamatsu, & Malin 1994;
Ulvestad 2000). At a distance of only ~2.6 Mpc, it is the closest
massive galaxy undergoing a starburst. It has been heavily studied at
X-ray wavelengths, originally with Einstein (Fabbiano & Trinchieri
1984). Lacking any obvious nearby companion galaxy, the original cause
of the starburst activity is a mystery.
Figures 5 and 6 display both Chandra X-ray and optical images of NGC
253. In general, the morphology and surface brightness of the diffuse
emission is consistent between the two observations. The only
significant exception to this is the apparently diffuse hard X-ray
emission filling the S3 chip in the shorter observation (Fig. 5k). The
is undoubtedly an artifact, as such hard diffuse emission is not
detected in the S2 chip, which covers this location in the longer
observation (see Fig. 6k), and it is due to the excess background
emission in the S3 chip discussed in Strickland et al. (2002).
We refer the reader to Strickland et al. (2000, 2002) and Weaver et
al. (2002) for detailed presentation and discussion of the Chandra
observations of NGC 253.

5. 2004A&A...419..501F
Re:NGC 0253
NGC253 - The Seyfert nature of the nucleus (Veron-Cetty & Veron 2001) is
unconfirmed by other optical spectroscopic studies, and by near- and
mid-infrared spectroscopy (e.g. Engelbracht et al. 1998; Sturm et
al. 2000); neither by our ISOCAM data based on the diagnostics of
Rigopoulou et al. (1999) and Laurent et al. (2000). We used the Br{gamma}
flux of Engelbracht et al. (1998) integrated over d = 15", which contains
all the flux and coincides with the fitted size of the MIR emission. We
used their Pa{beta}/Br{gamma} flux ratio measured in 2.4" x 12" to derive
the extinction. Published extinction and Q_Lyc_ estimates from H line data
vary greatly. For instance, Verma et al. (2003) derived from SWS line
observations A^MIX^_V_ ~9 mag, considerably lower than A^MIX^_V_ = 30
mag reported by Genzel et al. (1998), although the Q_Lyc_ values are

6. 2000MNRAS.319...17L
Re:NGC 0253
NGC 253: No analysis of X-ray data for this galaxy has been done in this
paper. This starburst galaxy has very complex X-ray emission. 31 point
sources have been detected with the Einstein and ROSAT HRI (Vogler &
Pietsch 1999) with luminosities of up to a few times 10^38^ erg s^-1^
(see Table 6). Analysis of HRI and PSPC observations show that the source
located in the nuclear region is extended, soft, and possibly variable
(Vogler & Pietsch 1999). Spectral fits to some disc sources using PSPC
observations show that they are consistent with the spectra of absorbed
XRBs (Read et al. 1997).
Extended emission is detected well above and below the galactic plane
of this galaxy (see figs 11 and 12 in Dahlem, Weaver & Heckman 1998), and
NGC 253 is a prototype object for the study of X-ray emission from
starburst galaxies. Combined ASCA (FWHM ~3 arcmin) and PSPC observations
show that three components are required to fit the integral spectrum of
the galaxy: a power law ({GAMMA} ~ 1.9) and a two-temperature plasma
(kT ~ 0.3 and ~0.7 keV) (Dahlem et al. 1998). The determination of more
detailed physical parameters is hampered by the difficulty of measuring
multiple absorbing columns, as discussed by Dahlem et al. Their analysis
of the halo diffuse emission detected with the PSPC shows that the spectrum
is well fitted by a two-temperature plasma (kT ~ 0.1 and ~0.7 keV) if
solar abundances are assumed. BeppoSAX observations of NGC 253 show the
presence of a ~300 eV Fe K line at 6.7 keV, probably of thermal origin
(Persic et al. 1998). Other prominent lines are also resolved with ASCA
(Ptak et al. 1997).

7. 2000ApJ...530..688A
Re:NGC 0253
NGC 253.-The properties of this galaxy are extensively discussed in
Engelbracht et al. (1998). Its optical line ratios place it as a
transition object between pure starburst and weak-[O I] LINERs. As shown
in Engelbracht et al. (1998) and here, the optical line ratios of this
galaxy are consistent with photoionization by stars with T = 38,000 K
and some contribution from SNRs. Therefore the LINER characteristics of
this galaxy are entirely explained by the presence of a starburst.

8. 1999AJ....118.2331V
Re:NGC 0253
A pair of F656N (Fig. 15) and F675W images of NGC 253 was
available. We used the nuclear offset position for the SN I 1940E
(51" west and 17" south) from the online Asiago catalog. The SN occurred
near the edge of dusty lanes or patches, among a field of diffuse
starlight. The fact that this SN site is not near a dense stellar
association or a region of H{alpha} emission makes it likely that the
SN was a Type Ia.

9. 1999A&AS..138..253B
Re:NGC 0253
NGC 253 - SN 1940E: two bright patches; in both cases the B-V is very
red and the V-R very blue. Patch 1 appears compact and isolated; patch 2
is extended and arc-like. More structure is visible outside of the 5
arcsec ring and is possibly just part of the arm of the galaxy.

10. 1999A&A...343...51A
Re:NGC 0253
3.3. NGC 253
Our submm maps of NGC 253 show a bright, central source and fainter
emission associated with the spiral dust lanes. The central source has a
FWHM size of 21" x 6.5" (250 pc x 80 pc), which is comparable to the
size of the starburst in M82, but does not appear to possess a toroidal
structure. The central surface brightness is an order of magnitude
greater than any other part of the disk which explains why a dominant
point source was detected by the IRAS (HiRes) 1' beam (Sect. 2.4). A
ring or torus of molecular gas has been discovered around the nucleus of
NGC 253 (Mauersberger et al. 1996; Israel et al. 1995) which is very
similar both in real size and in apparent size to that observed in M82.
Accordingly, if recent star formation were concentrated on the inner
surface of this molecular ring, we would expect to find a bi-lobal
morphology similar to that detected in M82. Since this is not the case,
it follows that star-forming activity may not always routinely propogate
outwards from the centre of the starburst galaxy (consuming the
surrounding molecular gas) as has been proposed by some authors
(Telesco et al. 1993; Baum et al. 1993).
The inclination of NGC 253 (78^deg^; Pence 1981) is less amenable than
NGC 4631 or M82 to the detection of minor axis outflows. A bubble of
shocked, emission-line gas has, however, been identified by
McCarthy et al. (1987) at a position angle of ~ 140^deg^ from the
nucleus. In addition, Fabbiano & Trinchieri (1984) have discovered an
outflow of hot, X-ray gas (the superwind) extending for about 45-60"
(~700 pc) in the same direction. The 850 micron map in Fig. 1 shows a
slight extension at the same position angle as the purported outflow but
it is not until we inspect the 450 micron data (Fig. 2) that we infer
some sort of grain expulsion along the minor axis.

11. 1999A&A...343...51A
Re:NGC 0253
In Fig. 2 we have annotated the positions of the X-ray gas and two dust
filaments tentatively associated with outflow ('A' and 'B'). Filament
'A' extends in the same direction as the X-ray gas but subtends a
somewhat smaller area. It is perhaps not surprising that the X-ray and
submm emission do not correspond closely in shape and size for they
originate from different media (X-rays arise from the bubble of ionized
gas expanding directly out of the starburst whereas submm emission is
expected from the neutral, dusty medium which is entrained as filaments
at the superwind interface; Heckman et al. 1990). Filament 'B', situated
on the diameterically opposite side of the starburst, has no counterpart
at X-ray or emission-line wavelengths but is reminiscient of a small
extension detected at 1.3mm in this direction by Kruegel et al. (1990)
(the contours in the 1.3mm map, like our own maps, are essentially
elongated along the major axis, P.A. ~ 55^deg^, but show a slight
"pinching" in the direction of the north-west half of the minor axis).
A kpc-scale outflow of molecular gas has also been detected on this side
of the galaxy in the 18 cm OH emission line (Turner 1985). Since the
north-west side of the galaxy is closest to the observer, it is perhaps
not so surprising that we do not detect X-ray and emission-line
radiation from region 'B' (due to obscuration by gas and dust in the
intervening disk). It should be stated, however, that due to NGC 253 not
being completely edge-on, there remains some ambiguity as to whether
filament 'B' really lies along the minor axis or is simply part of the
foreground dust lane.
We emphasize, that we have checked the shape of the SCUBA beam at
450 microns and cannot attribute either of the putative filaments 'A'
and 'B' to the instrumental side lobes. In fact, minor axis profiles
presented in Fig. 3 show quite clearly that the features in question are
many times brighter than any 'wings' we might expect from the beam and
are at least 8 times above the level of the noise (they are also
detected in each of the composite jiggle maps which go to make up the
final 450 micron image). The de-projected distance of the minor axis
submm emission from the disk of NGC 253 is 500 pc. This is slightly
less, but comparable to, the size of the dust outflow in M82 (800 pc).

12. 1998ApJS..118..401D
Re:NGC 0253
X-ray contours of NGC 253 are shown, overlaid on an H{alpha} + [N II]
image for the central 3.5' x 3.5' region of the galaxy. There is a
"cone" of X-ray emission that extends toward the southeast of the
nucleus and a smaller extent to the northwest. This emission is
spatially resolved only in the HRI because of its small total extent of
~1.5'. The emission has a lower surface brightness than the cone
in M82 (Fig. 3), but the edges of the cone are more well defined.

13. 1998ApJS..118..401D
Re:NGC 0253
Raw images
In NGC 253 we note a superposition of compact sources and extended emission
in the disk. Most of the disk emission is concentrated in the central 10'
(7.5 kpc) of the galaxy. Farther out, several more point sources are
visible. While in the 1.5 keV band no obvious halo emission is seen, an
"hourglass"-shaped cone of soft X-ray emission with overall dimensions of
~16 x 10 kpc is the dominant feature in both the 0.25 and 0.75 keV bands.
Final images
In addition to the point source subtraction described in SECTION 3.3,
diffuse emission from the galaxy disk was avoided by masking out all
emission above the 3.5 {sigma} threshold of the 1.5 keV image displayed
in Figure 10. The surface brightness of the halo emission is low enough
that it is not affected by this procedure. Figures 11 and 12 show that
the general structure of the halo emission at 0.75 and 0.25 keV is not
affected by the excision of compact sources. However, the hourglass
shape of the emission distribution becomes even more obvious. At
1.5 keV, halo emission is now visible, which was not found at a higher
resolution owing to its low surface brightness and large extent.

14. 1998ApJS..118..401D
Re:NGC 0253
The emission of this galaxy is complex and thus requires a detailed
deconvolution to obtain spatially resolved spectra. Based on the PSPC
images, we divide NGC 253 into five spatial regions, resulting in five
distinct spectra, one each for the core, the integrated halo emission,
the diffuse disk emission, the integrated emission from the soft point
sources (NGC 253:DWH 3, 16, and 17; Fig. 10), and the integrated
emission from the hard point sources (all others). Our detailed study of
the spatially resolved emission is presented in WHD. For the present
analysis, we further subdivide the halo into three regions to examine
the spatial distribution of the gas temperature. These regions are
listed in Table 8. The PSPC spectra from these extraction regions, as
well as those from the galaxies listed below, are presented in SECTION
3.4.3 (halo emission) and Appendix C (disk emission and compact
The spatial components visible in the PSPC data are not well
resolved with ASCA. Integral spectra to be used in the joint fits are
therefore obtained from all four ASCA detectors using regions that are
comparable in size to the total size of the PSPC image. This ensures
that as much as possible of the extended soft flux is included in the
ASCA spectrum. The ASCA fits (Appendix B) were performed over a slightly
smaller region so that we can directly compare our results with those of
Ptak et al. (1997). Additional details of the spectral extraction for
ASCA and the PSPC can be found in WHD.
The total (joint) spectrum consists of all photons within the PSPC
and ASCA extraction regions (Tables 4 and 5). This includes disk and
halo emission and all point sources within the disk and halo.

15. 1998ApJS..118..275K
Re:MRC 0045-255
This source, identified with the well-known bright spiral galaxy
NGC 253, was not observed by us with the VLA. The data given in the
table are based on Ekers et al. (1989). A lower resolution map at
408 MHz (Cameron 1971) shows that the radio emission extends to
about 16'.

16. 1998AJ....116.2682C
Re:IRAS 00450-2533
NGC 253. Optical position from Forbes, Ward, & DePoy (1991).

17. 1996ApJ...458..120S
Re:NGC 0253
NGC 253
For its proximity at a distance of 2.5 Mpc (Pence 1980), relatively
low-resolution CO data obtained with the FCRAO 14 m telescope (Scoville et al.
1985) could resolve the central molecular disk at a linear resolution of
45" = 545 pc. A PV diagram obtained by Scoville et al. (1985) indicates a steep
increase of the rotation velocity near the nucleus within R ~ 0.3 kpc. An
optical rotation curve has been obtained by Pence (1980), which indicates a
flat rotation at 2-5 kpc radius. More outer-rotation characteristics can be
derived from an H I velocity field observed by Combes, Gottesman, & Weliachew
By combining rotation curves derived from these diagrams, which are shown in
Figure 2a, we constructed a total rotation curve as shown in Figure 2b, where
the inclination of i = 78.5^deg^ has been corrected. Hereafter, panels a and b
in each figure will show curves fitted to data and the resultant rotation
curve, respectively. The rotation velocity increases steeply in the central
region and attains a maximum of 210 km s^-1^ at R ~ 0.3 kpc. Then the curve is
almost perfectly flat until R ~ 9 kpc.

18. 1996A&AS..115..253L
Re:NGC 0253
NGC 253: The dusty star-forming Sc galaxy NGC 253 has also been observed
through a 12" aperture (175 pc at 3 Mpc). The beam includes the near and
mid-IR peak (Rieke & low 1975; Rieke et al. 1988; Telesco et al. 1992), as
well as the main near-IR circumnuclear "hot spots" (Forbes et al. 1991; Pina
et al. 1992; Sams et al. 1994). Due to the galaxy's inclination, the beam
intercepts large parts of the underlying disk galaxy.
NGC 253 has the reddest H - K colour of our sample of Group I galaxies
(H - K = 0.84). The H_2_O absorption feature in the center of the H + K
spectrum and the bump-like shape of the H band energy distribution, both
signatures of emission from giant stars, are even more pronounced in the
central 12" of NGC 253 than in M 82 (Fig. 3). As noted by Rieke et al. (1988)
these marked stellar features, including the CO absorption bands at
2.3 microns, argue against the predominantly non-stellar (e.g. hot dust)
near-IR emission suggested by Scoville et al. (1985) to explain the overall
colour, although some dust contribution may be present (Sect. 4.3). Extinction
remains responsible to a large extent for the high overall colour index
(Sect. 4.4).
In a 12" beam, the corrected CO index of NGC 253 is smaller than for M 82.
Walker et al. (1988) find an opposite tendency in 7.8". This is consistent
with the fact that their beam size matches the actual starburst regions better
for NGC 253 and less well for M 82. We however also note that comparing
corrected CO indices with other authors is particularly difficult for this
highly obscured object. A blackbody with H - K as high as 0.84 (~1900K, a
rather good fit to the H + K continuum) has a strong curvature in the K band.
A colour-correction based on a straight fit to the continuum would increase the
corrected CO index by ~0.03.
Again, the line ratios are close to those of NGC 1614. Their equivalent widths
are significantly larger than in M 82.

19. 1994MNRAS.268..203C
Re:NGC 0253
NGC 253 is a bright edge-on SBc/Sc starburst galaxy at a distance of
about 2.4 Mpc. It is a strong infrared source for which high-resolution
radio images of the central few hundred parsecs have revealed a large
number of compact radio sources which are likely to be supernova remnants
(SNRs) (Turner & Ho 1985; Antonucci & Ulvestad 1988, hereinafter AU88;
Ulvestad & Antonucci 1991).
Our VLA 3.6-cm image (Fig. 1) shows the family of compact radio
sources, and is similar to the 6-cm image of AU88. The flux densities of
the individual compact peaks were estimated from two-dimensional Gaussian
fits using the JMFIT program in AIPS. An offset value and a slope were
specified for sources in the central region, which are in the bright
plateau of emission. The component was considered to be unresolved if the
deconvolved size from JMFIT was less than about a third of the beamsize.
The highest resolution image of NGC 253 is that of Turner & Ho (1985),
who found the components to be marginally resolved with sizes between
0.05 and 0.7 arcsec, which correspond to linear sizes between 0.6 and 8
pc. The compact features are not, therefore, expected to be resolved in
our observations. The only component that showed signs of resolution was
05.79-38.9, but this feature possibly consists of two or more supernova
remnants (Ulvestad & Antonucci 1991). The size fitted to this component
is 0.58 x 0.09 arcsec^2^ along a PA of 30^deg^.
In Table 1, we list the flux densities and positions of 14 compact
features that we could easily identify in our image. Higher resolution
observations which substantially reduce the effect of confusion suggest
that the number of compact radio sources could be as large as about
100. Thirteen of the components we list can be identified with compact
features listed by AU88. In addition, we detect the compact component
02.49-00.3, which is outside the field of their published map. The
identified sources include all the sources found by AU88 to have a flux
density greater than 1 mJy with the exception of 5.958+37.81 which is not
seen in our image and has a flux density of 1.43 mJy in AU88. We have
five sources in common with the map of Turner & Ho (1985). These are the
same five that were identified by AU88. The flux density of the compact
components within the plateau of emission in our image tends to be larger
than the values estimated from the 5-GHz image of AU88. This must be due
to the coarser resolution of our observations, which could include the
contribution from the more extended emission and an increased number of
remnants within the restoring beam. For the components away from the
plateau of emission, where the effects of such contamination are likely
to be minimal, we estimate the spectral indices {alpha}, defined as
S is proportional to {nu}^-{alpha}^, of the components 04.76-51.5, 04.81-
43.4, 06.41 - 37.0, 06.82-29.4 and 07.61 - 27.7 to be 0.28, 0.38, 0.74, -
0.80 and 0.70 respectively. The errors in the spectral index are
typically about 0.1.

20. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 0253
South Polar Group
Hubble Atlas, p. 34
Oct 31/Nov 1, 1981
90 min
NGC 253 is a member of the South Polar
Group. Its redshift is small at v_o = 293 km/s.
The estimate of the distance modulus in the
RSA2 is m - M = 27.5. As suggested there, the
group may extend in distance from the nearest
members such as NGC 55, NGC 247, and NGC 300
at about m - M = 26.6, to more-distant
members such as NGC 253 here, and then to
NGC 7793 (Sd; panels 321, S6), which may be
a magnitude more distant.
Resolution into individual stars is more
difficult than in NGC 247 on the preceding panel,
but is not as difficult as in NGC 4945, also on
that panel. The brightest stars are in associations;
they resolve beginning at about B = 18. But
the dust obscuration is very heavy, limiting their
use in NGC 253 for calibration purposes in
measurements of the extragalactic distance scale.
Yet star clusters, associations, and HII regions
are clearly evident in the regions which have a
small optical depth in the dust.
The nucleus is small. There is no central
bulge. The type is prototypical Sc(s), but there is
much more dust than in NGC 247 and NGC 55
(Sc; panel 318).

21. 1994AJ....108.2128C
Re:PGC 002789
PGC 002789 = NGC 253. (B-V)_T_ = 0.85 +- 0.05, (U-B)_T_ = 0.38 +- 0.10.

22. 1993MNRAS.263.1023M
Re:NGC 0253
0045-25 (NGC 253). A bright nearby spiral galaxy which is nearly edge-on
(Ulrich 1978). The core measurement was taken from Ekers et al. (1989)
rather than our own image, because their resolution was higher.

23. 1993MNRAS.263..999T
Re:PKS 0045-25
0045-25 (NGC 253). Narrow H{beta} and [O III] {lambda}5007 emission
lines have been detected from the nucleus of this starburst galaxy. No
stellar absorption features have been detected, but the continuum signal-
to-noise ratio is relatively low.

24. 1985SGC...C...0000C
Re:NGC 0253
Plate 4641
Overexposed center, patchy arms with much dust and few knots.

25. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 0253
In the Sculptor Group.
Ap. J., 159, 799, 1970.
Astr. Ap., 12, 379, 1971.
Ap. J. (Letters), 181, L27, 1973.
J.R.A.S. Canada, 68, 117, 1974.
Atlas Gal. Australis, 1968.
Photometry: (I.R.: 1-20 microns)
Ap. J. (Letters), 176, L95, 1972.
Ap. J. (Letters), 181, L27, 1973.
M.N.R.A.S., 164, 155, 1973.
Photometry: (I.R.: 100 and 350 microns)
Ap. J. (Letters), 182, L89, 1973.
Ap. J. (Letters), 183, L67, 1973.
Ap. J., 159, 799, 1970.
Astr. Ap., 33, 331, 1974.
Astr. Ap., 33, 337, 1974.
Molecular Absorption (OH):
Ap. J. (Letters), 167, L47, 1971.
Astrophys. Lett., 15, 211, 1973.
Molecular Absorption (H2CO):
Nature, 247, 526, 1974.
Dynamics and Mass Determination:
Proc. A.S. Australia, 1, 288, 1969.
H{alpha} Interferometry in Disk:
Astr. Ap., 12, 379, 1971.
IAU Circ. No. 848, 1941.
HI 21cm:
Astr. Ap., 17, 207, 1972.
Astr. Ap., 23, 295, 1973.
Radio Observations:
Ann. Ap., 26, 343, 1963.
Austral. J. Phys., 16, 360, 1963.
Sov. A.J., 13, 881, 1970.
M.N.R.A.S., 152, 439, 1971.
Astrophys. Lett., 12, 75, 1972.
Ap. J. (Letters), 181, L27, 1973.
Proc. A.S. Australia, 2, 159, 1972.

26. 1974UGCA..C...0000N
Re:UGCA 013
UGCA 013:
= NGC 0253 = "Silver Coin Galaxy"
SAB(s)c (RC1)
high surface brightness on POSS.

27. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 0253
In the Sculptor Group
along with NGC 0045, NGC 0055, NGC 0247,
and NGC 0300 and NGC 7793 (Ap. J., 130, 718, 1959).
Mt. Wilson Velocity (-72 km/sec)
for "emission patch 2.7 arcmin [north] of the nucleus",
Extremely small, bright nucleus.
Very complex central lens:
7.0 arcmin x 2.1 arcmin
not found by Evans (1956), Burbidge (1962).
P.A.S.P., 58, 235, 1946.
Ap. J., 136, 339, 1962.
M.N.R.A.S., 94, 806, 1934.
Ap. J., 83, 424, 1936.
Ap. J., 127, 487, 1958.
Ap. J., 135, 698, 1962.
Rotation and Mass:
M.N.R.A.S., 116, 659, 1956.
Ap. J., 136, 339, 1962,
HII Regions:
Zeit. fur Ap., 50, 168, 1960.
SN 1940
H.A.C. 552.
Handbuch der Phys., 51, 774, 1958.
Radio Emission:
Australian J. Phys., 8, 368, 1955.
Handbuch der Phys., 53, 253, 1959.
M.N.R.A.S., 122, 479, 1961.
P.A.S.P., 72, 368, 1960.
Observatory, 83, 20, 1963.

28. 1961Hubbl.B...0000S
Re:NGC 0253
Sept. 2/3, 1945
50 min
Enlarged 3.0X
This spectacular spiral is the prototype example of a special
subgroup of Sc systems. Other members of the group
are shown on the next page. Photographic images of galaxies
of the group are dominated by the dust pattern.
Dust lanes and patches of great complexity are scattered
throughout the surface. Spiral arms are often difficult to
trace. The arms are defined as much by the dust as by the
luminous matter.
Galaxies similar to the NGC 0253 class in the Sc can be
identified in the Sa and Sb sections. Examples shown in the
Hubble Atlas are NGC 4293 of the Sa section (pg. 11) and perhaps
NGC 0972 and NGC 4433 of the Sb section (pg. 23).
The dust lanes in NGC 0253 itself are conspicuous not
only because a great deal of dust is present but also
because the large angle of projection under which this
galaxy is viewed provides for a radiation background against
which the dust is seen. The fundamental plane of NGC 0253 is
inclined only 12 degrees to the line of sight.
The spiral arms in NGC 0253 can be easily traced in this
reproduction, but they are more easily seen in a negative
print reproduced from the same original and shown by
de Vaucouleurs in Ap. J., 127, 487, 1958, Figure 8. The
arms coming from the southwest end of the major axis are
opening out of the page; the arms on the northeast end
are going into the page.
The distance to NGC 0253 cannot be found from the
redshift because the galaxy is so close that any systematic
redshift is concealed by the random motions. But the
assumption that NGC 0253 is like M31 both in linear
dimensions and in absolute magnitude gives a distance of
about 4 Mpc, which is about 5 times that of M31.
The corresponding distance modulus is (m-M)= 28.0.
These values may be uncertain by a factor of 2.

29. 1961AJ.....66..541B
Re:NGC 0253
3. NGC 55 Group
De Vaucouleurs (1959) has argued that NGC 45, 55, 247, 253, 300, and 7793 form a
physical group about 8X 10^5^ pc in diameter. The group is only about 2.5 X
10^6^ pc distant and the galaxies are all spirals. The argument for their
forming a physical group is based on their distribution among the other bright
galaxies in the southern hemisphere. From the radial velocities, de Vaucouleurs
showed that the virial theorem would not be satisfied unless the average masses
of the galaxies were in excess of 10^12^ M_sun_, with a mass-to-light ratio
greater than 500. Thus if the galaxies form a physical group, it must be
expanding, unless there is a large concentration of intergalactic matter.

30. 1959ApJ...130..718D
Re:NGC 0253
NGC 253
The velocity -70 +/- 25 km/sec listed in Table 1 is the mean of two values: -72
+/- 35 km/sec measured by Humason at Mount Wilson for an emission patch 2'7
north of the nucleus and close to the minor axis, and -68 +/- 50 km/sec measured
by Evans at Pretoria for the absorption spectrum of the nucleus itself. The good
agreement may be accidental, since both determinations are from low-dispersion
spectrograms (400 A/mm) and the rotational velocities derived by Evans for
regions near the major axis are surprisingly large.

31. 1918PLicO..13....9C
Re:NGC 0253
Vol. VIII, Plate 2. One of the most beautiful spirals known, 21' x 4' in p.a.
52 ^deg^ There is perhaps a very faint, almost stellar nucleus ana numerous
almost stellar condensations. Some evidence of absorption lane effects on the
northern side. 23 s.n.

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