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Notes for object MESSIER 082

36 note(s) found in NED.


1. 2008MNRAS.385..553D
Re:NGC 3034
NGC 3034 (M82): This starburst galaxy is seen nearly edge-on and the
opacity of the gas renders impossible the extraction of the kinematical
parameters. The almost hourglass shape of the H{alpha} distribution and
the presence of double profiles above and below the disc indicates a
remarkable outflow of gas perpendicular to the plane of the galaxy. Line
splitting is also found in CO observations of the outflow and an
estimated 10 per cent of the gas may be lost to the intergalactic medium
(Walter, Weiss & Scoville 2002). The FP data presented here agree
reasonably well with those of Shopbell & Bland-Hawthorn (1998),
particularly the strong redshifting and blueshifting seen north and
south of the disc, respectively. The differences in velocity between the
two FP data sets are mainly due to the high interference order of our FP
etalon which is designed for smaller radial velocity range and higher
spectral resolution. Fast ejection of material is seen in the H{alpha}
velocity field, splitting the H{alpha} line by ~300 km s^-1^.

2. 2008ApJ...679..310G
Re:MESSIER 082
M82 (Figs. 6 and 7).-Figure 6 shows that the correlations inside M82 are
remarkably well articulated. The correlation coefficients (Table 2) are 0.97 for
the correlations between I_6.2_/I_11.3_ and I_7.7_/I_11.3_. The band ratios
inside M82 follow the general trends observed for the integrated spectra very
well. The centroid of the 7.7 micron feature is essentially fixed throughout M82
(Table 2). The ratio I_6.2_/I_11.3_ follows the spatial distribution of the PAH
emission very well, which is maximum in the central bar, where the star
formation occurs. With good confidence (S/N > 6), we detect low ratios in the
outer regions.

3. 2004ApJS..151..193S
Re:MESSIER 082
4.2.1. M82 Both the diffuse and point-source X-ray emission are sharply
concentrated within the central ~900 pc, coincident with the central
starburst region (e.g., Muxlow et al. 1994; Golla, Allen, & Kronberg
1996a; Forster Schreiber et al. 2001). The brightest pillars or
filaments of diffuse soft X-ray emission emerge perpendicular to the
plane of the galaxy, toward the southeast (Figs. 2b and 3b). The diffuse
emission to the northwest is fainter, consistent with absorption by the
intervening disk. In general, X-ray and H{alpha} emission to the NW of
the major axis is fainter than that to the SE of the plane, as expected
based on the inclination of the galaxy. Two relatively narrow
X-ray-and-H{alpha} bright nuclear filaments to the northwest of the
nuclear disk are notable as they also appear in the R-band image
(Fig. 2f). This to be most probably due to the inclusion of H{alpha}
line emission in the R band, as B-band images show no similar
structures.
On the larger scale, the ACIS images of the diffuse emission show few
differences from ROSAT HRI and PSPC images (Bregman, Schulman, &
Tomisaka 1995; Strickland, Ponman, & Stevens 1997). The filamentary
nature of the brighter diffuse emission is more apparent in the higher
resolution, higher sensitivity ACIS images than in the old ROSAT HRI
images (Shopbell & Bland-Hawthorn 1998). As with NGC 253, the soft X-ray
emission resembles the H{alpha}emission on all scales.
Surrounding the filamentary X-ray emission is lower surface brightness
diffuse emission, which appears more uniformly distributed. The larger
spatial extent and greater uniformity might be purely an artifact of
lower photon statistics and heavier smoothing. However, there is a
smooth component of the H{alpha}emission (Bland & Tully 1988) with a
similar spatial extent (e.g., see Fig. 2i). The smooth H{alpha}component
is predominantly dust-scattered nuclear light, given its polarization
(Schmidt, Angel, & Cromwell 1976; Bland & Tully 1988), so the conditions
in the dusty medium and the X-ray emitting plasma must be somewhat
distinct from that in the X-ray- and H{alpha}-bright filaments.
The Chandra data also show diffuse X-ray emission associated with the
faint northern H{alpha}filaments that stretch between the main
X-ray/H{alpha}nebula (0 kpc < z <~ 5 kpc), and the northern "cloud" or
"cap" (at z ~ 11 kpc; see Devine & Bally 1999; Lehnert, Heckman, &
Weaver 1999). (The northern cloud is not visible in Figures 2 and 3, as
it lies just beyond the top of these figures.)

4. 2004ApJS..151..193S
Re:MESSIER 082
To the south of the galaxy the diffuse X-ray emission can be traced out
to a distance of ~7 kpc below the plane of the galaxy, only slightly
further than seen with ROSAT. A notable feature is a bright arc of
diffuse X-ray emission, detached to the east of the main southern
outflow (centered at {alpha}= 09h56m38.3s, {delta} = +69deg37'47.6",
J2000.0; see Fig. 2h), possibly associated with faint H{alpha}emission
at the same location (Fig. 2i). Given the apparent sharpness of the
eastern edge of the southern outflow, the presence of this diffuse
feature further to the east is interesting. This feature is not
associated with any of the tidal H I streamers around M82 (Yun et
al. 1993). The origin of this structure may be similar to that of the
northern cloud discussed in Lehnert et al. (1999).
The diffuse hard X-ray emission, discovered by Griffiths et al. (2000),
is preferentially extended along the major axis of the galaxy at high
X-ray surface brightness (Figs. 2e and 3e). However, at lower surface
brightness it appears to also participate in the minor-axis outflow (see
also Figs. 2k and 3k).
There is no obvious enhancement in the diffuse X-ray emission, in
either the soft or hard energy bands, associated with the locations of
the four expanding H I shells described by Wills, Pedlar, & Muxlow (2002).
Several of the brighter X-ray point sources lie within the confines of
Wills et al.'s shell 3 (previously detected in CO emission;
see Weiss et al. 1999; Matsushita et al. 2000). It is worth noting that
the off-nuclear intermediate luminosity X-ray object (Kaaret et
al. 2001; Matsumoto et al. 2001) lies outside shell 3, weakening the
argument by Matsushita et al. (2000) that the two are related.

5. 2004A&A...419..501F
Re:NGC 3034
NGC 3034 (M82) - We used directly the extinction and QLyc results of
Forster Schreiber et al. (2001) for the starburst core within d =
30". These results were derived from an extensive set of H lines from
optical to radio wavelengths which are best fitted by a mixed model and
with deviations from the Draine (1989) extinction law, at {lambda} =
3-10{micron}, as found towards the Galactic Center (Lutz 1999a). The MIR
source is elongated along the optical major axis. Computing the
quadratic mean of the major axis and minor axis widths, we find that 2.5
x HPBW = 29.95" at 15{micron}, thus extremely close to the adopted
aperture of 30". The 5-8.5{micron} emission is more extended, and we
would have derived an aperture of 35" from it.

6. 2003ApJ...598..827P
Re:NGC 3034
NGC 3034 (M82).-The optical morphology of NGC 3034 is complex: its
inclination is nearly edge-on, and dust lanes clearly pervade the UV and
optical morphology, giving it a patchy color distribution. NGC 3034 is
only marginally detected in the UIT/FUV image. Intrinsic FUV emission,
which is presumably present because of the strong H{alpha} emission
(Bell & Kennicutt 2001), is completely obscured by the large dust
opacity. The patchy color distribution gives rise to significant
internal color dispersion between the MUV and B-band images. The
residual color image in Figure 2 illustrates the regions of strong color
dispersion, which appear to coincide with the dust lanes in the optical
and MUV images. This illustrates an example of internal color dispersion
resulting from a varying amounts of dust absorption.

7. 2002MNRAS.329..877C
Re:GB6 J0955+6940
51-redshift from de Vaucouleurs et al. (1991).

8. 2002ApJS..139..411A
Re:3C 231
3C231, M82.-The UV image of 3C 231 is displayed in Figure 14 alongside
the optical F555W image. Note that 3C 231 is not a powerful radio galaxy
but a famous starburst galaxy. The STIS 25" field of view represents a
scale of 330 pc at distance of 3C 231. The STIS image thus only covers a
small fraction of this large starburst galaxy. For reference, we include
a larger scale F555W image (Fig. 15). The entire STIS field of view is
filled with UV emission showing spectacular bright and clumpy
filamentary structures. There is also extensive diffuse emission and
compact clusters of star formation and individual point sources that may
be individual O stars. There are a number of point sources detected in
the UV image that are not detected in the optical image.

9. 2002AJ....124..675C
Re:UGC 05322
M82. Very extended radio source.

10. 2001ApJS..132..129M
Re:NGC 3034
NGC 3034 (M82). - M82 is the peculiar irregular companion to M81. Its
central 500 pc contain a concentrated starburst (star formation rate
~10 M_sun_ yr^-1^) with a bolometric luminosity 100 times larger than a
corresponding volume in our own Galaxy (Telesco 1988; Reike et al. 1993;
Waller, Gurwill, & Tamura 1992; O'Connell et al. 1995). The starburst has
probably been triggered by a tidal interaction with M81 (now ~36' distant).
M82 is observed nearly edge-on, and a complex network of dust lanes
crisscross the galaxy.
M82 was first observed in the UV at 2000 A with the FOCA experiment at
~15" resolution (Courvoisier et al. 1990). Our MUV image (Fig. 18a), with
~3" resolution, shows similar global features but with more detail. M82 was
not detected in the 270 s FUV exposure, giving a limiting magnitude
m(FUV) >~ 14.5 within an aperture of 4.5' radius.
In the MUV, the galaxy clearly has a peculiar morphology. There are two
extended bright structures along the major axis and a fan-shaped plume
along the minor axis to the southeast. Fainter regions are detectable at
larger radii (to r ~ 5'). Two dust lanes (also visible on the B-band image)
are prominent in the MUV image: the strong central lane on the east side of
the minor axis plume and another lane about 1' west of this. The brightest
central knot on the B- or V-band images (labeled "A" in the notation of
O'Connell & Mangano 1978) is considerably less conspicuous in the MUV but
is still detectable despite extinction along the line of sight of
A_V_ ~ 2 mag. The brightest region in the galaxy in the MUV is region "B,"
which lies about 1' east of the center. In optical bands this region has a
high surface brightness, comparable to region A's, but a significantly
lower extinction of A_V_ ~ 0.5 (Marcum & O'Connell 1996). The large
UV/optical color excursions (see Fig. 18b) found within the main body
appear to be produced mainly by the complex geometry of the dust layer
within M82 (Hennessy 1995).
The fanlike MUV extension below the plane of M82 coincides with the
southeastern base of the bright H{alpha} plume discovered by Lynds &
Sandage (1963), which is now thought to be associated with a superwind
driven by supernova explosions in the starburst (Lehnert, Heckman, & Weaver
1999). However, the MUV light is much fainter on the northwest minor axis,
and the general light distribution is much more asymmetrical than in
H{alpha} or optical continuum bands. The MUV/optical colors become bluer at
larger radii in the southeastern plume. The MUV band does not contain any
prominent emission lines from hot gas, so the light is virtually entirely
continuum. Given evidence for extensive dust scattering in the halo of M82
(e.g., Schmidt, Angel, & Cromwell 1976; Scarrott, Eaton, & Axon 1991), the
MUV light is best interpreted as scattering by dust grains of photons from
the central starburst regions. This would require that lines of sight from
the plume to the starburst regions have relatively low UV extinction. The
asymmetry can be produced by preferential forward-scattering by grains in
the southeastern plume, which kinematic evidence suggests is nearer us
(e.g., Bland & Tully 1988). A more detailed discussion of the UV images of
M82 is given by Hennessy (1995).

11. 2000A&AS..145....1P
Re:MESSIER 082
0951+699: This galaxy (z= 0.001) shows no flux variations at all. It
can be used as a secondary flux calibrator;

12. 1999A&A...343...51A
Re:MESSIER 082
3.1. M82
In the submm regime, M82 exhibits a double lobe structure at its centre
and a network of filaments extending along the minor axis. In fact,
despite the object's near edge-on orientation, the contours in Fig. 1
are surprisingly circular, extending almost as far along the minor axis
as they do along the disk. The central surface brightness at 850 microns
is 1.4 +/- 0.14 Jy/15" beam (3.7 +/- 0.9 Jy/9" beam at 450 microns)
which is more than an order of magnitude brighter than any emission
outside the central 1.2 kpc of the disk. This is consistent with IRAS
(HiRes) images of M82 which simply show a point-like source at
60 microns, equivalent to ~ (900 pc) FWHM (Sect. 2.4).
The detection of a central, double-lobed source has been noted by
previous submm/mm observers of M82 (see in particular the
diffraction-limited 450 micron map produced by Hughes et al. 1994).
The two maxima are separated by 16 +/- 2" (250 pc) at both 850 microns
and 450 microns, and are symmetrically situated either side of the
2.2 microns (dynamical) centre of the galaxy (09^h^51^m^43.5^s^,
69^deg^55'00.7" (1950); Dietz et al. 1986). The toroidal nature of the
starburst has been known about for some time (Telesco 1988). Bi-lobal
structure, attributable to limb-brightening from an edge-on torus, has
been observed in H{alpha} (McCarthy et al. 1987), mid-IR (Achtermann &
Lacy 1995) and molecular gas (Nakai et al. 1987). We concur with
Hughes et al. (1994) who assert that the submm torus encloses the mid-IR
torus (10" diameter) but is, at the same time, itself surrounded by a
ring of molecular gas (diameter 26"). It seems likely that the hot dust,
giving rise to the mid-IR emission, traces the most recent star-forming
activity as it propogates outwards through the dense gas surrounding the
nucleus. Indeed, in spite of severe line-of-sight obscuration, HST
images have revealed the presence of over 100 "super-starclusters"
interior to the gas torus in question (O'Connell et al. 1995). The peak
submm emission, on the other hand, occurs at a 'compromise' location
between the radiation sources (young stars) and the greatest
concentration of dust (the gas ring).
We detect submm emission up to at least 50" along the minor axis of
M82. Assuming a tilt of 83^deg^ for the disk (Lynds & Savage 1963;
de Vaucouleurs et al. 1991), we infer that dust grains have escaped to
at least a z-height of 800 pc. Spurs of cool dust emission have also
been recorded at 2mm, 450 microns and 1.3mm but not to such large
z-heights, or with as much sensitivity, as the current observations. The
presence of dust 'above' the disk of M82 is beyond doubt - dust
streamers splaying along the minor axis are evident in optical images
(Fig. 1; see also the unsharp-mask image in Fig. 4) and grains have also
been detected by means of scattered light (Scarrott et al. 1991 and
references therein). Spurs of molecular gas have also been discovered
along the minor axis, extending from the gas torus mentioned earlier to
over 0.5 kpc above the disk (Nakai et al. 1987; Loiseau et al. 1990).
Hughes et al. (1994) claim that the submm extensions in their
450 micron map correlate with the molecular spurs in such a way that
the latter appear to collimate the grains as they leave the disk. Our
own observations, which are much more sensitive and hence cover a larger
part of the minor axis, show less evidence of a collimating effect or a
"pile-up" of dust near the molecular outflow (although, otherwise, they
broadly agree with the Hughes et al. data).

13. 1998ApJS..118..401D
Re:MESSIER 082
We show the X-ray contours of M82 overlaid on an H{alpha} + [N II] image
of the central 5' x 5' region. We have aligned the X-ray nucleus with
the position that corresponds to the centroid of radio emission.
Absorption from the galaxy disk affects the shape of the outermost
contours in the HRI image and may also be partly responsible for the
asymmetry of the X-ray emission near the core. Similar to NGC 3628 and
NGC 253, there is an emission cone that extends perpendicular to the
galaxy disk, but it is peaked in the center. The surface brightness of
the central emission is high compared to the other galaxies in the
present sample, especially NGC 253. The diffuse emission is spatially
coincident with the H{alpha} filaments.

14. 1998ApJS..118..401D
Re:MESSIER 082
Raw images
At the angular resolution of the ROSAT PSPC, no prominent point sources
were detected in M82 except a compact nuclear component. The emission in
the 0.75 and 1.5 keV bands is dominated by extended high surface
brightness emission that has its largest extent perpendicular to the
galaxy disk. The total extent of the detected emission is ~11' x 7'
(10 x 6.5 kpc). At 0.25 keV, M82 is surprisingly inconspicuous. The
0.25 keV emission distribution shows a similar hourglass shape as seen
in NGC 253. However, compared to NGC 253 the extended emission from M82
appears to be generally harder. Part of this difference might be due to
the higher Galactic foreground absorption in the direction of M82.
Final images
Since there are no bright compact sources in the halo of M82, no source
extraction was performed inside the visible emission structure of the
object. Only background sources were removed. The halo emission shown in
Figures 13-15 drops sharply at the outer bound aries and an attempt to
detect more extended emission by further smoothing the data failed.
Thus, the images in the lower panels of Figures 13-15 have a resolution
of 47.5". Contrary to NGC 253, the halo of M82 is more conspicuous at
1.5 and 0.75 keV than in the soft 0.25 keV band. This indicates that
the gas in M82 is hotter, and/or more absorbed, which is confirmed by
our spectroscopic results (below).

15. 1998ApJS..118..401D
Re:Messier 082
PSPC spectra were extracted for the halo, the galaxy "core" region, and
the nearby point sources (Figs. 13-15), which are divided based
on their hardness ratios into soft (M82:DWH 1, 2, 8, 9, 10, and 15) and
hard (all others). Details for this procedure are given by WHD. There is
no clear distinction between the galaxy core and the halo in the PSPC
images, so we have chosen a core region with a radius of 2.5'. This is
much larger than the point-spread function of the telescope to ensure
that there is no "spillover" of photons from the nuclear/disk region
into the halo spectrum. The spatially resolved spectra of the core, the
integrated halo emission, and the integrated emission from the point
sources outside the halo are presented in SECTION 3.4.3 and Appendix C.
Details of the spectral extraction for ASCA can be found in WHD.
To examine the radial distribution of the gas temperature, the PSPC
data were further subdivided into four regions that consist of two
concentric annuli each within the core and halo. These regions are
listed in Table 8.
The total (joint) spectrum consists of all photons within the PSPC
and ASCA extraction regions for the galaxy. No emission from the point
sources, which are located outside the halo, is included in this
spectrum.

16. 1998ApJ...506..222M
Re:MESSIER 082
The nuclear starburst in M82 drives a bipolar outflow of
extraordinary scale along the galaxy's minor axis (Bland & Tully 1988;
HAM). In Figure 2, the filaments extend to a projected height of 240"
(4.2 kpc) above the disk. Residuals from the continuum light of the
stellar disk are visible at a P.A. ~ 68^deg^ in the image, and dense gas
in this disk apparently confines this superwind in the galactic plane.
Echellegram M82-2, along the polar axis of the outflow, is clearly
double-peaked on both sides of the nucleus. The maximum separation of
these components is 313 km s^-1^ and 270 km s^-1^, respectively, on the
northern and southern sides of the slit-in good agreement with the
measurements of HAM. These higher resolution data show more variation in
the line profile and flux-weighted central velocity with radius than
those discussed by HAM. However, the maximum intensity still shifts from
the redshifted component (south) to the blueshifted component (north) as
expected from tipping the polar axis ~35^deg^ away from our sightline
(see Fig. 19 of HAM).
Since the two components of the line profile do not converge to a
common velocity along M82-2, I differentiate this structure from a
closed Doppler ellipse in Figure 2. The spatial axis begins where the
line profile splits into two components and continues as far as one side
of the cavity is detected. A flag is drawn at the last position where
both components of the double-peaked profile are detected, and its
length represents one-half the magnitude of their velocity separation.
The filaments south of M82 do appear to converge about 190" south of the
starburst in Figure 2, so the bubble may be capped at the end.
The far side of the outflow was observed at a second slit position
oriented perpendicular to the polar axis of the wind. Echellegram M82-4
reveals the width of the expanding cavity, and Figure 2 shows its close
correlation with the morphology of the extended filaments. The faint
substructure interior to the big Doppler ellipse appears to form at
least three and possibly four smaller ellipses, so the wind is
apparently composed of several adjacent cells. These interior walls give
the superwind a cellular structure, and I suspect they may be formed by
smaller bubbles merging together to form the outflow.

17. 1998ApJ...506..222M
Re:MESSIER 082
The last panel of Figure 9 shows the M82 rotation curve (Sofue
1997). The bold line shows the escape velocity from a disk with an
exponential surface brightness profile, a scale length of 200 pc, and a
central surface brightness of 2 x 104 M_sun_ pc-2. This model fits the
maximum circular velocity of 195 km s^-1^ at a radius of ~400 pc. In the
absence of a massive halo (Sofue 1998), the projected expansion
velocities of the shells are then comparable to the galactic escape
speed.

18. 1997AJ....114.2428S
Re:NGC 3034
NGC 3034 (M82): This peculiar edge-on galaxy has been extensively studied in
the CO line. The rotation curve is known for its steep rise near the center,
and is declining in a Keplerian fashion, suggesting a truncated outer mass by a
close encounter with the parent massive galaxy. M81 (Sofue et al. 1992). Our
data show the nuclear rise and high-density gaseous torus rotating at about
120 km s^-1^, consistent with the earlier observations. We show this galaxy in
order to demonstrate that the nuclear rise of rotation is common even to such a
dwarf and peculiar galaxy as M82 in a high starburst activity.

19. 1996A&AS..115..253L
Re:MESSIER 082
M 82: The FTS spectrum of M 82 is displayed in Fig. 2, together with the
corresponding atmospheric transmission function. The transmission was derived
from the observation of BS 4439 (F8V) one hour after M 82, at a similar
airmass. Telluric bands absorbing less than 25% vanish with the correction to
within the errors. An additional 5% uncertainty on the galaxy energy
distribution is associated with the relative flux calibration, and includes
possible deviations of the reference star from the Kurucz model and
fluctuations of the instrument's transmission function.
The extensively studied starburst galaxy M 82 (Rieke et al. 1993 and refs.
therein) is seen nearly edge-on and has high amounts of heterogeneously
distributed dust. While the 2 microns continuum emission is distributed
smoothly around a single nucleus, two peaks appear on either side of this
center both in the line emission (e.g. Br{gamma}, H_{alpha}, S III, Waller et
al. 1992) and in the near and mid-IR continuum (Telesco et al. 1991; Telesco &
Gezari 1992). The imprint of this spatial structure is found in the comparison
of the stellar energy distributions integrated through various apertures. Our
12" aperture centered on the near-IR nucleus includes only parts of the two
most active off-nuclear zones. With increasing apertures, the CO index
increases from ~0.21 (3.8", Lester et al. 1990 and 5.4", McLeod et al. 1993)
to 0.24+/-0.01 (12", this work), while H_2_O absorption decreases from ~0.2
(3.8", Lester et al. 1990; see also McLeod et al. 1993) to 0.07+/-0.02 mag.
(12"), indicating that the emission of the central bulge giants (Gaffney et
al. 1993) is increasingly contaminated by red supergiants in the starburst
regions. We confirm that the continuum and the molecular features display no
evidence for dust emission in the H + K spectral range (McLeod et al. 1993).
The resolved spectral element of 2.3 cm^-1^ corresponds to 150 km s^-1^ at
Br{gamma} and 115 km s^-1^ at [Fe II]. Br{gamma} is only marginally
resolved, whereas the [Fe II] fine has a FWHM of 4+/-0.3 cm^-1^
(~200 km s^-1^), after correction for the resolution. This velocity dispersion
cannot be attributed to rotational motions only, if we adopt the [Ne II]
{lambda}12.8 microns rotation curve of Beck et al. (1978) and the relatively
flat distribution of [Fe II] emission along the major axis observed by Lester
et al. (1990). Note that Gaffney et al. (1993) measure a faster rotation from
the stellar CO absorption feature but still conclude that the ~100 km s^-1^
stellar velocity dispersion in the central arcsec is probably due essentially
to isotropic motions. The line ratios in M 82 are similar to those of NGC 1614
and Mrk 331.

20. 1995ApJS...98..477H
Re:NGC 3034
(M82) The prototypical starburst galaxy M82 is the subject of numerous
multiwavelength studies. H I synthesis observations (Yun, Ho, & Lo 1993)
reveal many tidal features connecting M82 and M81, suggesting that these
two galaxies have recently undergone a tidal interaction. In addition to
the nuclear spectrum (Fig. 25; we assumed that the brightest knot
corresponds to the nucleus), we also have several spatially resolved
long-slit spectra taken parallel to the major axis of M82 with which
excitation (e.g., McCarthy, Heckman, & van Breugel 1987).

21. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 3034
M82
Karachentsev 218 [with NGC 3031 = M81]
M81/NGC 2403 Group
Hubble Atlas, p. 41
Amorphous
PH-3921-S
March 29/30, 1962
(103aE + Intfer) - (103aD + GG11)
60 min
M82 is the prototype of the Amorphous
class. It is a companion of M81 at a separation of
37'. At a distance of 3.3 Mpc determined from
Cepheids, the projected linear separation of M81
and M82 is small, at 36 kpc.
The image on the left is a combination of an
H{alpha} interference filter photograph and a
103aD + GG11 yellow continuum image that has been
photographically subtracted from it. The extensive
series of H{alpha} emission filaments perpendicular
to the plane is emphasized in this subtraction image.
The H{alpha} emission is polarized to the same
high degree (identical intensity and position
angle) as the continuum radiation at the same
locations, showing that the high filaments are due
to scattered H{alpha} emission light from the more
central regions (Visvanathan and Sandage 1972).
Nevertheless, there is an expansion of
material from the center that is real, as shown
from long-slit spectroscopy (Lynds and Sandage
1963). O'Connell and Mangano (1978) have
suggested that the expulsion of material from the
central regions may be due to massive star formation
in the center. Extensive early discussions of
the process have been made by many authors. A
listing of the initial references is given by
Kronberg et al. (1979).
The hot OB stars, and probably supernovae
as well, excite and extrude the gas along the
minor axis. This process is a favorite hypothesis
to explain the amorphous form. Many galaxies in
this class (e.g., NGC 625 and NGC 1569 later in
this section) show the same features of emission
filaments and explosive motions. Such galaxies,
and therefore those members of the Amorphous
class similar to M82, have been called starburst
galaxies.

22. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 3034
M82
Karachentsev 218 [with NGC 3031 = M81]
M81/NGC 2403 Group
Hubble Atlas, p. 41
Amorphous
PH-3921-S
March 29/30, 1962
103aE + interference filter
180 min
Masked H{alpha} interference
The image on the right is from an H{alpha}
photograph taken with an interference filter of
80 A total half-width, dodged to increase the
latitude of the print. Spectra with the slit along
the minor axis show that the H{alpha} gas mass is
expanding from the center on both sides of the
major axis (Lynds and Sandage 1963). Confirmation,
and a more detailed mapping of the
expansion velocity field along the minor axis,
were made by Burbidge, Burbidge, and Rubin
(1964).
As mentioned in the paragraphs at the left,
light from the base of the minor-axis filaments is
highly polarized, as was discovered by Elvius
(1962, 1967, 1969). The outer filaments are
also highly polarized (Sandage and Miller 1964;
Sandage and Visvanathan 1969; Visvanathan
and Sandage 1972).

23. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 3034
M82
Hubble Atlas, p. 41
Amorphous
PH-51-S
Nov 29/30, 1951
103aO + WG2
30 min
The four views of M82 on this panel show
the features progressively deeper into the center.
The heavily printed image at the upper left
is from a broad-band blue plate showing primarily
continuum radiation. The delicate filaments
high along the major axis are polarized (Sandage
and Miller 1964). As described on the preceding
panel, the identical polarization in the H{alpha}
emission line in the same regions shows that these
filaments are made visible by light from the center
that is scattered by dust, illuminating the
filamentary structure from below.

24. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 3034
M82
Hubble Atlas, p. 41
Amorphous
PH-51-S
Nov 29/30, 1951
103aO + WG2
30 min
This image is from the same original plate
used in the print above, but printed to a different
contrast by control in the darkroom. The purpose
of this print is to begin to show the intricate
and extensive dust pattern in the central regions
of M82. Very few individual objects are visible
over the face of the image. The light is still
amorphous.

25. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 3034
M82
Hubble Atlas, p. 41
Amorphous
PH-214-S
Nov 10/11, 1952
103aD + GG11
2 min
The positive print at the top right is made
from a short-exposure yellow plate. A few
individual knots that may be stars or star clusters
appear close to the center, but most of the lumpy
structure is due to dust lanes and patches cutting
up the amorphous light. The few individual
discrete objects may be giant clusters such as in
NGC 625 (panel 336), NGC 1569 (panel 336),
and NGC 1705 (panel 335).
Radio observation at high spatial resolution
over a time span suggest that many supernovae
are present in the central region (Kronberg,
Biermann, and Schwab 1981), consistent with the
starburst hypothesis. If true, the inferred
supernova frequency in M82 would be exceedingly
high.

26. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 3034
M82
Hubble Atlas, p. 41
Amorphous
PH-52-S
Nov 29/30, 1951
103aO + WG2
5 min
The dust pattern in the center of M82 is well
seen in this short-exposure blue plate at the lower
right.

27. 1988ApJ...328..114P
Re:MESSIER 082
0951+699 (M82, 3C 231).-This irregular galaxy contains a number of
discrete, compact radio sources (Unger et al. 1984). The strongest of
these, 41.9+58, has been detected in several VLBI observations (e.g.,
Wilkinson and de Bruyn 1984). This source has been found to have a shell
structure and is probably a supernova remnant rather than an active
nucleus (Bartel et al. 1987; Wilkinson and de Bruyn 1987). We therefore
do not consider it further here.
Where necessary, we have assumed H_0_ = 100h km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^ and
q_0_ = 0.5 to convert angles to projected distances.

28. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 3034
= Messier 082
= Kara[72] 218b
= Arp 337
= 3C 231
In the M81 Group.
Description, Structure, and Review of Physical Data:
Ap. J., 155, 403, 1969.
Ap. J.,166, 7, 1971.
Ap. J.,183, 41, 1973.
Ap. J. (Letters), 156, L19, 1969.
Ap. J. (Letters),157, L27, 1969.
Ap. J. (Letters),157, L29, 1969.
Ap. J. (Letters),158, L21, 1969.
Ap. J. (Letters),158, L25, 1969.
Ap. J. (Letters),173, L47, 1972.
Astr. Ap., 12, 474, 1971.
A.J., 79, 1242, 1974.
Photograph:
Ap. J. 139, 1394, 1964.
Ap. J. 140, 942, 1964.
Ap. J. 157, 1065, 1969.
Ap. J. 173, 501, 1972.
Ap. J. 176, 57, 1972.
Ap. J. (Letters), 156, L19, 1969.
Ap. J. (Letters),157, L27, L29, 1969.
Ap. J. (Letters),158, L21, 1969.
Ap. J. (Letters),173, L47, 1972.
Publ. N.R.A.O., 1, 251, 1963.
Science, 144, 1382, 1964.
P.A.S.P., 78, 495, 1966.
IAU Symp. No. 29, 470, 1968.
Astr. Ap., 9, 181, 1970.
Astr. Ap., 12, 474, 1971.
Photometry: (12 Color)
Ap. J., 145, 36, 1966.
Photometry: (5 Color)
A.J., 73, 313, 1968.
Photometry (UBV):
Ap. J., 143, 1387, 1966.
157, 1065, 1969.
Near and Far Infrared (1 to 345 microns):
Ap. J., 143, 1387, 1966.
Ap. J. (Letters), 159, L165, 1970.
Ap. J. (Letters), 161, L79, 1970.
Ap. J. (Letters), 161, L203, 1970.
Ap. J. (Letters), 171, L67, 1972.
Ap. J. (Letters), 176, L95, 1972.
Ap. J. (Letters), 182, L89, 1973.
Sov. A.J., 12, 184, 1968.
Bull. A.A.S., 1, 248, 1969.
Bull. A.A.S., 4, 223, 1972.
"Nuclei of Galaxies", 195, 1971.
Absorption:.
Nature, 201, 171, 1964 = Uppsala Medd. No. 146.
Spectrum:
Ap. J., 140, 942, 1964.
Ap. J., 173, 501, 1972.
Ap. J. (Letters), 156, L19, 1969.
Ap. J. (Letters), 157, L27, 1969.
C.R.Acad. Sc., Paris, 258, 823, 6343, 1964 = Publ.O.H.P., No.7, 30.
Bull. A.A.S., 1, 264, 1969.
Spectrophotometry:
Observatory, 88, 239, 1968.
A.J., 160, 429, 1970.
A.J., 176, 57, 1972.
Calif. Inst. Tech. Thesis, Pasadena 1970.
Bull. A.A.S., 3, 25,
Izv. Special Ap. Obs., 4, 143, 1972.
Polarization:
Lowell Obs. Bull. V, No. 119, 1962.
Lowell Obs. Bull. VII, No. 149, 1969.
Astrofizika, 4, 93, 1968.
IAU Symp. No.29, p.384, 1968.
Ap. J., 176, 57, 1972.
Ap. J., 179, 85, 1973.
Ap. J., 192, 319, 1974.
Astr. Ap., 19, 193, 1972.
Bull.A.A.S., 6, 365, 462, 1974.
Dynamics, Rotation Curve and Mass Determination:
Ap. J., 140, 942, 1964.
Ap. J., 173, 501, 1972.
C.R. Acad. Sc., Paris, 258, 823, 6343, 1964.
J. des Observatory, 48, 247, 1965 = Publ. O.H.P. 8, No. 16.
Astr. Ap., 8, 364, 1970.
Bull. A.A.S., 1, 370, 1969.
Bull. A.A.S., 3, 24, 1971.
HII Regions: in nucleus
Bol. Tonantzintla, 5, No. 35, 247, 1970.
Interferometry (H{alpha}):
IAU Symp. No.29, p.470, 1968.
Astr. Ap., 9, 181, 1970.
HI 21cm:
Astr. Ap., 9, 155, 1970.
IAU Symp. No.44, 12, 1972.
Ap. J., 191, 639, 1974.
P.A.S.P., 83, 609, 1971.
Bull. A.A.S., 5, 429, 1973.
Velocity from 21 cm emission only = +181 +/- 9 km/s
Source R: B.A.N, 15, 307, 1961.
Source R2: Astr. Ap., 9, 155, 1970.
Discordant V(emission) = +70 Source R2: Astr. Ap., 3, 281, 1969 rejected.
Radio Observations:
Ann. Ap., 26, 343, 1963.
Ap. J., 142, 106, 1965.
Ap. J., 144, 568, 1966.
Ap. J., 146, 621, 1966.
Ap. J., 161, 1, 1970.
Ap. J., 196, 303, 1974.
Ap. J. (Letters), 173, L47, 1972.
A.J., 71, 927, 1966.
A.J., 78, 536, 1973.
Astrophys. Lett, 8, 153, 1971.
M.N.R.A.S., 152, 1P, 1971.
M.N.R.A.S., 168, 491, 1974.
Astr. Ap., 18, 481, 1972.
IAU Symp. No.29, p.347, 1968.
1.8mm (upper limit):
Sov. A.J., 16, 795, 1973.
OH:
Ap. J. (Letters), 167, L47, 1971.
X-rays: in M81-82 Group, Bull. A.A.S., 3, 398, 1971.

29. 1973UGC...C...0000N
Re:UGC 05322
Arp 337
I0 (de Vaucouleurs), Ir II (Holmberg)
See UGC 05318
UGC 05398 at 70.

30. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 3034
= Messier 082
In the M81 Group.
Photograph:
Ap. J., 64, 325, 1926.
Ap. J., 137, 1005, 1963.
B.A.N., 15, 309, 1961.
Photometry:
Ap. J., 46, 206, 1917.
Ap. J., 50, 384, 1919.
Ap. J., 83, 424, 1936.
M.N.R.A.S., 94, 806, 1934.
Medd.Lund II, 128, 1950.
Dennison, Univ. of Michigan Thesis, 1954.
Spectrum:
Sky & Tel., 8, 2, 1948.
A.J., 61, 97, 1956.
Ap. J., 135, 696, 1962.
Ap. J., 137, 1005, 1963.
Polarization:
Bull. Abastunmani, No 18, 15, 1955.
A.J., 67, 271, 1962.
Sky & Tel., XXIII, 254, 1962.
Radio Emission:
Ap. J., 134, 659, 1961.
Ap. J., 137, 1005, 1963.
HI Emission:
B.A.N., 15, 307, 1961.

31. 1961Hubbl.B...0000S
Re:NGC 3034
Messier 082
Irr II
PH-51-S
Nov. 29/30, 1951
103aO + WG2
30 min
Enlarged 3.0X
M82 is the prototype of the irregular galaxies of the second
type. Note the extremely filamentary wisps at the boundary
of the galaxy. There is no suggestion of resolution into
stars or knots, although the distance of M82 is about the
same as that of M81 (pg. 19 of the Hubble Atlas).

32. 1961Hubbl.B...0000S
Re:NGC 3034
Messier 082
Irr II
PH-52-S
Nov. 29/30, 1951
103aO + WG2
5 min
Enlarged 3.0X
There is much dust across the face of M82. This illustration
and the one below are from short-exposure plates.
The integrated properties of M82 seem contradictory.
The color index of the system as a whole is CI = 0.86
(Stebbins and Whitford, Ap. J., 115, 284, 1952). This
color, plus the amorphous texture of the luminous regions,
suggests a stellar content like that of elliptical galaxies
or the center of Sb galaxies. But the integrated
spectral type of M82 is A5 (Humason, A. J., 61, 97, 1956).
These features are not understood at present.

33. 1961Hubbl.B...0000S
Re:NGC 3034
Messier 082
Irr II
PH-214-S
Nov. 10/11, 1952
103aD + G11
2 min.
Enlarged 3.0X

34. 1961AJ.....66..541B
Re:NGC 3034
2. NGC 3031 Group
The four bright galaxies in this group are NGC 2976, 3031, 3034, and 3077, and
there are fainter members also. Holmberg (1952) discussed a way of obtaining the
mass of NGC 3031 from motions of its satellites; this is in reasonable agreement
with the value of about 1.5X 10^11^ M_sun_ obtained from its rotation. A mass of
about 1.5 X 10^10^ M_sun_ is estimated for the mass of NGC 3034 from its
rotation. Ambartsumian (1958) argued that the system as a whole could not be
stable because of the large velocity (338 km/sec) of NGC 3034 relative to the
rest of the group.

35. 1956AJ.....61...97H
Re:NGC 3034
HMS Note No. 072
Redshift is the result of a large number of measurements of velocity in
different points in the nebula, made for investigation of its rotation.
The value listed gives a symmetrical distribution of differential
velocities in the nebula.
The detailed measurements will be published separately.
HMS Note No. 073
Slit centered on [south-west] end of nebula.
Strong auroral spectrum recorded.
HMS Note No. 074
Slit centered on [north-east] end of nebula.
HMS Note No. 075
Taken with the narrowest slit, this plate shows to best advantage
the uncommonly strong hydrogen absorption lines, which indicate
a spectral type around A5 (HMS Plate IVm).

36. 1918PLicO..13....9C
Re:NGC 3034
A very patchy and irregular elongated mass, 7' x 1.5' in p.a. 65^deg^, showing
numerous rifts; an irregular lane divides it approximately along the shorter
axis. It is possibly a very irregular spiral seen edgewise. Exceedingly
bright; the brighter condensations show easily in a 5m exposure. M. 82.
See Abs. Eff. 9 s.n.


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