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Notes for object MESSIER 095

19 note(s) found in NED.

1. 2012ApJ...754...67F
Re:NGC 3351
NGC 3351 .SBR3..-The bulge hosts a clear spiral structure and a nuclear ring
(Fisher & Drory 2010) and shows signs of active star formation. SAURON data
(Dumas et al. 2007) show a drop in the gas velocity dispersion derived from
H{beta} and lowered [O III]/H{beta} ratios in the ring indicative of star
formation. The velocity dispersion profile shows a depression within the bulge
region-most strongly at r ~= 5" down to a value of 70 km s^-1^-and rises again
centrally to ~=90 km s^-1^ which is still below the values of about 100 km s^-1^
seen just inside of the bulge radius (r_b_ = 12.9"). The h_3_ moments are
clearly anti-correlated with velocity. The minor axis profile shows significant
rotation (v_max_ ~= 50 km s^-1^) indicative of a slit misalignment, in fact
there is a 25^deg^ difference between our major axis slit position of 165^deg^
and the Hyperleda published value of 9.9^deg^.

2. 2008MNRAS.385..553D
Re:NGC 3351
NGC 3351 (M95): The H{alpha} distribution in this barred galaxy shows a
luminous centre with an H{alpha} ring and the corresponding velocity
field presents evidence of strong non-circular motions in the centre.
Kinematics inside this region reveal that the stellar bar is radially
driving gas towards the star-forming H{alpha} ring at V= 25 km s^-1^
(Hagele et al. 2007), from elongated x1 orbits to the x2 orbits closer
to the bar. Furthermore, the detected excess in the central ISM content
of the large-scale bar implies that the latter is transporting gas to
smaller radii (Regan et al. 2006). Interestingly, CO observations have
shown a small molecular bar aligned perpendicular to the large-scale
stellar bar (Devereux, Kenney & Young 1992; Helfer et al. 2003). The
earlier paper argues that a resonance caused by the stellar bar lies in
the vicinity of the H{alpha} ring and nuclear molecular gas bar. The
velocity gradient in the central regions is steep in both CO and
H{alpha} data. There is also an inner ring at the end of the bar where t
he velocities are regular and not perturbed. Another H{alpha}
kinematical analysis has been done for this galaxy by Buta (1988).
Finally, two nuclear spiral arms residing inside the circumnuclear ring
can be seen in Spitzer IRAC 3.6-micron data.

3. 2007MNRAS.379.1249D
Re:NGC 3351
NGC 3351 is a barred inactive spiral galaxy. It is the control object for NGC
4579. NGC 3351 hosts a large-scale stellar bar and an inner molecular bar-like
feature in the centre (Devereux et al. 1992). The latter molecular structure is
aligned with the major-axis of the galaxy (PA ~ 10{degree}) and perpendicular to
the large scale bar. Two rings of H II regions associated with resonances due to
the stellar bar exist: one inner ring with a radius of 10 arcsec and another at
70 arcsec from the centre. More recent observations in CO (Jogee, Scoville &
Kenney 2005) show evidence of the non-circular streaming motions in the inner
The SAURON stellar continuum map (Fig. 4f) shows a ring-like structure with 6
<~ R <~ 10 arcsec, which corresponds well with the H II ring at the presumed ILR
of the large scale bar. The stellar velocity field is regular throughout the
FOV. Stellar velocity dispersions are slightly lower (by ~20 km s^-1^) inside
the ring than outside.
[O III] and H{beta} distributions and kinematics do not differ much from each
other. The intensity maps clearly show the known H II ring at ~10 arcsec
(Fig. 4f), and there is very little emission outside that structure. The gas
velocity maps are regular, following the orientation observed in the stellar
velocity field. The [O III] velocity dispersion map is almost featureless, with
only a slight gradient from north-east (100 km s^-1^) to south-west (140 km
s^-1^). There is a velocity dispersion drop (~50 km s^-1^) for H{beta} in the
ring (Fig. B1). The [O III]/H{beta} line ratio map shows low values in the inner
regions ([IMAGE]<~0.1), as expected from star formation. The [O III]/H{beta}
ratio is significantly higher outside the ring (~1), probably mostly due to the
uncertainty in the emission-line flux there.

4. 2005MNRAS.364..283E
Re:NGC 3351
NGC 3351. Bar measurements are from the r-band image of Frei et al. (1996); the
outer-disc profile is Type II. Distance is from HST Cepheid measurements
(Freedman et al. 2001).

5. 2003ApJS..146..353M
Re:NGC 3351
NGC 3351 (C)
The bright starburst ring dominates the appearance of the
circumnuclear region. Within the ring there is a great deal of dust
structure, although it does not take on a spiral form.

6. 2002MNRAS.337..808K
Re:NGC 3351
A4 NGC 3351
NGC 3351 shows a nuclear ring and a larger, inner, ring of HII regions that
encircles the stellar bar (Fig. 1d). The B-I image shows two straight dust
lanes emerging from an elliptical ring-like region surrounding the nuclear
ring. The SF in this galaxy is significant and concentrated in the CNR and
the inner ring. From the H{alpha} profile we can see a constant, high level
in the nucleus, and a decrease along the bar. The profiles display a
pronounced peak, coincident with the location of the nuclear ring, at
around 10 arcsec radius, and a secondary peak corresponding to the inner
ring. Both these peaks appear blue in the B-I colour plot reflecting the
underlying SF.
In the close-up of the H{alpha} image of the CNR, the circumnuclear ring
is clearly visible, outlined by clumps of SF. For NGC 3351 we have only a
ground-based K-band image at our disposal, along with an HSTH-band image
(Paper I). The correspondence of the SF clumps of its nuclear ring as seen
in H{alpha} with those seen in the NIR is obvious from Fig. 2(d), where the
H{alpha} contours are shown overlaid on the K-band image, and can be
further traced in the HST image.

7. 2002ApJS..140..303L
Re:NGC 3351
NGC 3351 (Fig. 32).-NGC 3351 is another very metal rich galaxy.
Consequently, its P Cyg absorptions are extraordinarily strong and
broad. The models are obviously not sufficiently metal rich to fully
reproduce the observed absorptions. Most of the current star formation
occurs in a ring at a distance of about 10" from the nucleus. The
10" x 56" HUT long slit is likely to include some of the H II regions.
The young age of t = 5 Myr is consistent with H II regions hosting the
underlying population.

8. 2001ApJS..137..139S
Re:NGC 3351
NGC 3351. - Graham et al. (1997) quote a Cepheid-based distance modulus
of 30.01 +/- 0.19, corresponding to a distance of 10.05 +/- 0.88 Mpc.

9. 2000MNRAS.317..234P
Re:NGC 3351
3.4 NGC 3351
We obtained only a K-band image (Fig. 2d), which shows an incomplete
ring of presumably SF clumps. The HST H-band image (Fig. 1) shows the
same ring but at significantly higher resolution, and resolved into a
large number of individual luminous regions, presumably star-forming.
Some of the brightest knots can be recognized in the UV (~ 2200 A) HST
image published by Colina et al. (1997), but others, e.g. the one north
of the nucleus, are absent from the UV image. Dust extinction is the
most likely candidate mechanism for this absence, although stellar
population differences can be envisaged as culprits as well. Spiral arm
structure is not obvious in the CNR, and if it is present at all it is
very tightly wound. There is only a little evidence of dust organized
into lanes, and the best example of such a dust lane is seen towards the
south-east in the HST image. In contrast, and as a direct result of
their much lower spatial resolution, Shaw et al. (1995) found evidence
for a circumnuclear ring only in their J-K colour map.
As in the other galaxies discussed before in this section, there is a
dichotomy in the slope of the K-band surface brightness profile. The
change occurs at the radius of the SF 'ring', and can be explained as
the transition between an inner active SF region and the quiescent disc
around it. PA and ellipticity are difficult to fit in that area, but
their radial profiles show consistent behaviour inside and outside the
nuclear ring.

10. 2000AJ....119...79C
Re:NGC 3351
NGC 3351 appears to be symmetric in both its outer and inner
portions, and, with the exception of the nuclear starburst, it appears
quite regular, with none of the tidal features that are observed in many
of the other galaxies in our sample (Fig. 3). The classical
morphological description of this galaxy is a ringed-barred Sb, while
most UV-bright starbursts have classically been defined as either
irregular or peculiar galaxies. The regular morphology of NGC 3351
suggests that this galaxy's starburst has a different origin than the
others in our sample. NGC 3351 has a prominent bar, and the dynamical
influence of the bar is a likely source of this starburst (Shlosman et
al. 1990).
Previous work on NGC 3351 (e.g., Alloin & Nieto 1982; Maoz et al.
1996) found three H{alpha} bright H II regions surround the nucleus.
Kinney et al. (1993) also find highly ionized species of heavy elements,
indicating the presence of intense radiation, consistent with the
central starburst interpretation. Colina et al. (1997) previously
observed NGC 3351 in the UV with WFPC2, finding a star formation ring
composed of individual stellar clumps. Circumnuclear molecular gas was
also found in NGC 3351 by Planesas, Colina, & Perez-Olea (1997).
In our H{alpha} images, we find four circumnuclear H II complexes
and several UV star clusters that have neither corresponding H II
regions nor any significant H{alpha} flux. One interpretation for the
existence of the star burst in NGC 3351 is that the gas is being driven
into the ring around the nucleus, creating the starburst in the inner
Lindblad resonance (Alloin & Nieto 1982). The lifetimes of intensely
star-forming nuclear rings in giant disk galaxies are not very well
known, and this class of UV-bright starburst may be fundamentally
different from those produced by interactions.

11. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 3351
Hubble Atlas, p. 48
panel 170
Jan 8/9, 1953
103aD + GG14
30 min
NGC 3351 is seen almost face on. The
details of the nearly complete inner ring are well
seen at this viewing angle. The two main inner
arms spring from the end of a very strong bar.
They nearly meet after each has turned by 180^deg^,
giving the impression of a true ring, yet the
structure is clearly broken, being composed of
two separate spiral segments.
The outer arms, of low surface brightness,
are multiple and are branched into separate fragments,
none of which can be separately traced for
more than about one-quarter revolution.
Star formation is only moderate in these
outer arms. The HII regions are few and are
small. The redshift of NGC 3351 is small, at
v_0 = 641 km/s, yet the stellar content is not well
The high-surface-brightness inner arms
forming the usual near-ring pattern are well seen
in the Hubble Atlas print where, however, the
extensive low-surface-brightness outer arm pattern
is largely invisible. It is well seen in the print

12. 1993ApJS...86....5K
Re:NGC 3351
NGC 3351 (M95); SBb, hot spot.
This is a typical ringed galaxy: a quiescent nucleus is surrounded by a
ring of H II regions which appear as bluer knots where intense star
formation is taking place. In particular, the ringlike structure of M 95
has an external diameter of about 20", around a redder nucleus of about
2" (Alloin & Nieto 1982 and references therein). There are three major
complexes of H II regions, whose high content of O stars gives a young
age to the burst. Alloin & Nieto (1982) suggest that the burst is related
to the existence of a radial inflow of the ring toward the nucleus, which
might produce an accumulation of neutral gas on the inner Lindblad
resonance, providing fuel for the star formation. The UV spectrum shows
unusually strong C IV and Mg II absorption lines.

13. 1993A&AS...97..887B
Re:NGC 3351
NGC 3351 is a starburst galaxy (cf. Jackson et al. 1989, P89) with a
nuclear ring and concentrated 20 cm emission (C87). There is also an
optical ring at 25". The inclination (50^deg^) makes it impossible to
distinguish between a nuclear ring and disk in CO. The true center of
this galaxy is likely to be closer to the (7", 0) position.

14. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 3351
= M95
In the Leo (M96) Group.
P.A.S.P., 77, 287, 1965.
P.A.S.P., 79, 152, 1967.
IAU Symp. No.44, 56, 1972.
Sov. A.J., 17, 643, 1944.
Photometry (12 Color):
Ap. J., 145, 36, 1966.
Photometry (5 Color):
A.J., 73, 313, 1968.
Photometry (7 Color):
Izv. Crimean Ast. Obs., 52, 71, 1974.
Photometry (UBV):
Sov. A.J., 16, 71, 1972.
Astrofizika, 3, 529, 1967.
Surface Photometry:
Publ. Byurakan Obs., No. 40, 15, 1969.
Sov. A.J., 17, 643, 1974.
Ap. J. Suppl., 46, No. 230, 1973.
Astr. Ap., 27, 433, 1973.
C.R.Acad.Sc., Paris, B, 272, 909, 1971.
HII Regions:
"Atlas and Catalogue", Univ. Washington, Seattle, 1966.
Ap. J. Suppl., 27, No. 239, 1974.
Radio Observations:
Austral. J. Phys., 19, 565, 1966.

15. 1973UGC...C...0000N
Re:UGC 05850
SB(r)b (de Vaucouleurs), Sb+ (Holmberg)
"Hot spots in nucleus" (Morgan)
(r) 2.3 x 2.1
UGC 05882 at 41.5, 80

16. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 3351
= Messier 095
Extremely bright nucleus in a strong smooth bar: 1.4 arcmin x 0.3 arcmin with
dark lanes. (r): 2.1 arcmin x 1.9 arcmin in a lens: 2.5 arcmin x 2.3 arcmin.
Branching, knotty, outer arms.
Lick 13 dimensions (3.0 arcmin x 3.0 arcmin) are for the bright part only.
(B-V) constant, interpolated value.
In the Leo Group.
Handbuch der Ap., 5, 2, 845, 1933.
HII Regions:
Zeit. fur Ap., 50, 168, 1960.

17. 1961Hubbl.B...0000S
Re:NGC 3351
Messier 095
Jan. 8/9, 1953
103aD + GG14
30 min
Enlarged 3.0X
This is the broken-ring type similar to NGC 3185 SBa
(pg. 43 of the Hubble Atlas) or NGC 2217 SBa (pg. 43).
The nearly circular arms forming the broken ring spring from the
ends of the bar and wind slightly outward, almost touching the
opposite bar and arm after a revolution of about 180 degrees.
The nuclear region of NGC 3351 has an almost circular ring
which shows on the original plate but is lost in the reproduction.
This ring is broken at two points, from which dust lanes emerge.
This region is somewhat like the center of NGC 4314 (pg. 44)
and NGC 1097 (pg. 46).

18. 1957HPh....53..275d
Re:NGC 3351
(Plate 26)
(= Messier 095)
The nucleus and bar are enhanced on this photograph taken
in yellow light.
The elliptical ring appears circular or slightly hexagonal
by projectional foreshortening.
Note the two main arms emerging from the ring near the
extremeties of the bar, and weaker branches.
Compare with NGC 1433 (Plate 25), NGC 2523 (Plate 27), and
NGC 1365 (Plate 30).

19. 1918PLicO..13....9C
Re:NGC 3351
A beautiful object; nearly round; 3' in diameter. The whorls are rather faint
and form an almost complete ring; a wide band of matter extends across
the nebula from one side to the other; an example of the {phi}-type spiral.
The center is exceedingly bright, and of unusual structure. It is about 12"
in diameter, and appears trinuclear; the center of the disk is not marked by
any condensation, but on its periphery are two stellar nuclei, and a short
very bright, slightly curved mass. 10 s.n.

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