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Notes for object NGC 1275

47 note(s) found in NED.


1. 2010A&A...516A...1L
Re:3C 084
3C 84 in A426 The Perseus cluster, A426, is the most X-ray luminous cluster in
the nearby universe, and the prototypical cooling core cluster. Shocks and
ripples are clearly evident in the deep Chandra image of Perseus (Fabian et al.
2005,2006), and could provide steady heating of the cluster center (Fabian et
al. 2006). In Perseus, the AGN manifests itself directly as a bright radio
source known as Perseus A or 3C 84, associated with the early-type cD galaxy NGC
1275. As one of the brightest compact radio sources in the sky, 3C 84 has been
studied in some detail (Taylor & Vermeulen 1996; Vermeulen et al. 1994; Silver
et al. 1998; Walker et al. 2000). The radio source 3C 84 is well known to
contain jets which have been studied on a variety of scales (Silver et al. 1998;
Pedlar et al. 1990; Walker et al. 2000; Dhawan et al. 1998). Taylor et al.
(2006a) detect linear polarization from the bright jet component S1 in 3C 84 at
5, 8, 15, and 22 GHz at a level of 0.8 to 7.5 % that increases with frequency.
Furthermore, there is some suggestion at 8.4 GHz and above that the polarization
is extended. The detection of core polarization is less than 0.1% for all
frequencies except for 22 GHz for which it is less than 0.2%.
The radio morphology is quite complex (Agudo et al. 2007; Asada et al. 2009;
Lister 2001) exhibiting a core with two opposite radio-jets, the southern jet
consisting of components moving down a diffuse jet and finally expanding into
an amorphous component at 12 mas. Krichbaum et al. (1992) showed that the
inner jet components move at 0.1c and that after a major bend the jet speed
accelerates.
The jet morphology has been imaged on a variety of scales. At high frequency
(and resolution), we compared the VLBA image at 43 GHz (Lister 2001) with the 86
GHz image by Lee et al. (2008). Despite different epochs and resolutions, we
tentatively identify the core with component "E" in Lister (2001), which is the
only self-absorbed structure (inverted spectrum) between 43 and 86 GHz. The
source therefore appears initially one-sided, and later becomes two-sided.
At lower frequency and resolution, there is a clear equivalence between the
parsec-scale structure and jets on a kiloparsec scale (Pedlar et al. 1990).
Looking through VLBA images from 22 GHz to 5 GHz, the two-sided structure starts
out appearing more symmetric and then at lower frequencies it becomes
asymmetric. Walker et al. (1998,2000) explained this as the effects of free-free
absorption of the counter-jet from the surrounding torus. VLBA data at 15 GHz
(Lister et al. 2009) measure proper motion in the jet and counterjet and
estimate {gamma} = 0.6 and {theta} = 11^deg^. In VLBA data at 5 GHz (Taylor et
al. 2006a), the largest source angular size is ~35 mas (~12 pc), the core flux
density is ~3.1 Jy (P ~ 2.1 x 10^24^ W/Hz), and the total flux density is 23.3
Jy ( P ~ 1.6 x 10^25^ W/Hz).

2. 2009ApJ...690.1322W
Re:NGC 1275
NGC 1275. This source is located within the Perseus cluster. As such, emission
from the cluster is difficult to separate from the AGN emission. Therefore, we
do not include an analysis of this source.

3. 2008ApJS..177..148F
Re:3C 084
4.2.2. 3C 84 (NGC 1275, Per A); z = 0.017559; The central galaxy of the Perseus
cluster contains an FR I radio source and Seyfert 2 nucleus at the center of a
cooling flow. It shows a large number of companion sources in the infrared and a
complicated dust morphology in the optical-IR. The NICMOS data were first
published by Martini et al. (2003). Only the central region is visible in the
NIC2 image. We used the F702W image from Martel et al. (1999) to estimate the
background. However, due to the immense size of this cD galaxy, even the full
WFPC2 mosaic (PROPOSID 6228) does not detect the edge of the galaxy, and the
results are photometrically uncertain.

4. 2008ApJS..175..423P
Re:3C 084
3C 84 (Figs. 14 and 15) has a diffraction cross in the emission-line image. A
sufficiently deep 5 or 8 GHz radio map was not available and could not be found
in archival data, so an overlay is not shown. The line emission is symmetrically
distributed within the host galaxy so there is no meaningful position angle.

5. 2008ApJ...673...78L
Re:3C 084
5.1.1. 3C84 For 3C 84, we measure a VLBI peak flux density of 2.33 Jy beam^-1^
and an integrated flux of 6.07 Jy, whereas the WENSS peak flux density and
integrated flux are 19.396 Jy beam^-1^ and 42.8 Jy, respectively. This is the
only source in our sample of imaged sources with extended structure in WENSS,
where it has an estimated size of 115" x 84" at a position angle of 115^deg^. In
our VLBI image we have recovered ~14% of the WENSS flux. Similar VLBI
observations at 327 MHz, with a larger synthesized beam, measure a slightly
greater integrated flux of 7.47 Jy (Ananthakrishnan et al. 1989), suggesting
that the missing flux is most likely related to the larger scale structure that
is resolved out by VLBI observations. We measure a largest angular size (LAS) of
150 mas which corresponds to a largest linear size (LLS) of ~50 pc at its
measured redshift of z = 0.017559+/-0.000037 (Strauss et al. 1992). A 15 GHz
VLBA contour map (Lister & Homan 2005) is shown overlaid with our 90 cm image of
3C 84 in Figure 4. The smaller scale stru ctures within this image appear to
align with the jetlike feature that appears in our 90 cm image and extends 100
mas to the south of the core.

6. 2007A&A...472..763B
Re:1ES 0316+413
This source (3C 84, NGC 1275) reveals a complex and bright jet structure (see
also e.g., Krichbaum et al. 1992; Walker et al. 1994; Dhawan et al. 1998; Homan
& Wardle 2004). Assuming that the position angle remains roughly the same across
the epochs, we trace jet components that approach and others that separate from
the core. Further observations are required to trace the jet component motions
in more detail.

7. 2006ApJ...642...96E
Re:3C 084
A model fit consisting of a power law plus a single thermal component failed to
provide an adequate fit to the spectrum ({chi}^2^ = 1322.8 for 1155 dof). An
acceptable fit ({chi}^2^ = 1165.3 for 1153 dof) was achieved with the
combination of a power law and two thermal components, one of temperature
0.77+/-0.04 keV, solar abundance, and normalization 8.33^+1.99^_-1.33_ x 10^-4^;
the other of temperature 2.74+/-0.10 keV, abundance half of solar, and
normalization 9.72^+0.50^_-0.72_ x 10^-3^. However, a third thermal component,
fitted by Donato et al. (2004), is not found here. Instead, an additional
significant improvement in the fit ({DELTA}{chi}^2^ = 9.35 for two additional
parameters) was achieved by the addition of a Gaussian emission line with a
centroid energy 6.39^+0.07^_-0.09_ keV and frozen (unresolved) line width of 10
eV and equivalent width 26^+46^_-22_ eV. We compared our results with previously
published work (Donato et al. 2004) and find the 0.3-8 keV unabsorbed luminosity
of the power law to be approximately consistent.

8. 2006ApJ...638..642B
Re:NGC 1275
NGC 1275 - A Seyfert 2 galaxy at z = 0.018, detected in the ISGRI and
JEM-X data (Fig. 1). The spectrum represents the blend of the Perseus
cluster with the spectrum of the AGN. The measured spectrum in the 2-400
keV energy range is fitted by a slightly absorbed (N_H_ = 6.7^+8.1^_-6.7-
x 10^21^ cm^-2^) bremsstrahlung model (kT = 3.4^+0.4^_-0.4_) plus a power
law with a photon index fixed to the measurement from the ISGRI data
(GAMMA = 2.12). In addition, a Gaussian line with E = 6.9^+0.2^_-0.2_ keV
and an equivalent width of EW = 670 eV has been applied to achieve a
reasonable fit result (Chi^2^nu_ = 0.98). We see no evidence of flattening
of the continuum above ~10 keV, which is often attributed to Compton
reflection, nor can we quantitatively identify a spectral break.

9. 2006AJ....131.1262H
Re:3C 084
0316+413 (3C 84): Figure 6 (left panels) shows the central 5 mas from our
2003 March MOJAVE observations of 3C 84. The image reveals four distinct
spots of circular polarization within this central region of the source.
Without a clear component to identify as the core, we have taken spot D as
the location of the VLBI core. Homan & Wardle (2004) found that even the
locations corresponding to spots C and B were optically thick in 1997
December, so the precise definition of the jet core in this source is not
clear. With only one frequency, we do not know where the tau~1 surface is
in 2003, so it is possible that all three spots of negative circular
polarization (B, C, and D) may be part of an extended optically thick
region; however, for the purposes of this paper, we have chosen to treat
spots B and C as locations in the jet, along with spot A.
Both spots D and C are similarly circularly polarized at the -0.4%
level; however, the strength of the circular polarization increases
sharply in spot B to -1.4%. A little farther out in the jet, but at quite
a different position angle, spot A is more than 2% circularly polarized
with positive circular polarization. Homan & Wardle (2004) attribute this
change in sign to the stark change in opacity that they observe between
spots B and A.
The circular polarization that we observe is very similar to that
seen by Homan & Wardle (2004) in observations more than 5 years earlier;
however, spot D is entirely new and was not present in 1997 December. A
version of the 15 GHz image from Homan & Wardle (2004) (convolved with a
matching beam to our MOJAVE observations) appears in Figure 6 (right
panels). The 1997 image is registered with the 2003 image by matching
contours on the northernmost end of the central region shown here. The red
circles in Figure 6 (right panels) have the same relative positions as the
blue stars that mark the locations of spots A, B, and C in 2003, but they
have been shifted by 0.2 mas to the north and by 0.2 mas to the west. It
is clear that the relative positions of these circularly polarized spots
have not changed significantly in more than 5 years; however, they do
appear to move outward together at a subluminal rate of roughly 0.06c,
almost directly southeast. This speed is, of course, dependent on our
alignment of the images; however, it is similar to the speed found by
Dhawan et al. (1998) at 43 GHz for two of the three components they
studied within this region, although those two components were moving
almost due south.
Homan & Wardle (2004) found spot A to have m_c_ = +3.2% +- 0.1%,
which is somewhat larger than the m_c_ = +2.3% +- 0.3% we measure 5 years
later. The intensity at the location of spot A has faded by a factor of 3,
from 1.2 to 0.4 Jy beam-1, so presumably the region has become more
optically thin. Multifrequency observations are necessary to test whether
this is indeed the case, but if so, it is remarkable that this location
has remained as strongly circularly polarized as it has. Homan & Wardle
(2004) argued that Faraday conversion is responsible for the high levels
of circular polarization detected here. Faraday conversion is strongly
dependent on optical depth, and we would eventually expect a significant
decline in circular polarization from this mechanism if this region of the
jet is becoming increasingly optically thin (e.g., Wardle & Homan 2003).
It will be particularly interesting to follow the changes in spot A in
future MOJAVE epochs.

10. 2006AJ....131.1262H
Re:3C 084
Homan & Wardle (2004) found spots B and C to have m_c_ = -0.7% +-
0.1% and m_c_ = -0.6% +- 0.1%, respectively, at 15 GHz. Spot B has
essentially doubled in circular polarization percentage in 5 years, and
spot C has not changed significantly within our uncertainties. Neither
location has changed much in Stokes I intensity.
If the alignment between the epochs is correct, the lack of large
changes in the circular polarization distribution between spots A, B, and
C, is surprising given their motion. The magnetic field order and
particles responsible for producing this circular polarization must be in
motion; however, this motion seems to have preserved the particular field
characteristics responsible for the strong levels of circular polarization
that we observe.

11. 2006A&A...457...61R
Re:NGC 1275
NGC 1275. One of most widely studied objects of our sample, NGC 1275 is
a giant elliptical galaxy at the core of the Perseus cluster, with an
optically luminous nucleus, currently classified as a Seyfert 1.5/LINER
(Sosa-Brito et al. 2001). It is also a strong radio-source in the
center of a strong cooling flow and two systems of low-ionization
filaments, one of which is probably the remnants of a recent merger
(Zink et al. 2000). In the NIR, it was studied in the (HK-bands) by
Krabbe et al. (2000), who found that its NIR properties can be
described best as a combination of dense molecular gas, ionized
emission line gas, and hot dust emission concentrated on the nucleus.
They also argue that there is no evidence of a nuclear stellar
continuum and that at a distance of ~1 Kpc from the nucleus the
emission is totally dominated by an old normal stellar population.
Recent NIR integral-field spectroscopy by Wilman et al. (2005) shows
that the observed H2 is part of a clumpy disk rotating about the r
adio-jet axis. Our spectrum, the first to simultaneously cover the
0.8-2.4 microns interval, shows an outstanding emission line spectrum
with strong He I, [S III], [Fe II], and H2 lines. He I 10830 displays a
conspicuous broad component, with FHWM approx 4700 km s^-1^, not
reported before in the literature. It displays the richest H2 emission
line spectrum of the sample, with up to the S(7)1-0 line present in the
H-band. Note that high-ionization lines are totally absent in the
nuclear spectrum. The continuum emission is steep, and decreasing in
flux with wavelength. Stellar absorption lines are almost absent. Only
the 2.3 microns CO band-heads in K are barely visible.

12. 2005A&A...435..839T
Re:0316+413
4.3 Candidate inverted-spectrum sources
B0316+413: better known as Perseus A, 3C 84 and NGC 1275, this source
is one of the most studied radio galaxies due to its peculiar
properties. It was studied by Carl Seyfert (1943) who classified it as
one of the first Seyfert II-galaxies but later it has also been
classified as a BL Lac object (Marcha et al. 1996). It is in the center
of the Perseus cluster at a redshift of 0.0172 and it is considered to
be a colliding system (de Koff et al. 2000). The source exhibits strong
far-infrared emission as well as extended radio and X-ray emission
(Goudfrooij et al. 1994). Liu & Zhang (2002) report of two jets
associated with this source, each 5 kpc in projected length, so the
projected overall size of 3C 84 is of the order of 10 kpc. Optical
polarization of this source is 1.6% (Nartallo et al. 1998).
.
The overall flux density of B0316+413 has been decreasing slowly and
monotonically during the decades (Peng et al. 2000). This is confirmed
by the frequent monitoring data from Metsahovi: 3C 84 is used as one of
the secondary calibrators and pointing sources in the monitoring
campaigns as well as in our observations.
.
In the spectrum seen in Fig. 7 the some convexity can be seen, but the
spectral indices from the fit are very flat. There is significant
variability at all frequencies.

13. 2004ApJS..155...33S
Re:VSOP J0319+4130
(3C 84) Images using GOT data can be found in VSOPPR and Asada et al.
(2000). The six-component model fit does not account for some of the
large-scale structure. Following Vermeulen et al. (1994) we have
identified the core as the most northeasterly component of the
strong, central emission region.

14. 2003ApJS..146..353M
Re:NGC 1275
NGC 1275 (C)
There is a great deal of star formation in the circumnuclear region of
this galaxy, as well as no coherent pattern to the dust.

15. 2003ApJ...598..827P
Re:NGC 1275
NGC 1275 (Perseus A).-NGC 1275 is an early-type cD galaxy in the
Perseus Cluster. Conselice, Gallagher, & Wyse (2001) have interpreted
spectroscopic and morphological evidence to argue that NGC 1275 has
recently accreted one or more gas-rich cluster members, which are now
actively forming stars in the nucleus and which has produced the
peculiar morphology. The internal color dispersion between the MUV and
optical bands is low. The residual image shows evidence for the
AGN-induced jet, as well as peculiar features associated with
star-forming regions. The internal color dispersion between the FUV and
MUV is fairly significant, which apparently arises from a combination of
the AGN and star-forming regions.

16. 2003AJ....126.2237D
Re:NGC 1275
.
4.5. Radio Galaxies
.
NGC 1275 (F03164+4119, Per A) is the central cD galaxy in the Perseus
Cluster. It has a large radio excess (u = -0.77) and is luminous in
both the radio and FIR with L_{nu}_(4.8 GHz) = 10^25.8^ W Hz-1 and
{nu}L_{nu}_(60 micron) = 10^11.1^L_solar_. The radio source has an
asymmetric FR I morphology on kiloparsec scales and complex morphology
on smaller scales. It has a spiral companion at a separation of ~3000
km s-1 that may be infalling. The optical spectrum is classified as a
Sy 1.5 but Veron (1978) has suggested the reclassification of this
galaxy to a BL Lac due to its optical polarization and variability.

17. 2002AJ....124..675C
Re:UGC 02669
Unusually warm FIR source: alpha(25,60) = 0.80. Seyfert 2. 3C 84.

18. 2001ApJS..136...61S
Re:NGC 1275
5.8. NGC 1275 (=Perseus A)
NGC 1275 is the central galaxy of the Perseus cluster with an optically
luminous nucleus which has been reclassified by Veron (1978) as a BL Lac
object due to its weak line emission spectrum and to the absence of broad
lines as well as the variability and polarization of its nucleus. However,
Ho et al. (1997b) report a broad H{alpha} component with FWHM 2750 km s^-1^
and extremely wide wings (FWZI 19,000 km s^-1^) and we adopt the
classification of Seyfert 1.5/LINER (see Table 2). Rothschild et al. (1981)
observed that the active nucleus is a hard X-ray source and it is variable
on timescales of about 1 year. Intranight microvariability in the optical
has been observed (Pronik, Merkulova, & Metik 1999). NGC 1275 has a jet
(Marr et al. 1989; Dhawan et al. 1990; Pedlar, Booler, & Davies 1983;
Pedlar et al. 1990) and counterjet (Vermeulen, Readhead, & Backer 1994)
radio morphology. NGC 1275 is also a cooling flow galaxy (see, e.g.,
Heckman et al. 1989). This galaxy has been studied in the near-IR by
Krabbe et al. (2000), who find that its near-IR properties can best be
described as a combination of dense molecular gas, ionized emission line
gas, and hot dust emission concentrated on the nucleus (our spectra are red
and show significantly diluted stellar absorption features). Kent & Sargent
(1979) studied its two velocity systems and conclude that probably the
high-velocity emission line system (8200 km s^-1^, several arcsec northwest
of the nucleus) is excited by hot stars, while the low-velocity filamentary
emission line structure (5300 km s^-1^, the systemic velocity of NGC 1275)
can be explained by either shocks or photoionization from the Seyfert
nucleus. There is also a central population of young massive star clusters
(Holtzman et al. 1992), roughly 15 of which lie within our field of view.

19. 2001ApJS..133...77H
Re:NGC 1275
NGC 1275 (S1.5). - The radio source 3C 84 associated with NGC 1275
possesses well known jets which have been documented on a variety of
scales (Pedlar et al. 1990; Dhawan, Kellerman, & Romney 1998; Silver,
Taylor, & Vermeulen 1998; Walker et al. 2000). The only measurable
polarization was on the radio core, and well below the threshold of 0.2%,
so there is no significant polarization detection for this galaxy.

20. 2001ApJS..132..129M
Re:NGC 1275
NGC 1275, Perseus A. - The central dominant galaxy in the
Perseus Cluster, NGC 1275 is a peculiar E galaxy whose unusual features and
evolutionary state have been extensively studied (e.g., Burbidge & Burbidge
1963; Rubin et al. 1977; McNamara, O'Connell, & Sarazin 1996). It contains
a Seyfert-type AGN, evidence for recent star formation throughout its main
body, an enormous system of line-emitting filaments near the systemic
velocity, and a distinct system of emission line knots with a redshift
3000 km s^-1^ greater than that of the galaxy. It is one of the best
examples of mass accretion from an X-ray cooling flow.
NGC 1275 is detected in both the FUV and MUV (Fig. 9a). The nonthermal
nucleus dominates the UV light for r <~ 5, but it contributes only ~20% to
the integrated FUV flux and <~8% to the MUV flux. The off-nuclear FUV and
MUV light distributions are clearly asymmetric. Smith et al. (1992)
describe the UIT data in more detail. They subtracted symmetric elliptical
fits to the MUV and found the residual UV continuum light to be spatially
coincident with the extended lower (systemic) velocity H{alpha} emission.
There was evidence for UV emission from the high-velocity system as well,
consistent with the photoionization requirements of the high-velocity
H{alpha} emitting gas. The UV colors of the main body of the galaxy (after
exclusion of the AGN and correction for significant internal extinction of
A_FUV_ ~ 3.5) indicate the presence of stars with masses up to ~5 M_sun_
but not above, suggesting either a cessation of star formation in the last
50-100 Myr or a truncated initial mass function. The "super star clusters"
discovered by HST (Holtzman et al. 1992; Carlson et al. 1998) are below our
detection threshold. The unusual properties of this galaxy have been
interpreted as products of either the cooling flow or a recent
interaction/merger.

21. 2000ApJS..131..413Z
Re:NGC 1275
5.2.4. NGC 1275
NGC 1275 is a giant elliptical galaxy (Fig. 5) associated with the
radio source 3C 84 at the core of the Perseus Cluster. Not only does this
galaxy have a strong AGN but it also is associated with a cooling flow and
two systems of low-ionization filaments, one of which is probably the
remnants of a recent merger. See the Lester et al. (1995) analysis of the
100 micron flux from NGC 1275 with the same data.
The optical size from the Uppsala General Catalog of Galaxies (UGC;
Nilson 1973) is 3.5' x 2.5'. The core is clearly resolved at 100 microns
(Fig. 5b), and it is seen that D_g_ = 30" and D_e_ = 17". The exponential
disk fit from fluxes gives a size of only D_e_ ~ 13", but given the
uncertainty of the fluxes and the effective beam size, the 17" estimate is
probably more accurate. Using the single-slab model, the 60 and 100 micron
fluxes from the BGS2, and the diameter of the emitting region of 17", one
obtains a dust temperature T_d_ of 44 K and an optical depth of
8.4 x 10^-4^, which corresponds to an A_V_ ~ 0.6. Because NGC 1275 is not
a spiral and the exponential disk model may not represent the galaxy well,
with the Gaussian D_g_ = 30" the temperature remains nearly the same but
the optical depth and corresponding visual extinction drop so that
A_V_ ~ 0.2 (Table 7). In any case A_V_ is low enough that optical images
should represent the population from the galaxy fairly well.

22. 2000ApJS..131...95F
Re:VSOP J0319+4130
J0319+4130 (3C 84). - Our image does represent the main source
structure. However, because of the limited u-v coverage, it does not have
as high fidelity as other known images, such as the one at 5 GHz by
Romney et al. (1995).

23. 2000ApJS..129...33D
Re:3C 084
3C 84 (NGC 1275), z = 0.0172. - 3C 84 is the central galaxy of the
Perseus cluster and is believed to be a colliding system. The map
(Fig. 6) shows filamentary dust structures throughout the galaxy. The
dust extends out to 17 kpc, the most extended dust structure observed
in this sample. In the map two arms of emission can also be seen east
of the dust. These may be signs of recent interaction with another
galaxy (e.g., NGC 1272), or a projection of a small spiral galaxy on top
of 3C 84. A VLA/MERLIN map of 3C 84 shows a core and a jet inside a
10 arcminute radio halo (Pedlar et al. 1990). The radio map in Figure 6
shows the extended amorphous radio source.

24. 2000A&AS..145....1P
Re:3C 084
0316+413 (3C 84): This galaxy (z=0.017, showing subluminal motion,
Sub-LM hereafter) mostly shows a slow, monotonic flux decrease (with an
exception at 21 cm where it is not variable), but with an increase in
the middle of 1998 at 3.6 cm and a significant increase at 7 mm since
1994. Its modulation index at the level of 5 - 13% varies irregularly
with wavelength;

25. 2000A&A...363..933M
Re:ABELL 0426:[BM99] 270
270 NGC 1275, the central galaxy of A 426, is well known as a very
peculiar object in the centre of a strong cooling flow, with a Seyfert
nucleus (Hewitt & Burbidge 1991; Boisson et al. 2000). The galaxy
has a cD envelope with many H{alpha} filaments, an F-type optical
spectrum, and young globular clusters. It is detected as a radio source
at many frequencies and as an X-ray source with complex structure. The
filamentary structure associated with many bright knots is clearly seen
in our H{alpha} image and is also indicated in the B band image. One of
the most pronounced H{alpha} filaments (pointing towards the North)
seems to be a coherent structure with a projected length of at least
50 h_50_^-1^ kpc. It is not clear whether the many peculiarities of this
galaxy are related either to a recent merger, or to the cooling flow, or
to the interaction of the strong radio source (3C84) with the cluster
gas. The HST WFPC2 image shows a highly structured inner region with
indications of faint pieces of spiral arms and patchy absorption.

26. 1999MNRAS.309..969H
Re:3C 084
3.6 3C 84
This source (Perseus A, NGC 1275) lies in the centre of the Perseus
cluster, and in a strong cooling flow. Remarkable shell-like structure
is apparent in the HRI image, which Bohringer et al. (1993) relate to
displacement of thermally emitting gas by the radio lobes. Consequently,
it is hard to measure a good count rate for the central component;
radial fitting is not appropriate. The counts we associate with the
unresolved source are measured from a 15-arcsec radius source circle and
a 15-25-arcsec background annulus in the centre, rather than by fitting
to the data. For consistency with the other objects, the counts we
tabulate are corrected to our standard 1-arcmin source circle and
1-2-arcmin background region. The total counts listed are for a 7-arcmin
source circle and 7-8 arcmin background region.

27. 1999ApJS..122...81M
Re:3C 084
3C 84 (NGC 1275, Mrk 1505, Perseus A). - The cD galaxy NGC 1275 at the
center of the Perseus cluster is associated with a well-known cooling
flow (Prestwich et al. 1997). On our WFPC2 image, filamentary dust
occupies most of the northwest quadrant of the galaxy and is detected at
distances of 23" (8 kpc) from the nucleus. The outer regions of the host
are pockmarked with globular clusters for which photometry and
spectroscopy have been performed by other workers (Holtzman et al. 1992;
Zepf et al. 1995; Kaisler et al. 1996). The nucleus possesses a
Seyfert 2 spectrum and is an unresolved spike on our WFPC2 image.

28. 1999AJ....118.2331V
Re:NGC 1275
Four F606W exposures of 3C 84 (NGC 1275) are available. Using the
nuclear offset, 7" east and 24" south, from the online Asiago catalog,
the site of the SN I 1968A is near the outer edge of the galaxy and the
WFPC2 chip. Only diffuse emission is seen near the SN site, and only two
stellar-like objects are seen within the 10" radius error circle. These
two objects have magnitudes m_F606W_ = 20.2 and 23.3 mag; for a distance
of 70.2 Mpc (from cz = 5264 km s^-1^ and H_0_ = 75 km s^-1^ Mpc), these
objects of M_V_ ~ -11.0 and -14.0 mag are almost certainly compact
clusters, more likely globular clusters. We do not have any color
information, but from the lack of detected recent star formation at the
SN site, it is most likely that this SN was a Type Ia, rather than
Type Ib/c.

29. 1998ApJS..114..177Z
Re:3C 084
3C 84 (NGC 1275, UGC 2669, Perseus A).--Along with 3C 274 (M87) and 3C 71 (NGC
1068), this galaxy is perhaps one of the best studied radio galaxies (see,
e.g., Holzman et al. 1992; Dixon et al. 1996; Taylor & Vermeulen 1996; Inoue et
al. 1996; Johnstone & Fabian 1995; Levinson, Laor, & Vermeulen 1995 and
references in those papers). It is associated with a cD galaxy in a rich Abell
cluster (see, e.g., Owen, Ledlow, & Keel 1996a, 1996b, and references therein),
has X-ray emission and is believed to be a cooling flow galaxy (see, e.g.,
Heckman et al. 1989; Pinkney et al. 1996). Padovani & Giommi (1995) classified
it as a BL Lac object. It also has an optically luminous nucleus with
filament-like structures, gas, and dust (Poulain et al. 1992; and Gohram,
Kulkarni, & Prince 1994). We extracted only the HST IV images of the entire
galaxy and not the ones centered on the nucleus. The HST images of F130M,
F140M, F152M, F170M, F190M, F220W, F231M, and F372M show significant flux
within every image, including a strong PSF component (on average, the PSF
contribution is ~75% in all filters, although that of the F130M filter is
~32%). In Appendix A, we present the F130M and F372M images. The general shapes
of the inner contours are comparable. Furthermore, both show a small extension
(~0.1" in size) toward the southwest. We speculate that this feature could be a
minijet. The optical image (F702W) does not show this feature.

30. 1998A&AS..131..451R
Re:3C 084
The radio source is identified with the dominant disturbed elliptical
galaxy in the Perseus cluster. It has been detected as a strong diffuse
X-ray source with a strong X-ray point source coincident with the radio
core. The radio frequency morphology is quite complicated (Krichbaum
et al. 1992; Venturi et al. 1993) exhibiting a core with two opposite
radio-jets, with the southern jet consisting of components moving down a
diffuse jet and finally expanding into an amorphous component at 12mas.
Krichbaum et al. (1992) showed that the inner jet components move with
0.1c and that after a major bend the jet speed accelerated. {lambda}7mm
VLBI observations (Krichbaum et al. 1993) show a complex structure with
6 components embedded in an extended jet. The 3mm (US-only), epoch march
1987 map by Wright et al. (1988) exhibits a core with a jet in PA ~
230^deg^. Embedded in the jet at ~0.3 mas is a second component. The
previous {lambda}3mm observations (Baath et al. 1992) showed a core with
a component moving out with {mu} =85 +/- 7 microas/year with diffuse
components 0.5mas south of the core. In the 1989 map there is a hint of
a ridge-line connecting the components but the dynamic range is not
sufficient to clearly show the underlying flow. The 1990 epoch map
(Fig 1) has a structure very similar to that seen at the previous
epochs. A core extended in PA ~ -90^deg^(A) with two components well
separated from the core, one in PA ~ 200^deg^ at r ~ 150 microas(B) and
the other in PA ~180^deg^ at ~0.7 mas(C). This structure agrees very well
with that seen at the previously published epochs (Wright et al. 1988;
Baath et al. 1992). The 1993 map (Fig. 2) has a unresolved core(A) and
two components in PA ~ 180^deg^, one extended component at ~0.35 mas(D)
and a weak component at r ~0.8 mas(E). With 3 years between the epochs
it is not surprising that the structure has changed dramatically. Looking
at the three epochs from 1989 to 1990 it appears as if the components
leave the core in a PA ~-100^deg^, and later turn to the south. In Table 2
it is clear that most of the total flux density is resolved out, and that
our {lambda}3mm maps probe only the most compact structures, leaving the
flux density and position of more extended emission ill constrained.
This fact is valid for most of the sources presented in this paper
unless specified otherwise. The structures in both maps were too
complicated to allow a Gaussian model fit to the uv data, as the fitting
program has severe problems fitting more than three components to a uv
data set. Thus we present the result of fitting Gaussian components to
the images (Table 5). As the positions of the components are the result
from fitting to the image we have also labelled the components in the
two maps. It is clear from Figs. 1 and 2 that there are drastic internal
structural changes in the source. The long time between epochs makes
identification difficult, but we will make some simple assumptions to
try to quantify these structural changes. If we assume that component D
is component B seen at a later epoch and making the same assumption for
components C and E, we get a proper motion of 70 +/- 20 microas/year for
component B and 40 +/- 10 microas/year for component C. These values
agree well with the velocities seen by Baath et al. (1992). If component
B is the result of a component leaving the core after the March 1989, as
suggested by the extension in PA ~ -135^deg^ in the March 1989 map
(Baath et al. 1992) and the observed increase in flux density, then we
can estimate the proper motion to be ~130 +/- 20 microas/year.

31. 1997ApJS..112..391H
Re:NGC 1275
NGC 1275.--As discussed in Paper I, the broad H{alpha} component of NGC 1275
has extremely wide wings. In addition to the narrow lines' unusually large
breadth (FWHM~450 km s^-1^ for [N II] and [S II]), they also have quite
extended wings, making decomposition difficult. Nevertheless, each [S II] line
can be represented by three Gaussians, the sum of which was then used to remove
the narrow lines from the complex by analytic profile scaling (Fig. 6a);
repeating the process using synthetic profile scaling gave virtually identical
results. The final broad H{alpha} line has FWHM~2750 km s^-1^, full width near
zero intensity (FWZI)~19,000 km s^-1^, and contains 59% of the flux of the
entire blend. A broad component has also been detected in H{beta}, H{gamma},
and He II {lambda}4686.

32. 1997A&A...319...52V
Re:NGC 1275
NGC 1275 is one of the original Seyfert galaxies (Seyfert, 1943). The relative
[NII] intensity in the nucleus is low for a Seyfert-like object (Ho et al.,
1993a); the [OII]{lambda}3727 line is much narrower than the [OIII] lines
(Balick & Heckman, 1979; Owen et al., 1996); the [OIII] and H{beta} lines have
different profiles; both lines appear to consist of two components: a narrow
one (FWHM ~400 km s^-1^) and a broad one (FWHM ~2000 km s^-1^); the narrower
component is relatively more prominent in H{beta} than in [OIII] (Heckman et
al., 1981; Rosenblatt et al., 1994). In this object, the nucleus is surrounded
by HII regions (Kent & Sargent, 1979); the narrow core of the lines is probably
due to these HII regions, while the broader component arises in the high
excitation gas in the Seyfert-like nucleus. The presence of weak, remarkably
broad wings in the profile of H{alpha} (Filippenko & Sargent, 1985) complicates
the matter, but there is no doubt that NGC 1275 has a composite spectrum and
that published line ratios cannot be used as diagnostic to determine the
excitation mechanisms.

33. 1996MNRAS.281..425M
Re:[MBI96] 0316+41
(4) 0316+41 (3C 84, NGC 1275). This source is part of a complex system and it
has been classified both as a Seyfert and as a BL Lac [see Shields & Oke (1975)
and Veron (1978) for a discussion]. EWs for [O III] {lambda}5007 A have been
reported to be ~5 A (Veron 1978), and the source is classified as a BL Lac with
z = 0.017 and magnitude V = 12.5 in Veron-cetty & Veron (1991). Recently,
however, F. Owen (private communication) has obtained a spectrum that shows
clearly the strong emission line of [O III] {lambda}5007 A with estimated EW of
510 A. They also measured D (4000) which is an index that measures the strength
of the 4000-A break and which corresponds to a break contrast of 0.1 as defined
in this paper.

34. 1996ApJS..104...37M
Re:NGC 1275
NGC 1275.--A galaxy at the center of the Perseus cluster with a strong,
core-dominated radio source (3C 84). Its spectrum in the H{beta} region is, at
present, more consistent with Seyfert 2 than 1. There are, however, two
"transgender" features that are typical of type 1 AGNs: (1) moderate
Fe II_opt_, and (2) very broad He II {lambda}4686. The H{alpha} profile
suggests a faint, very broad wing. This object has not been included in the
kinematical studies on the BLR, since the FWZI of H{beta} and [O III]
{lambda}5007 are similar (section 4.3).

35. 1996ApJS..103...81C
Re:NGC 1275
NGC 1275.--3C 84, Seyfert 2. High-resolution VLA and Merlin maps in Pedlar et
al. (1990); VLBI maps of the compact core at 22 GHz in Vermeulen, Readhead, &
Backer (1994) and at 8.4 GHz in Walker, Romney, & Benson (1994).

36. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 1275
3C 84
Perseus Cluster
E pec
PH-4052-S and PH-4063-S
Nov 4/5 and Nov 5/6, 1962
103aF + RG1
90 min and 180 min
NGC 1275 is the center of the rich Perseus
Cluster whose mean redshift is = 5460 km/s
(Chincarini and Rood 1971). A photograph
of the central region of the cluster over an area
of 13 arc min on a side is given in Burbidge,
Burbidge, and Sandage (1963, Fig. 4). The filaments
and plumes connected with NGC 1275 are
also shown there (Fig. 5).
Minkowski (1957) discovered two velocity
systems in the galaxy, one at v_o = 5200 km/s
and the other at v_o = 8200 km/s. He interpreted
the data to indicate a high-speed collision
of two galaxies. The composite spectral type by
Humason, Sc + Sb (Humason, Mayall, and
Sandage 1956), favored this interpretation. But
in the first comprehensive mapping of the
velocity field across the image of NGC 1275 by
Burbidge and Burbidge (1965), the data were
interpreted to indicate a massive outflow of
material from the center similar to that found in
M82 (Lynds and Sandage 1963).
The filamentary structure of the image is
intricate, shown in a photograph by Lynds
(1970) using an interference filter of 55-A band
pass centered on the H{alpha} line at its redshifted
wavelength of 6694A.
The filamentary structure shown in the
print here was made from a superposition printing
of two red-sensitive plates (103 aF plus a
broadband red filter) taken with the Palomar
200-inch telescope.

37. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 1275
3C 84
Perseus Cluster
E pec
PH-545-B
Oct 4/5, 1951
103aO + GG1
30 min
The filaments shown in H{alpha} light in the print
at the left are also visible in the broadband blue
image shown here from a print made from a
single 200-inch plate by Baade.

38. 1994A&AS..105..341G
Re:NGC 1275
NGC 1275 = Perseus A
Central galaxy of the Perseus cluster, featuring two distinct,
filamentary nebulosity systems which are ~3000 km s^-1^ apart in radial
velocity (discovered by Minkowski 1957). NGC 1275 itself is associated
with the "low-velocity system" of ionized gas. NGC 1275 was included in
the original list of Seyfert galaxies (Seyfert 1943). The distribution of
the ionized gas in NGC 1275 consists of a very luminous nucleus and
various filament-like features (see, e.g., the famous picture of Lynds
1970). The B image of NGC 1275 exhibits many regions of absorption (see
also the photographic plate of Adams 1977). These features do not
obviously show up in colour index images due to the presence of strong
emission lines in the broad-band bandpasses and various regions with
evidence of recent star formation (e.g., Kent & Sargent 1979). The
distribution of dust patches is much better revealed by an A_V_ image,
which has been produced by division of the V image by a purely elliptical
model fit (cf. Norgaard-Nielsen et al. 1993). Comparing the A_V_ image
with the H{alpha}+[NII] image of the low-velocity system (both are shown
in Fig. 1, reproduced from Norgaard-Nielsen et al. 1993), it can be seen
that the absorption features in NGC 1275 generally do not show up in the
distribution of ionized gas, implying that at least some of the dust
patches are situated behind the filamentary system of ionized gas.
Conversely, the dust patches are distributed similar to the high-velocity
system of ionized gas. We argue in a companion paper (Norgaard-Nielsen et
al. 1993) that most dust patches are associated with the high-velocity
system which is moving through NGC 1275. NGC 1275 exhibits strong
far-infrared emission in all IRAS passbands (Jura et al. 1987), and is a
strong source of extended radio and X-ray emission. Molecular gas has
also been detected (Lazareff et al. 1989).

39. 1992A&AS...95..129P
Re:NGC 1275
NGC 1275: Brightest Member of the Perseus Cluster. Dust obviously
disturbs the analysis.

40. 1988ApJ...328..114P
Re:3C 084
0316+413 (3C 84, NGC 1275).-This complex object has been intensively
studied in all accessible spectral bands. A detailed discussion of the
compact radio component has been given by Readhead et al. (1983), who
showed on the basis of VLBI observations at 22 GHz that it has a
core-jet structure extended in the north-south direction, and that the
core is situated at the extreme northern end of the jet. At the
resolution of the present observations, the structure is dominated by
the jet and surrounding halo.
Where necessary, we have assumed H_0_ = 100h km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^
and q_0_ = 0.5 to convert angles to projected distances.

41. 1978ApJ...219..803K
Re:3C 084
Perseus A = NGC 1275
We re-examined the position because of an apparent 2 arcsec (6 0)
difference between the very accurate VLBI position
Cohen, M.H. (1972) Ap. Letters, 12, 81.
Fanselow, J.L. (1974) private communication.
and the nucleus of the galaxy: Matthews, quoted in
Wade, C.M., Clark, B.G., and Hogg, D.E.
(1965) Ap. J., 142, 406.
The galaxy has a very sharp nucleus, indistinguishable from a star
(< 0.8 arcsec = 500 pc)
on short (10 sec, 60 sec) 200-inch plates.
Using Griffin, R.F. (1963) A.J., 68, 421.
positions of nearby stars as secondary standards,
we find the nucleus to be 0.3 arcsec +/- 0.6 west of
the VLBl position (03:16:29.56 +41:19:51.74)
which presumably refers to the milli-arcsec, high-frequency component
called 3C 84A(i) by
Ryle, M., and Windram, M. (1968) Mem. RAS, 80, 105.
Argue, A.N., and Kenworthy, C.M. (1972) MNRAS, 160, 197.
have an optical position which is less than 0.5 arcsec
from the VLBI position.

42. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 1275
= 3C 084
Brightest galaxy in the Perseus Cluster (= Abell 0426).
Type 2 Seyfert.
Description, Classification and Dimensions:
Ap. J., 140, 35, 1964.
P.A.S.P., 80, 129, 1968.
Ap. J. (Letters), 159, L151, 1970.
Ap. J., 173, 485, 1972.
Photograph:
Ap. J. 142, 1351, 1965.
Ap. J. (Letters), 159, L151, 1970.
Ap. J. 163, 195, 1971.
Ap. J. 168, 321, 1971.
A.J., 73, 920, 1968.
A.J., 73, 921, 1968.
A.J., 79, 671, 1974.
"Nuclei of Galaxies", pp.27, 271, 1971.
Photometry: (UBV)
Astrophys. Lett., 1, 171, 1968.
Astrophys. Lett., 3, 103, 1969.
Ap. J. (Letters), 158, L19, 1969.
Ap. J., 173, 485, 1972.
Ap. J., 178, 1, 1972.
Ap. J., 178, 25, 1972.
Ap. J., 183, 731, 1973.
A.J., 73, 866, 1968.
A.J., 75, 695, 1970.
M.N.R.A.S., 152, 79, 1971.
M.N.R.A.S., 169, 357, 1974.
Sov. A.J., 16, 763, 1973.
Sov. A.J., 17, 169, 1973.
Near and Far IR (1.6-21 microns)
Ap. J. (Letters), 159, L165, 1970.
Ap. J. (Letters), 176, L95, 1972.
A.J., 73, 866, 868, 1968.
Sov. A.J., 12, 184, 1968.
Ast. Tsirk. No. 607, 1971.
M.N.R.A.S., 169, 357, 1974.
Isodensitometry (20 arcmin field, including 10 objects):
Ap. J., 163, 195, 1970.
Isodensitometry (40 arcmin x 50 arcmin field, including many objects):
A.J., 79, 671, 1974.
Spectrum:
Ap. J., 142, 1311, 1965.
Ap. J., 168, 321, 1971.
Mitt. Ap. Obs. Crimea, 35, 87, 1966.
Sov. A.J., 13, 569, 1970.
Photograph:
A.J., 73, 842, 1968.
Ap.J, 192, 581, 1974.
Velocities of many objects in the cluster:
A.J., 77, 4, 1972.
Spectrophotometry:
Ap. J. (Letters), 154, L53, 1968.
Ap. J., 162, 743, 1970.
Ap. J., 164, 1, 1971.
A.J., 73, 849, 1968.
Ast. Tsirk. No. 467, 1968.
IAU Symp. No. 29, 83, 1968.
Sov. A.J., 11, 767, 1968.
Sov. A.J., 18, 271, 1974.
Sov. A.J., 18, 717, 1975.
"Nuclei of Galaxies", 151, 1971.
IAU Symp. No. 58, 341, 1974.
Polarization:
Ap. J., 151, 71, 1968.
Ap. J. (Letters), 174, L27, 1972.
Astrofizika, 4, 409, 1968.
Astrofizika, 7, 417, 1971.
Astrofizika, 8, 509, 1972.
Ast. Tsirk. No. 454, 1967.
Ast. Tsirk. No. 526, 1969.
Dynamics of the Cluster:
Ap. J., 168, 321, 1971.

43. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 1275
SN1968A:
IAU Circ. No. 2051, 1968.
Ast. Tsirk. No. 458, 1968.
HI 21cm: (absorption)
Ap. J., 185, 809, 1973.
Radio Observations:
Ann. Ap., 26, 85, 1963.
Nature, 205, 488, 1965.
Nature, 207, 62, 1965.
Ap. J., 144, 568, 1966.
Ap. J., 144, 843, 1966.
Ap. J., 146, 621, 1966.
Ap. J., 146, 634, 1966.
Ap. J., 147, 423, 1967.
Ap. J., 147, 908, 1967.
Ap. J., 151, 43, 1968.
Ap. J., 147, 768, 1968.
Ap. J., 152, 43, 1968.
Ap. J., 152, 639, 1968.
Ap. J., 153, 1001, 1968.
Ap. J., 154, 423, 1968.
Ap. J., 158, 849, 1969.
Ap. J., 161, 1, 1970.
Ap. J., 170, 207, 1971.
Ap. J., 172, 299, 1972.
Ap. J. (Letters), 151, L27, 1968.
Ap. J. (Letters), 154, L49, 1968.
Ap. J. (Letters), 156, L15, 1969.
Ap. J. (Letters), 173, L47, 1972.
A.J., 71, 864, 1966.
A.J., 71, 927, 1966.
A.J., 72, 230, 1967.
A.J., 73, 293, 1967.
A.J., 73, 873, 1967.
A.J., 73, 874, 1968.
A.J., 74, 824, 1969.
A.J., 76, 537, 1971.
A.J., 77, 810, 1972.
A.J., 77, 819, 1972.
A.J., 78, 163, 1973.
A.J., 78, 536, 1973.
A.J., 79, 1232, 1974.
M.N.R.A.S., 138, 1, 1968.
Astrophys. Lett., 4, 139, 1969.
Astrophys. Lett., 8, 153, 1971.
Mem. R.A.S., 77, Part 3, 1973.
Astr. Ap., 25, 503, 1973.
Sov. A.J., 9, 238, 1965.
Sov. A.J., 9, 418, 1965.
Sov. A.J., 10, 225, 1966.
Sov. A.J., 13, 21, 1969.
Sov. A.J., 16, 795, 1973.
Radio Observations: (VLBI)
Ap. J., 153, 705, 1968.
Ap. J., 169, 1, 1971.
Ap. J., 177, 101, 1972.
Ap. J., 193, 293, 1974.
Ap. J. (Letters), 153, L209, 1968.
Sov. A.J., 14, 627, 1971.
Sov. A.J., 16, 576, 1973.
3mm Outburst:
IAU Circ. No. 2519, 1973.
X-RAYS:
Ap. J., 178, 309, 1972.
Ap. J., 183, 15, 1973.
Ap. J., 188, 217, 1974.
Ap. J. (Letters), 164, L81, 1971.
Ap. J. (Letters), 165, L43, 1971.
Ap. J. (Letters), 173, L99, 1972.
Ap. J. (Letters), 185, L13, 1973.
Ap. J. (Letters), 189, L59, 1974.
Ap. J. (Letters), 193, L53, 1974.
Ap. J. (Letters), 193, L57, 1974.
Bull. A.A.S., 3, 236, 1971.
Bull. A.A.S., 3, 399, 1971.
Bull. A.A.S., 6, 313, 1974.
Bull. A.A.S., 6, 437, 1974.

44. 1973UGC...C...0000N
Re:UGC 02669
Brightest in Perseus cluster, central object in a dense condensation of
galaxies
Chaotic, appears early
Pec (de Vaucouleurs)
`Faint irregular bright filaments. Brightest in nest of around 12 k systems'
(Morgan)
Radio source Perseus A
Seyfert galaxy, only non-spiral object among classical Seyferts

45. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 1275
In the Perseus Cluster
Misidentification as NGC 1270 in HA 88, 2.
Magnitude and Colors: (reduced for type E)
Photograph:
Ap. J., 119, 221, 1954.
Handbuch der Phys., Vol.53, 386, 1959.
Spectrum:
Ap. J., 97, 28, 1943.
Radio Astronomy, I.A.U. Symp. No.4, Cambridge, 1957, p.113.
Radio Emission:
Nature, 173, 164, 1954.
Nature, 173, 818, 1954.
Ap. J., 119, 222, 1954.
Ap. J., 133, 322, 1961.
Proc. R.S.A., 248, 289, 1958.
P.A.S.P., 72, 368, 1960.
Observatory, 81, 14, 1961.
Caltech. Obs., 5, 1960.

46. 1964ApJ...140...35M
Re:3C 084
No. 12.-Classified on 48-inch Schmidt red plate. On this plate the peculiar
features discussed by Baade and Minkowski (1954b) and by Burbidge et al. (1963)
are not very prominent. Brightest galaxy in cluster A426, richness 2. Redshift
from Humason et al. (1956) .

47. 1961AJ.....66..562V
Re:NGC 1275
1275 Brightest member of Perseus cluster. Dark patches and bright knots. Similar
to NGC 1316 and NGC 5128?


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