Date and Time of the Query: 2019-05-21 T00:59:46 PDT
Help | Comment | NED Home

Notes for object MESSIER 099

21 note(s) found in NED.

1. 2009ApJ...697.1870E
Re:NGC 4254
NGC 4254 (M 99) For this three-armed spiral galaxy, we were able to measure 18
offsets between CO and H{alpha} for the arm1, extending from east to south, and
arm2, extending from west to north, at r = 2-6 kpc (0.4'-1.3'). The difference
in the {OMEGA}-{theta} distribution for the two arms is not clear, since the
number of offsets is small for arm2 (see Figure 5). We could not measure any
offsets for arm3, originating from the same position as the arm1 but with much
smaller pitch angle extending to north, since the H II regions were not well
aligned where the CO emission delineates the arm. This galaxy has an asymmetric
structure, as one spiral arm (arm1) is much prominent than the other two, which
could be explained by a ram pressure effect from intra-cluster matter in the
Virgo cluster (Hidaka & Sofue 2002; Sofue et al. 2003a). In addition, a faint
but large H I structure, VIRGOHI 21, which might be interacting with this
galaxy, has recently been found (Haynes et al. 2007; Minchin et al. 2007) and is
also thought to be responsible for the asymmetry. This global asymmetry could
explain why only a few offsets could be measured in arm2, and none in arm3. From
the derived value of {OMEGA}_P_ and the RC, the corotation radius was calculated
to be R_CR_ ~= 4.5-6.0 kpc, corresponding to 1.0'-1.3'. Our result is consistent
with Kranz et al. (2001), who used results from hydrodynamic simulations to
locate the R_CR_. In our previous work, {OMEGA}_P_ and t_SF_ were derived to be
28^+10^_-6_ km s^-1^ kpc^-1^ and 4.8 +/- 1.2 Myr, respectively, while this work
gives 10 +/- 3 km s^-1^ kpc^-1^ and 12.4 +/- 1.3 Myr. The difference between the
previous and current work is the fitting scheme, CO data (both in map and RC),
and the adopted inclination angle. We have included the uncertainty in {OMEGA}
in the fitting procedure, and furthermore, the number of data and the radial
range of RC have been increased by our new CO observations with three pointings
with NMA. These two aspects should have improved the reliability of results. The
assumed inclination angle is changed from 34^deg^ to 52.4^deg^. However, since
sin(34^deg^)/sin(52.4^deg^) ~ 0.7, this is not enough to explain the discrepancy
in {OMEGA}_P_ and t_SF_ (See Section 5.3). This implies that the uncertainties
from the fitting could be underestimated.

2. 2009A&A...503..409H
Re:NGC 4254
NGC 4254 (M99): Bright polarized emission is detected from an incomplete ring
extending from PA ~90-330^deg^. The peak of the polarized continuum is to the
south of the southern spiral arm. The Stokes I peak is also slightly offset to
the south from the nucleus of the galaxy, though not as far as the peak of the
polarized emission. The lowest brightness of polarized emission occurs near the
receding major axis (PA = 65^deg^, as tabulated in Table 1). Both the interior
and exterior of the unusual western spiral arm display bright polarized emission
that subsequently extends far to the north of the optical disk. The polarized
fraction is only moderate in the vicinity of the southern peak; 4% at the peak
and 1-10% elsewhere in that region. Polarized fractions are also low in the
inner spiral arm region; below one percent ranging up to a few percent. Along
the outer western edge and in the northern polarized extension, the polarized
fraction is generally in the range 10-15%, but in some areas as high as 20-25%.
The magnetic field lines follow the spiral arm structure very well, especially
in the southern region where the polarized emission is brightest. To the north,
at the location of the radio continuum extension, the magnetic fields continue
to follow the direction defined by the optical spiral arm structure, even though
the optical arm is no longer detected. The apparent departure from this simple
pattern in the southwest is due to a polarized background source. The Faraday
depth distribution shows some interesting systematic variation: the Faraday
depth tends to be negative on the outside of the spiral arms, and positive on
the inside. Within the bright radio continuum disk there may be evidence for
some azimuthal variation, while the western and northern polarized extensions do
not participate in this pattern. This galaxy has recently been studied by Chyzy
et al. (2007) and Chyzy (2008), who report on VLA and Effelsberg polarimetric
observations at 1.4, 4.8 and 8.5 GHz. A single double source in the field all
ows reasonable assessment of the Galactic foreground RM (from the brighter lobe)
of -13 +/- 3 rad m^-2^.

3. 2008MNRAS.385..553D
Re:NGC 4254
NGC 4254 (M99): The kinematical analysis of this grand design spiral
galaxy has already been presented in the Virgo galaxy cluster sample of
Chemin et al. (2006a). The H{alpha} velocity field presents significant
streaming motions along the spiral structure. Recent observations by
Haynes, Giovanelli & Kent (2007) reported an H I tail extending ~ 250
kpc to the north of NGC 4254, perhaps the result of galaxy harassment as
the galaxy enters the Virgo cluster.

4. 2008MNRAS.383..173K
Re:NGC 4254
The flux density of NGC 4254 at 57.5 MHz is 5.8 +/- 1 Jy (Israel & Mahoney
1990). This was pointed out to us by Dr Israel. This data point is consistent
with the curved spectrum that we suggest in Section 4.

5. 2007MNRAS.380..506G
Re:NGC 4254
Also known as M99, NGC 4254 is a bright Sc galaxy located on the periphery of
the Virgo cluster, at a projected distance of 3.7{degrees}(~=1 Mpc) from the
center of the cluster. Its optical appearance is dominated by a peculiar one-arm
structure: the arms to the northwest are much less defined than the southern
arm. This kind of spiral structure could be related to an external driving
mechanism, but for NGC 4254 there are no close companions. Phookun, Vogel &
Mundy (1993) carried out deep H I observations of NGC 4254, detecting non-disc H
I clouds, with velocities not following the disc velocity pattern and an
extended low surface density tail northwest of the galaxy; they interpreted
these observational results as infall of a disintegrating gas cloud. They also
noted that there is an hole in the H I emission at the centre of the galaxy,
with a diameter of ~=3 kpc. Vollmer, Huchtmeier & van Driel (2005) propose
instead a scenario where NGC 4254 had a close and rapid encounter with another
massive galaxy when entering the Virgo cluster: the tidal interaction caused the
one-arm structure and the H I distribution and kinematics is due to ram pressure
stripping. Recently, Soria & Wong (2006) studied the X-ray properties of M99,
noticing that a phenomenon often associated with tidal interactions and active
star formation - both documented - is the presence of ultraluminous X-ray
sources (ULXs). The X-ray emission appears approximately uniformly diffused
across the inner ~=5 kpc from the nucleus. They do find a ULX, amongst the
brightest observed, located at ~=8 kpc southeast of the nucleus, close to the
position where a large H I cloud seems to join the gas disc. From observations
of the radial velocities, they suggest that the cloud is falling on to the
galactic disc and try to build a link between this collisional event and the
formation of the bright ULX. Our data cover a much smaller spatial extent than
the mentioned observations, therefore a comparison is not possible; within our
field, both the Fe5015 and Mgb maps show a regular structure with a central
concentration; at the northern edge of the field, both Fe5015 and Mgb seem to
increase again; the H{beta} map has opposite behaviour, presenting a central
depression. The ages (from our one-SSP approach) are generally young and the
metallicity, quite low everywhere, decreases slightly moving outwards and shows
the same enhancement at the northern edge of the field that we noted for the
Fe5015 and Mgb line strength. The {tau} map (see Fig. 12) shows a central
depression. The analysis of the {DELTA}{chi}^2^ contours, in the continuous star
formation approach, shows that NGC 4254 is probably not very well described by
an SSP, nor by a constant SFR.

6. 2007ApJS..173..538T
Re:NGC 4254
NGC 4254 [M 99] (Fig. 16.18).-This Virgo cluster member, an SA(s)c galaxy,
exhibits peculiar lopsided XUV emission in our deep NUV GALEX imaging. The UV
clumps are located to the southwest of the bright inner disk over an azimuthal
range of about 45{degree} and extending to approximately 2 times the D_25_
radius. The XUV structure, although of a high surface covering factor, does not
appear to be related to the spiral structure of the inner disk. The XUV disk of
NGC 4254 is also odd because the H I disk of the galaxy is slightly extended in
an opposite direction, to the north of the disk (VIVA of Kenney et al. 1995;
Braun et al. 2007). Furthermore, ALFALFA observations have demonstrated that NGC
4254 has a very low column density H I stream (see the Giovanelli ALFALFA
follow-up proposal) running ~30' north-northwest of the galaxy and including
VIRGO HI21 (Minchin et al. 2005). SDSS imaging shows little in the vicinity of
the lopsided XUV-disk.

7. 2006MNRAS.366..812C
Re:NGC 4254
The prominent spiral structure is asymmetric in this well-known galaxy, as well
as its H{alpha} velocity field. Streaming motions are observed along the spiral
arms. Our observation of NGC 4254 is in good agreement with the H{alpha} and H I
velocity fields presented in Phookun et al. (1993). Notice a region at RA
~12^h^18^m^57.56^s^, Dec. ~+14^deg^26'55", {nu}_obs_ ~ 2535 km s^-1^) having a
higher velocity than its surroundings (~2500 km s^-1^). CO data show a steep
velocity rise in the innermost arcseconds (80 km s^-1^). It could be due to a
small bar detected by Kranz, Slyz & Rix (2001).

8. 2005ApJS..157...59L
Re:NGC 4254
NGC 4254 (M99) is a face-on Sc grand design spiral galaxy at a distance of 16.8
Mpc in the Virgo cluster. ULX1 is located on a thin spiral arm, while ULX2 (IXO
46) is an extreme ULX with L_X_ ~ 15 * 10^39^ ergs s^-1^, which is located ~10"
north of a foreground star.

9. 2003PASJ...55...59S
Re:NGC 4254
4.2 NGC 4254 The velocity field shows a regular spider pattern,
indicating a circular rotation of the disk. The PVD and RC show a sharp
rise of rotation velocity in the central few arcseconds, reaching a
shoulder-like step at 100 km s^-1^, and then the velocity increases
gradually to 150 to 200 km s^-1^, depending on the inclination angle.
Note that there are two possibilities of inclination angles, either
28deg inferred from molecular gas disk or 42deg from K-band images
(Sofue et al. 2003b). The SMD shows clearly a massive core with a sharp
peak and a bulge component. They are surrounded by a disk component,
while the disk part is uncertain for the limited coverage in the
present data.

10. 2003PASJ...55...17S
Re:NGC 4254
6.3 NGC 4254 The central molecular gas distribution shows a barlike
elongation, while no optical bar feature is seen in the visual-band
images. The CO intensity has a slight depression at the dynamical
center, which coincides with the nucleus. Two well-developed spiral
arms wind out from the bar ends toward the south and north. The
south-eastern arm bifurcates into a tightly wound dense molecular arm
with an almost zero pitch angle. Hence, the molecular disk has three
arms, and the arms are well correlated with optical dark lanes. The
velocity field shows a regular spider pattern, indicating a circular
rotation of the disk, on which small amplitude streaming motion due to
the spiral arms are superposed. The PV diagram shows a sharp rise in
the central few arcseconds, indicating a massive core, and then the
velocity increases gradually. Overall distributions and kinematics
agree with the previous low resolution observations (Sakamoto et al.
1999a). A detailed study of this galaxy with consideration of the
ram-pressure effect by the intra-cluster medium is presented in Sofue
et al. (2003b).

11. 2003ApJS..146..353M
Re:NGC 4254
NGC 4254 (CS)
Although some spiral structure is present, it is very chaotic. There
is some circumnuclear star formation scattered between the dust
spirals, but they are not obviously associated with them.

12. 2002ApJS..143...73E
Re:NGC 4254
NGC 4254.---SABc (see Fig. 4c): Small circular bulge. Disk has an
asymmetric spiral pattern. The spiral arm pattern is complex. There are
three prominent arms, and a weak fourth arm. Two of the arms begin at
the SW end of the bulge. One of these wraps tightly around the bulge,
and the other is more open. The third bright arm begins at the NE end
of the bulge. The inner SW arm is just outside the NE arm at this
point. The inner SW arm then opens, and the NE arm winds inside it.
There is evidence for a weak arm on the west side of the galaxy. The
arms are narrow, well defined, and full of star-forming knots. At low
surface brightness levels, the arm asymmetry makes the disk look very
lopsided. This is a galaxy with essentially the same morphology in the
B and H bands. Note in Figure 4c that there are no small-scale
differences in the optical and near-IR.

13. 2001A&A...368...16M
Re:NGC 4254
30. NGC 4254 = M 99 is a face-on Sc grand design spiral in the Virgo
cluster. The western m = 1 mode arm is not fully covered by our field of
view. Since the galaxy does not show any other peculiar features in NIR,
the fit procedure lead to good results.

14. 1999ApJS..124..403S
Re:NGC 4254
5.7. NGC 4254
The molecular gas distribution suggests a weak bar with a position
angle of about 60^deg^, though this galaxy is classified as unbarred
(SA) in RC3. There are gas ridges along the leading edge of the bar, and
prominent twin peaks are near the center presumably at the ILR of the
bar. There are three molecular spiral arms in the map: the first one
goes south from the east end of the bar, the second starts from the west
end of the bar to the north, and the third is to the south of the bar
and appears to connect both ends of the bar. (The third arm may continue
to the northwest beyond the bar.) Nonbisymmetric spiral arms of this
galaxy have also been noticed in optical images; one-, three-, and
five-arm components are found from Fourier analysis (Iye et al. 1982;
Phookun, Vogel, & Mundy 1993). The position-velocity diagram shows
strong streaming motion on the eastern spiral arm. The molecular gas on
the spiral arms is clumped with sizes and masses typically about 500 pc
and 1 x 10^8^ M_sun_.

15. 1999A&AS..138..253B
Re:NGC 4254
NGC 4254 - SNe 1967H, 1972Q, 1986I: several bright and blue features are
seen at the locations of these supernovae. The SN sites are quite
crowded though and the visible features might simply belong to the
spiral arms of the galaxy.

16. 1995AJ....109.1608R
Re:NGC 4254
As is evident on the B image, this Sa(s)c type galaxy is undergoing
large scale, vigorous star formation. The southern arm, in particular,
appears to be the site of much recent star formation. Keel (1983)
clarifies the nuclear spectrum as HII dominated. This is consistent with
the complex H II and dust morphology evident on the B mosaic.
The arms to the northwest are much less defined than the southern
arm. Globally, the arms are quite flocculent. There are repeated
instances of dust lanes cutting across the arms.
Because of the distinct lack of any clear nonaxisymmetric component,
and the global flocculent nature of the arms, the spiral structure here
may be related to an external driving mechanism.

17. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 4254
VCC 307
Hubble Atlas, p. 29
April 3/4, 1946
103aO + UG2 (ultraviolet)
90 min
NGC 4254 is among the ten largest spirals
of the Virgo Cluster members listed in the VCC.
The isophotal angular diameter from the RC2 is
D_25_ = 5.4'. Comparison of the size of NGC 4254
with other large Virgo Cluster spirals is seen from
the photographs printed to a common scale given
in the Virgo Cluster photographic atlas (Sandage,
Binggeli, and Tammann 1985a).
The print here is from an ultraviolet plate
taken by Baade with the Mount Wilson 100-inch
Hooker reflector. The print in the Hubble Atlas
(p. 29) is from a red (103aE, no filter) plate
made by Humason with the Palomar 200-inch
telescope. Both photographs favor the HII
regions rather than the continuum radiation of
unresolved stars in the arms emphasized in the
blue photograph in the Hubble Atlas cited above.
The two principal arms are of the grand
design type. A complex set of arm fragments
exists in the disk on one side of the grand design
arm pattern.
Thin dust lanes accompany the main spiral
arms, generally on their inside edges, as is usual.

18. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4254
= M 99
P.A.S.P., 79, 593, 1967.
P.A.S.P.,80, 462, 1968.
Izv.Crimea Obs., 40, 96, 1969.
Astrofizika, 6, 367, 1970.
Astr. Ap., 29, 57, 1973.
Izv. Crimea Obs., 40, 96, 1969.
Izv. Crimea Obs., 44, 40, 1972.
Astrofizika, 6, 367, 1970.
Sov. A.J., 13, 593, 1970.
IAU Symp. No.38, 83, 1970.
IAU Symp. 44, 62, 1972.
Ap. J. Suppl., 26, No. 230, 1973.
P.A.S.P., 79, 593, 1967.
HII Regions:
Ap. J. Suppl., 27, No. 239, 1974.
IAU Circ. No. 2021, 1967.
M.N.A.S.S.A., 26, 148, 1967.
P.A.S.P., 80, 461, 1968.
Nature, 218, 856, 1968.
SN1967H (Possible Supernova Remnant):
IAU Symp. No.44, 82, 1972.
IAU Circ. No. 2472, 2476, 1973.
Astr. Ap., 29, 57, 1973.
Radio Observations:
Australian J. Phys., 21, 193, 1968.

19. 1973UGC...C...0000N
Re:UGC 07345
SA(s)c (de Vaucouleurs), Sc- (Holmberg)
SN 1967h
Slightly asymmetric, no disturbing object visible

20. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4254
= Messier 099
Small, very bright nucleus in a complex central lens with many dark lanes.
Pseudo (r): 0.8 arcmin x 0.8 arcmin. 2 partially resolved, massive arms with
much branching. Similar to M33.
Ap. J., 135, 7, 1962.
Izv. Pulkovo, 20, No.156, 87, 1956.
Sov. A.J., 32, 16, 1955
HII Regions:
Zeit. fur Ap., 50, 168, 1960.

21. 1961Hubbl.B...0000S
Re:NGC 4254
Messier 099
Apr. 16/17, 1950
30 min
Enlarged 2.8X
NGC 4254 is one of the bright spiral members of the Virgo
Cluster. The distance modulus is about (m-M) =30.7 for
this cluster. At this distance, the spiral arms are about
1500 parsecs thick, which is considerably thicker than
arms in M101 and thicker by a factor of 1.5 than arms in
NGC 0628. Dust lanes pervade the entire central lens.
Most of the knots along the spiral arms are HII regions.
Note the segments of spiral arms which break from the
central regions in the northeast quadrant.

Back to NED Home