Date and Time of the Query: 2019-08-18 T12:50:26 PDT
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Notes for object MESSIER 096

21 note(s) found in NED.

1. 2012ApJ...754...67F
Re:NGC 3368
NGC 3368 .SXT2..-Complex morphology with a number of stellar components (Erwin
2004; Nowak et al. 2010). This galaxy is possibly double-barred (Jungwiert et
al. 1997). The bulge hosts a strong nuclear spiral and an inner disk (Erwin
2004) and is classified as a pseudobulge by Fisher & Drory (2010). The bulge
radius is 20.4". The complex morphology is reflected in the kinematic structure.
The rotational velocity reaches a local maximum at about 7". This is accompanied
by local minimum in the velocity dispersion profile that has been rising inward
until ~=13". Inward of 7" the dispersion rises again, but asymmetrically about
the center; see Nowak et al. (2010). The local maximum in velocity and local
minimum in dispersion coincide with strengthened h_3_ moments. h_3_ is
anti-correlated with velocity inward of 15" but correlated outside. The h_4_
moments are close to zero at 13" but become positive and reach a local maximum
at about the same radii where the local maxima in velocity are observed and the
drops in velocity dispersion and strengthening of h_3_ moments occur. The minor
axis profile shows similar depressions in velocity dispersion. The minor axis
velocity profile shows a central peak of about 30 km s^-1^. Visual inspection of
the HET pre-acquisition images reveals that a minor offset of the slit position
(~=1") to the west is responsible for the peak.

2. 2007MNRAS.377.1696M
Re:NGC 3368
NGC 3368. Nagar et al. (2000) report a 3{sigma} limit of 0.6 mJy at 2 cm on any
radio core at VLA resolution (-1 arcsec).
MO5 found no UV variations between the two epochs, in 2002 and 2003, at which
this LINER 2 was observed. However, the 2500-A flux (22 * 10^-17^ erg cm^-2^
s^-1^ A^-1^) was a factor of 4.5 higher than the 2300-A flux measured in 1993
with HST/FOC by Maoz et al. (1996; 5 * 10^-17^ erg cm^-2^ s^-1^ A^-1^). The
variable fraction gives a lower limit on the AGN flux of (22 - 5) * 10^-17^ erg
cm^-2^ s^-1^ A^-1^. For the high flux, I adopt 22 * 10^-17^ erg cm^-2^ s^-1^
A^-1^ at 2500 A and 30 * 10^-17^ erg cm^-2^ s^-1^ A^-1^ at 3300 A.
In X-rays, Satyapal, Sambruna & Dudik (2004) used Chandra to measure a 2-10
keV flux of 16 * 10^-14^ erg cm^-2^ s^-1^.

3. 2005MNRAS.364..283E
Re:NGC 3368
NGC 3368. Because the (outer) bar is very dusty in the optical, measurements
were made using the K-band image of Mollenhoff & Heidt (2001). The outer-disc PA
and inclination are from WIYN R-band images, which agree well with measurements
made using the Frei et al. (1996)R-band image and with kinematic line of nodes
from both the H I study of Schneider (1989), as quoted in Sakamoto et al.
(1999), and the near-nuclear 2D spectroscopy of Sil'chenko et al. (2003). Type
II outer-disc profile.

4. 2005MNRAS.357..361S
Re:NGC 3368
NGC 3368. This mid-inclination galaxy (i= 45^deg^) has a least one short bar,
which is very well picked out by the submillimetre images. The unresolved core
is relatively bright at both submillimetre wavelengths; however, the core to bar
luminosity ratio appears to be much higher on the 850-{mu}m map, suggesting
either the bar contains warm dust or (less likely) the core contains cool dust.

5. 2004A&A...415..941E
Re:NGC 3368
NGC 3368 (M 96; double bar + inner disk): Source: Jungwiert et al.
(1997). The H-band image of Jungwiert et al. is not large enough to
fully cover the outer bar; thus, the "double bar" they reported is
actually the inner bar + an intermediate elliptical structure,
identified here as an inner disk due to its low ellipticity and
alignment with the outer disk. Outer-bar, inner-disk, and inner-bar
measurements are from the publically available K-band image of
Mollenhoff & Heidt (2001), except that inner-bar a_{epsilon} is based
on ellipse fits to a NICMOS2 F160W image and L_bar_ on the size of the
nuclear ring. See Erwin (2004a) for a discussion of the outer-disk
orientation; distance is from Cepheid measurements (Freedman et al.

6. 2003ApJS..146..353M
Re:NGC 3368
NGC 3368 (CS)
The dust lanes in this galaxy have very large pitch angles, although
they are too incoherent to be classified as a loosely wound spiral.

7. 2002A&A...388...50F
Re:NGC 3368
From NIR photometry, Jungwiert et al. (1997) identified a
possible double-barred structure within this Sab spiral.
Although the PV diagram seems to have a two-component structure,
the constant velocity gradient and steep increase of the
integrated flux of the [O III]{lambda}5007 line toward the center
suggest a Type III classification.

8. 2001ApJS..137..139S
Re:NGC 3368
NGC 3368. - Kennicutt et al. (1998) quote a Cepheid-based distance
modulus of 30.27 +/- 0.13, corresponding to a distance of 11.3 Mpc.

9. 2001A&A...374..394V
Re:NGC 3368
NGC 3368, NGC 3810 and NGC 5854: Our major-axis kinematics are in good
agreement with the literature. This is also true for the V_*_ we measured
along the minor axis of NGC 5854.

10. 2001A&A...374..394V
Re:NGC 3368
NGC 3368: The H I and CO velocity fields have been derived by Schneider
(1989) and Sakamoto et al. (1999) respectively. The large fraction of H I
is distributed outside the optical disk indicating the possible capture of
intergalactic gas. On the contrary CO is concentrated towards the inner
regions and its asymmetric position-velocity diagram matches our
[O III] {lambda}5006.8 velocity curve. Gas infall due to the galaxy bar
and interactions has been considered by Sakamoto et al. (1999) to explain
CO distribution.

11. 2001A&A...368...16M
Re:NGC 3368
21. NGC 3368 = M 96 is an Sab spiral of low inclination. It is the
brightest galaxy in a group of galaxies in Leo (e.g. Schneider 1989). Our
field of view is a bit too small for this object. Due to a complex
substructure and isophote twist in the central region, our fit yields only
fairly good residua (may be double bar, see Jungwiert et al. 1997). In the
HST key project the Cepheid distance of NGC 3368 was determined to 11.2 Mpc
(Tanvir et al. 1999; Gibson et al. 2000).

12. 1999ApJS..124..403S
Re:NGC 3368
5.4. NGC 3368
Most of molecular gas in the central 1' (2.5 kpc) of NGC 3368
(=M96) is concentrated at the nucleus within 15" diameter. The CO core
has a deconvolved size of 500 x 300 pc with a mass of molecular gas
4 x 10^8^ M_sun_. The CO condensation is in the rigid-rotation part of
the rotation curve. Velocity contours show wiggles in addition to the
galactic rotation, but the noncircular motions do not appear to be
systematic at the current resolution. This galaxy has a stellar bar and
is located in the M96 group of galaxies. Possible causes for the high
concentration of molecular gas include gas infall caused by the bar and
that by interactions with other objects in the group.

13. 1997ApJS..108..155G
Re:NGC 3368
NGC 3368 shows a compact nucleus with diffuse emission, and 31 H II
regions in the disk. The nearest is at 2.3 kpc from the nucleus, and the
brightest is at 3.7 kpc.

14. 1997A&AS..125..479J
Re:NGC 3368
NGC 3368 (SABab, 1"~59 pc, I=51.0^deg^)
One can see three ellipticity maxima (e_max_=0.29, 0.30 and 0.43) accompanied
y three plateaus in the PA profile. The third maximum is controversial since it
is close to the locus where spiral arms start and our frame ends at the same
time. The illusion of the triple-barred system disappears after deprojection
(PA_disk_=5.0^deg^): it seems plausible that the galaxy is double-barred with
the two bars roughly aligned. However, as I is rather high for the deprojection
to be unambiguous, we do not exclude that three triaxial components coexist.

15. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 3368
Hubble Atlas, p. 12
Nov 3/4, 1954
20 min
The print of NGC 3368 here is from the same original plate used
in the Hubble Atlas. The dust lanes are well seen, silhouetted against
the near side of the disk.
A very faint single outer arm containing many small HII regions
is only just seen here. It emerges from the disk at position angle
about 5 o'clock and coils outward to the right and up, extending to
within about one-eighth the distance to the top border. It is seen
better in the insert negative print in the Hubble Atlas. (Note the
difference in the orientation of the prints in the Hubble Atlas and

16. 1993A&AS...97..887B
Re:NGC 3368
NGC 3368 was detected by S88 and placed in a class of disturbed galaxies.
We did not place it among the disturbed galaxies from its optical
appearance but distinctions are not always clear. The line ratio here is
clearly greater than unity although the unavoidable imperfections of the
convolution could reduce it by about 5-10% given the CO(2-1) source size
of about 25". A quickly rising rotation curve is not seen here in CO. H87
detected concentrated 20 cm emission in this LINER (K83).

17. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 3368
= M 96
Brightest in Leo Group.
Photometry (UBVR),I,J,K,L:
Ap. J., 143, 187, 1966.
Photometry (5 Color):
A.J., 73, 313, 1968.
Ap. J. Suppl., 26, No. 230, 1973.
HII Regions:
"Atlas and Catalogue", Univ. Washington, Seattle, 1966.
Bull. A.A.S., 6, 343, 1974.

18. 1973UGC...C...0000N
Re:UGC 05882
SAB(rs)ab (de Vaucouleurs), Sa (Holmberg)
"One-armed spiral" (Morgan)
Companion attached at 3.8, 205, 0.4 x 0.4, E:
UGC 05850 at 41.5, 260

19. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 3368
= Messier 096
Small, bright nucleus in a broad diffuse bar with many dark lanes. (r):
2.4 arcmin x 1.5 arcmin. Faint outer arms form a faint (R): 6.2 arcmin x
3.9 arcmin.
Lund 9, and Uppsala 21 dimensions are for the bright part only.
In the Leo Group.
Ap. J., 92, 236, 1940.
Ap. J., 135, 734, 1962.
Ap. J., 127, 487, 1958.
HII Regions:
Zeit. fur Ap., 50, 168, 1960.

20. 1961Hubbl.B...0000S
Re:NGC 3368
Messier 096
Nov. 3/4, 1954
20 min
Enlarged 6.0X
NGC 3368 is of the NGC 4274 (left) type but is later along
the sequence of classification. Remnants of the "broken
ring" are visible in the two arms which begin in the nucleus
and circle the rim of the lens. NGC 3368 is seen
more nearly face-on than NGC 4274, and so the arms do
not appear to overlap as much as in NGC 4274.
Very faint filaments, circling the entire inner structure,
are visible in the insert. They are connected to the inner
lens near the northwest end of the major axis.

21. 1918PLicO..13....9C
Re:NGC 3368
A fine strong spiral; brightest part 2.6' long. Bright stellar nucleus; the
outer whorl of the brighter structure forms a nearly complete oval ring; a much
fainter whorl outside this brings total length to about 7'. A clear-cut rift
goes in to nucleus on n.p. side. Reproduced in Publ. Astr. Soc. Pac., June,
1913, frontispiece. See Abs. Eff. 20 s.n.

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