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Notes for object MESSIER 074

21 note(s) found in NED.


1. 2011AJ....141...23B
Re:NGC 0628
A.1. NGC 628
NGC 628 is a grand-design Sc spiral galaxy located at a
distance of 7.3 Mpc and is seen almost completely face-on.
We detected 104 holes in its HI layer, with diameters ranging
from 0.24 kpc (the resolution limit) to 2 kpc. Only a small
fraction of these holes are type 3 (~5%). Several supershells
were detected, however four cases (holes number 24, 45, 47,
and 99) are probably superpositions of two or more holes.

2. 2009ApJ...697.1870E
Re:NGC 0628
NGC 0628 (M 74) We were able to measure 33 offsets between CO and H{alpha} at r
= 0.5-3.7 kpc (0.2'-1.7'), while {OMEGA} was calculated from the RC of
Daigle et al. (2006) with a correction for the adopted inclination angle of
24{degrees}. We should note that even though the {OMEGA}-{theta} plot shows a
large dispersion, the fitted line has a positive gradient since the outlying
data with large error bars have lower weights in the {chi}^2^ fitting. Removing
such data points with {DELTA}{OMEGA}/{OMEGA}>1 did not substantially change the
fitted result. As offset distributions for the two arms appear to be consistent,
we derive only one value for t_SF_ and {OMEGA}_P_.
From the derived value of {OMEGA}_P_ and the RC, the corotation radius is
calculated to be R_CR_ ~= 2-4 kpc, corresponding to 0.9'-1.9'. With R_CR_ ~= 5
kpc or 1.8' located by Cepa & Beckman (1990) from the arm/interarm ratio of SFE,
Fathi et al. (2007a) derived {OMEGA}_P_ = 31^+5^_-3_ km s^-1^ kpc^-1^ with the
same RC which we used. We should mention that the discrepancy in {OMEGA}_P_ is
due to the difference in the assumed distance and inclination angle, and that
the location of the CR is consistent within errors. However, Elmegreen et al.
(1992) examined the B-band morphology of this galaxy and derived R_CR_ ~ 2.4,
which is larger than our result.

3. 2009A&A...503..409H
Re:NGC 0628
NGC 628 (M74): This relatively face-on spiral galaxy shows substantial polarized
emission in the form of an incomplete ring near the edge of the optical disk
which is brightest at PA ~80^deg^-340^deg^ (Position Angles measured east of
north). The minimum in polarized intensity occurs at the PA of the receding
major axis (PA = 25^deg^, as tabulated in Table 1). The brightest emission is
associated with two inter-arm regions in the outer galaxy; one extending from PA
~80^deg^ to 210^deg^ and the other from PA ~200^deg^ to 340^deg^. These seem to
be continuations into the outer disk of the inner disk interarm regions. The
polarized fraction at 22 cm in these regions is approximately 10-20% at small
radii; increasing to 40-50% at the largest radii, indicating an exceptionally
well-ordered magnetic field. The magnetic field vectors are closely aligned with
the features themselves. The Faraday depth distribution shows some systematic
variation with PA which we will discuss in Paper III. Based on the brighter
lobes of the three polarized double sources detected in this field, the likely
Galactic foreground RM is about -34+/-2 rad m^-2^.

4. 2007MNRAS.380..506G
Re:NGC 0628
NGC 628, known also as M74, is a grand-design Sc galaxy. Cornett et al. (1994)
concluded that the star formation history of NGC 628 varies with galactocentric
distance; Natali, Pedichini & Righini (1992) suggested that the galaxy could be
seen as an inner and an outer disc characterized by different stellar
populations; according to them, the transition between the two regions is
located at ~= 8-10 kpc from the centre. Our observations of NGC 628 are
disturbed by the presence of a foreground star which falls close to the centre
(~=13 arcsec southern). The stellar kinematics is characterized by slow
projected rotation, and velocity dispersion decreasing in the central zones,
indicating a cold central region, maybe an inner disc (Ganda et al. 2006). This
galaxy is part of the 'control sample' of non-active objects studied by Cid
Fernandes et al. (2004), Gonzalez Delgado et al. (2004), Cid Fernandes et al.
(2005), who analyse the nuclear spectrum, describing it as a mixture of
10^8^-10^9^ yr old and older stars.
As can be seen from the profiles reported in Fig. A1, NGC 628 has ages
(one-SSP approach) below 3 Gyr out to ~=15 arcsec, and becomes older at larger
radius; the features are roughly in agreement with the above mentioned findings
of Cid Fernandes and collaborators; the same trend in age is observed, on the
common radial range, also by MacArthur et al. (2007), on the basis of GMOS data
independently analysed. The metallicity decreases outwards. The 'bumps'
recognizable in the Fe5015, Mgb and (but less pronounced) metallicity profiles
at ~=13 arcsec from the centre are due to the foreground star. From our
continuous star formation analysis, as shown in Fig. 29 (second column), we can
state that this galaxy is not described by a constant star formation scenario.

5. 2007ApJS..173..538T
Re:NGC 0628
NGC 628 (Fig. 16.2).-This SA(s)c galaxy has received attention (along with NGC
6946 and NGC 1058) as an example of a spiral with faint H II regions populating
the outer disk (Ferguson et al. 1998a, 1998b; Lelievre & Roy 2000). GALEX
imaging shows UV clumps at the positions of each previously known outer disk H
II region, as well as numerous additional UV-only complexes located at modestly
larger radii (at least to 10.3', maybe farther to the east and northwest). The
census of recent star-forming sites (even in areas populated by outer disk H II
regions) is therefore more complete in our GALEX data. Spiral structure is
apparent in the XUV disk, although the covering factor of SF detected complexes
is small. The XUV-disk spiral structure appears to be a continuation of the
inner disk pattern, although perhaps more tightly wound. The H I distribution of
NGC 628 is known to be extended (Kamphuis & Briggs 1992; Auld et al. 2006)
within a diameter of approximately 40' at a limit of N(H I)) = 2.2 * 10^18^
cm^-2^. Kamphuis & Briggs (1992) noted the presence of anomalous high-velocity
gas. Smaller companions are UGC 01104, UGC 01171, UGC 01176 (DDO 13), UGCA 20,
and KDG 10, as well as DW 0137+1541 (Briggs 1986). NGC 628 is paired with the
disturbed, polar-ring galaxy NGC 660, which also has companions.

6. 2006MNRAS.366.1265B
Re:NGC 0628
The H I PA of this face-on galaxy varies greatly with distance from the centre,
as observed by Kamphuis & Briggs (1992). In the visible, this phenomenon is seen
in the outer rings of the H{alpha} RV map. Some H II regions with velocities
that are perpendicular to the plane of the galaxy are also visible. The HIPA
determined by Kamphuis & Briggs (1992) agrees with the kinematical one (Table
5), but the inclination differs greatly (6.5^deg^ for H I and 21.5^deg^ for
H{alpha}). This may be due to the fact that rotcur has problems dealing with
galaxies whose inclination is < 40^deg^ (Begeman 1989; Chemin et al. 2005). For
the rotation curve presented in Fig. C1, the H I inclination was adopted. This
galaxy has also been observed in CO by Nishiyama, Nakai & Kuno (2001).

7. 2003ApJS..146..353M
Re:NGC 0628
NGC 628 (N)
While there is no evidence for dust structure within ~200 pc of the
nucleus, there are clear nuclear dust spirals at larger radii. If this
galaxy were a factor of 2 or more distant, the empty central region
might have been sufficiently poorly resolved to merit classification
as a loosely wound or chaotic spiral.

8. 2003ApJ...598..827P
Re:NGC 0628
NGC 628(M74).-NGC 628 is a near face-on galaxy with "grand design"
spiral arms. In the UV, these spiral arms are traced by bright,
star-forming knots. Diffuse stellar components constitute the disk and
bulge components, which dominate the B-band morphology. This galaxy has
high {xi}(MUV, B), presumably from differences in the UV-optical colors of
the star-forming regions and the more evolved stellar populations in the
diffuse bulge/ inner disk. There is little dispersion between the FUV
and MUV internal colors, which implies that the stellar populations that
emit at these wavelengths are largely cospatial.

9. 2002AJ....124..675C
Re:UGC 01149
Very large galaxy, 1.4 GHz flux density from Condon (1987).

10. 2001ApJS..137..139S
Re:NGC 0628
NGC 628 (M74). - Sharina, Karachentsev, & Tikhonov (1996) derive a
distance based on bright stars. They find similar distances for several
of M74's dwarf companions. Their result is roughly between the very
discrepant results from older studies. The distance is confirmed by
Sohn & Davidge (1996).

11. 2001ApJS..132..129M
Re:NGC 0628
NGC 628 (M74). - NGC 628, a face-on spiral of type SA(s)c at a distance
of ~7.6 Mpc, shows considerable grand design spiral structure and has been
used for density wave studies (Cepa & Beckman 1990). In the UV (see Fig.
7a), the spiral arms are highlighted as "beads on a string," where bright
knots embedded in diffuse emission trace the spiral pattern (Chen et al.
1992; Cornett et al. 1994). The pattern is much more organized than in the
case of the slightly later type system M33. Many of the UV-bright knots are
also bright in H{alpha}, though, as in the other spiral disks with UV data,
there are large variations in the ratio of H{alpha} to far-UV continuum
among the knots. As seen best in the MUV image, the brightest knots tend to
lie on the inside edges of the spiral arms formed by the diffuse UV
continuum. This is in the correct sense for an age gradient if gas in the
disk rotates through the spiral pattern from inside to outside, such that
the youngest and most massive stars are located at the inner edge of the
pattern. Over 70% of the UV light in both bands originates from the more
diffuse and presumably older component, rather than from the younger,
compact regions.
As in M33, the UV surface brightness profiles (Fig. 7b) show smaller
radial gradients than those observed in the optical bandpasses. The
stronger central concentration of the optical light is evident in the
images presented in Figure 7a and is consistent with Cornett et al. (1994),
who find that azimuthally averaged scale lengths for the continuum emission
decrease with increasing wavelength. However, the UV profiles are clearly
nonexponential despite the approximately exponential behavior of the R-band
profile. UV/optical colors become systematically bluer by over 1.5 mag with
increasing radius in the disk. The H{alpha}/UV flux ratio also
systematically increases with radius. Using color-color diagrams,
Cornett et al. (1994) have analyzed these color gradients and conclude that
they reflect the star formation history rather than metallicity or internal
extinction. The entire disk has undergone active star formation within the
past ~500 Myr, but the inner regions have experienced more rapidly
declining star formation than the outer regions. What is surprising is not
that the star formation history changes with radius but that it exhibits
such a remarkably smooth and organized pattern of change. Other spirals,
e.g., M33 and M81, likewise have organized patterns but with different
color-color relations. Such patterns are important clues to the global
mechanisms by which disk galaxies regulate star formation.

12. 2001A&A...368...16M
Re:NGC 0628
2. NGC 628 = M 74 is a bright face-on Sc galaxy (T = 5). The distance of
NGC 628 was individually determined by Sharina et al. (1996) to
D = 7.80 Mpc. Our fit results for R_d_, R_b_, {beta} in JHK are similar to
each other, however with quite a scatter (Tables 3, 4). The reason is
probably the large diameter of the galaxy compared to our field of view
(3 x 3 arcmin). Nevertheless, the residua of our fit look excellent
(Fig. 3). A comparison with the fit results of other authors will be made
in the next section.

13. 1998A&A...335..807A
Re:NGC 0628
This galaxy, also known as M74, has been classified as type Sc and has a
very small inclination to the line-of-sight (5^deg^; Shostak & van der
Kruit 1984). Like nearby M51, its grand design spiral pattern has
aroused considerable interest (Cepa & Beckman 1990) and the bright HII
regions pertaining to the spiral arms have also been an object of study
(Kennicutt & Hodge 1980). Unusually for an isolated galaxy, NGC 628 has
a very large HI disk (> 25') extending well beyond the 10' optical
diameter (Briggs et al. 1980). There is very little to suggest spiral
structure in our FIR images (in contrast to, say, NGC 6946). However,
this may not be surprising given that the HiRes data, before convolution
to the ISO 200 micron resolution, show quite a compact structure with
about half of the FIR energy emanating from the central 3.5' of the
disk.

14. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 0628
Hubble Atlas, p. 29, 31
Sc(s)I
PH-1151-S
Oct 24/25, 1955
103aO + GG13
25 min
The spiral pattern in NGC 628 is the
prototype of a highly regular, two-principal-arm,
grand design type. The central parts of the two
major arms begin at the center as dust lanes. The
lanes accompany luminous arms after about a
quarter-rotation. The thin dust lanes then are
generally on the inside of the luminous ridge-lines
of the star-forming arm regions.
The resolution into individual stars begins
at the bright apparent magnitude of about B = 20.
This galaxy is one of the prime candidates
wherein we must obtain (c. 1990) brightest-star
photometry; the background surface brightness
of the luminous arms is low compared with the
much more difficult cases of M51 (panels 172,
177) and M83 (panels 300, 301), making this
galaxy ideal for study.
The largest HII regions in NGC 628 are
complex. Several with multiple nuclei have
core + halo diameters of 5". The redshift of NGC 628
is v_o = 861 km/s. The resolution into stars is
easier seen in NGC 628 than in the Virgo Cluster
and Ursa Major Cluster spirals, but is more
difficult than in M101 and its satellites, consistent
with the intermediate value of its redshift.

15. 1993A&AS...97..887B
Re:NGC 0628
NGC 628 (M74) is a very regular Sc galaxy which has already been observed
in CO(1-0) (e.g. Tacconi 1987). We present the first CO(2-1) data,
showing that the line ratio is low. The S_60_/S_100_ ratio is low as well
and, while unambiguously detected at 20cm, the emission (CO, H{alpha},
and 20 cm) is rather evenly distributed and without any strong central
peak (H87). Nothing indicates that the nucleus of NGC 628 is very
different from other knots in the galaxy. The CO emission is an excellent
tracer of the spiral arms and HII regions in this galaxy (R. Pogge,
private communication).

16. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 0628
= Messier 074
Description:
IAU Symp. No. 38, 28, 1970.
Photograph:
Izv. Crimea Obs., 38, 219, 1967.
A.J., 72, 129, 1967
A.J., 74, 515, 1969.
Astr. Ap., 29, 249, 1974.
P.A.S.P., 86, 845, 1974.
Photometry:
Izv. Crimea Obs., 38, 219, 1967.
Izv. Crimea Obs., 44, 40, 1972.
IAU Symp. No. 38, 83, 1970.
IAU Symp. No. 44, 62, 1972.
Spectrophotometry:
Sov. A.J., 16, 628, 1973.
HI 21cm:
Ap. J., 150, 8, 1967.
HII Regions:
"Atlas and Catalogue", Univ. Washington, Seattle, 1966.
A.J., 72, 129, 1967.
Ap. J., 155, 417, 1969
Ap. J., 194, 559, 1974.
Distance Modulus:
Ap. J., 194, 559, 1974.
H{alpha} Interferometry:
Astr. Ap., 12, 379, 1971.
Radio Observations:
Austral. J. Phys., 16, 360, 1963.
Astr. Ap., 29, 249, 1973.

17. 1973UGC...C...0000N
Re:UGC 01149
SA(s)c (de Vaucouleurs), Sc- (Holmberg)
Extremely diffuse outskirts appear visible to 14.5 x 14. on blue PA map

18. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 0628
= Messier 074
Very small, bright nucleus
in smooth central region: 0.15 arcmin, as in Messier 033.
2 main well resolved arms with dark material and many branchings.
See also M.N.R.A.S., 85, 144, 1924.
HI Emission:
A.J., 66, 294, 1962.
A.J., 67, 437, 1962.
Harvard Rad. Ast. Rep., 101, 1962.

19. 1961Hubbl.B...0000S
Re:NGC 0628
Messier 074
Sc
PH-16-MH
Nov. 15/16, 1949
103aO
20 min
Enlarged 1.7X
NGC 0628 is of the M101 type of multiple-arm Sc but is
more regular and symmetrical. The arms are not so highly
branched, and the dust lanes are easier to trace. Again
the dust lanes appear mostly on the inside of the luminous
arms. Branching of luminous segments does occur from
the two main arms which come from the nuclear region.
These branches form the multiple-arm pattern. The distance
modulus of NGC 0628 is about 30.0. At this distance,
the approximate width of the arms is 1000 parsecs.

20. 1961Hubbl.B...0000S
Re:NGC 0628
Messier 074
Sc
PH-1151-S
Oct. 24/25, 1955
103aO + GG13
25 min
Enlarged 23.0X
The central dust lanes in NGC 0628 are similar to those in
M51 (above). They begin tangent to the central lens and
do not go into the very nucleus. These two main lanes
wind outward on the inside of the principal luminous
spiral arms. The entire galaxy is shown on page 29.
Plates taken in H{alpha} light show many HII regions in the
arms. The largest of these regions is about 100 parsecs
in diameter, which is similar to the HII regions in M101
but smaller than the largest ones in either M33 or the LMC.

21. 1918PLicO..13....9C
Re:NGC 0628
Messier 74 Piscium Vol. VIII, Plate 4. Nearly round, 8' in diameter. An
unusually beautiful and symmetrical spiral, showing numerous almost stellar
condensations. Nucleus bright and small, but not stellar. 34 s.n. .


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