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Notes for object MESSIER 061

33 note(s) found in NED.


1. 2009ApJ...697.1870E
Re:NGC 4303
NGC 4303 (M 61) We were able to measure only eight offsets between CO and
H{alpha} at r = 2.5-4 kpc (0.5'-0.9'), so that the uncertainty in {OMEGA}_P_ is
too large to derive R_CR_ for this galaxy. We only give the lower limit of R_CR_
>~ 3 kpc or 0.6'. As NGC 4303 has a double bar and an active nuclei, studies of
this galaxy have concentrated on the dynamics and morphology in the central
region. Colina & Wada (2000) performed multiphase hydrodynamical simulations and
derived {OMEGA}_P_ ~ 0.5 Myr^-1^ ~ 500 km s^-1^ kpc^-1^ for the nuclear bar.
They locate the CR at the end of the nuclear bar, which is about 2" in radius.
On the other hand, Rautiainen et al. (2005) derived R_CR_ = 1.5' +/- 0.1' for
the outer bar with the size of 1.5'. Although their R_CR_ gives {OMEGA}_P_ close
to our mean value of 24 km s^-1^ kpc^-1^, it is still unclear whether the bar
and spiral arms have the same pattern speed. Koda & Sofue (2006) calculated
orbits in the bar from CO data, taken as a part of the Virgo High-Resolution CO
Survey (Sofue et al. 2003b), and estimated ages of young clusters apparent in
H{alpha} to be <~10 Myr, which is consistent to our result of t_SF_ ~= 10 Myr.

2. 2008MNRAS.386.2242H
Re:NGC 4303
NGC 2778 and NGC 4303 -HST cannot resolve the influence radius of the
SMBHs in NGC 2778 ( 2r_bh_/r_res_ = 0.8, Gebhardt et al. 2003) and NGC
4303 (2r_bh_/r_res_ = 0.9, Pastorini et al. 2007). The zero black hole
mass model for NGC 2778 is ruled out at only the 95 per cent CL
(Gebhardt et al. 2003).

3. 2008ApJS..174..337M
Re:NGC 4303
NGC 4303 (Fig. 5g).-Only seven H II regions define the small ring. The ring is
observed to be three-quarters complete in H{alpha} with bipolar age maxima at PA
= 114^deg^and 304^deg^. There are no obvious age gradients in between the
maxima, but the latter are offset by less than 25^deg^ from the bar contact
points (100^deg^ and 280^deg^).

4. 2007AJ....134..648M
Re:NGC 4303
NGC 4303 (M61; Figs. 7.51, 9.51, 20.51): This has been reclassified as a
low-luminosity AGN, although in the original proposal it was included as an Sy2.
The nucleus is known to host a compact star cluster as the main source of
ionizing radiation (Colina et al. 2002). This nucleus is unresolved in our F330W
image. It posses a conspicuous star-forming ring at ~250 pc radius, with many
clusters individually resolved.

5. 2007A&A...468..129T
Re:NGC 4303
4.2.2 NGC 4303 - The isolated X-ray source shows 728 net counts. The centre of
the selected circular source region is at >~3" from the optical position.
Binning of the X-ray image reveals that the X-ray/optical pair appears roughly
in the centre of a ring of diffuse X-ray emission. HFS classify this galaxy as
an H II nucleus, although their values for [N II]/H{alpha} and [S II]/H{alpha}
favour an AGN classification. This is because HFS give less weight to the [N
II]/H{alpha} ratio due to the possibility of selective nitrogen enhancement in
galactic nuclei, and the [S II]/H{alpha} value is borderline between H II and
AGN.
The X-ray spectrum (Fig. 2) is best fitted with a redshifted power-law plus
hot diffuse gas model (MEKAL), with only the default parameters kept fixed.
There is no indication of emission in the spectral region around 6.4 keV.

6. 2005MNRAS.357..361S
Re:NGC 4303
NGC 4303. The grand-design spiral arms of this face-on Virgo spiral (i= 25^deg^)
are mapped at the ends of a north-south running bar in the submillimetre images,
especially at 850 {mu}m. As with NGC 2903, bright knots of emission are seen
along the bar and arms. There is a strong contrast between the arm and inter-arm
regions but the core is still the brightest submillimetre region of NGC 4303.
There is some danger that we may have chopped some weak extended emission out of
this image.

7. 2005ApJS..160...76B
Re:NGC 4303
Good S/N and typical discordance. There is clear offset rotation and a patchy
{sigma}_*_ field. Significant difference between extended and central
{sigma}_*_. Nuclear spiral structure (Hughes et al. 2003). See Figures 24
and 25d.

8. 2005ApJS..157...59L
Re:NGC 4303
NGC 4303 (M61) is a face-on Sc spiral galaxy with a Seyfert 2 nucleus at a
distance of 15.2 Mpc in the Virgo cluster. ULX1 is located on a thin knotty
spiral arm.

9. 2004A&A...415..941E
Re:NGC 4303
NGC 4303 (M 61): Colina & Wada (2000). Outer-bar measurements are from
the publically available K-band image of Mollenhoff & Heidt (2001), with
L_bar_ from a spiral arm crossing over the southern end of the bar;
inner-bar measurements are from a NICMOS2 F160W image. Outer-disk
inclination and PA are from the kinematic arguments of Schinnerer
et al. (2001); the distance is the default Virgo Cluster distance
(see note for NGC 4262).
The outer-bar a_{epsilon} is based on a minimum in the PA, since there
is no clear ellipticity maximum within the bar; the ellipticity maximum
at a {approx} 45" (e.g., Laine et al. 2002) is due to spiral arms outside
the bar.

10. 2003PASJ...55...59S
Re:NGC 4303
4.3 NGC 4303 The intensity distribution is classified as twin-peaks,
and shows two prominent off-set bar ridges (Koda et al. 2003). Due to
the non-circular motion, the PVD has a wider velocity dispersion
compared to the other galaxies. The RC indicates steep rise of rotation
within a few arcseconds, but it is wavy at r < 3 kpc radius. Such wavy
behavior of RC is typical for a barred galaxy (Sofue et al. 1999).
Accordingly, the SMD behaves peculiar at 1 to 4 kpc, and no firm
conclusion about the inner mass distribution can be obtained. However,
the velocity field in the very central region within radius 300 pc
shows a regular spider pattern, where the steep rise of rotation is
observed. Hence, the central massive component shown in the SMD would
be real, as well as that at r > 5kpc.

11. 2003PASJ...55...17S
Re:NGC 4303
6.4 NGC 4303 CO gas is highly concentrated in the nuclear disk within a
radius r~8"(600 pc). The nuclear disk comprises the "twin peaks" at the
eastern and western edges of the nuclear disk, and there appears to
exist a diffuse central component around the nucleus between the twin
peaks. Two prominent bisymmetric spiral arms, or offset ridges, wind
out from these twin peaks, and extend toward the north and south along
the dark lanes in the optical bar. The PV diagram along the major axis
(north-south) indicates a rise of rotation velocity within r~2"(160 pc)
to 160 - 180 km s^-1^. Our result is consistent with the
high-resolution observations with the OVRO interferometer by Schinnerer
et al. (2002). Detailed description of this galaxy are given in a
separate paper of this series by Koda et al. (2003: private
communication).

12. 2003ApJS..146..353M
Re:NGC 4303
NGC 4303 (GD)
The prominent grand-design nuclear dust spirals connect to the dust
lanes along the large-scale bar. As noted by Colina & Wada (2000),
these two main dust spirals are composed of many smaller dust lanes,
and they find that the star formation in the circumnuclear disk is due
to gravitational instabilities.

13. 2003AJ....126..742H
Re:NGC 4303
The morphological classification as determined by us is indicated in
parentheses next to the galaxy name, with our "chaotic circumnuclear
dust" (C) category now not including those galaxies with obvious dust
lanes (DL). Where the classification has already been made by Martini
et al. (2003), we indicate this with "-mp."
.
3.25. NGC 4303 (GD) (GD-mp)
Figure 12 (bottom).
Spectra: Patchy, but emission is present for all lines. Rotation is
not obvious.
Images: Spiral structure down to nucleus.

14. 2002MNRAS.337..808K
Re:NGC 4303
A8 NGC 4303
The second Seyfert 2 host galaxy in our sample shows a well-defined bar in
the I-band image (Fig. 1h). The B-I image shows two dust lanes in the bar
region, which join the inner edge of the spiral arms, and continue as arm
dust lanes. The radial profiles in H{alpha} and B show a central peak in
surface brightness, followed by a decrease to the radius corresponding to
the end of the bar where a secondary peak is located, and a steeper
decrease in the disc. The B-I profile reflects these zones as well. The
H{alpha} image shows SF activity along the arms and at the ends of the bar,
where the bar joins the arms. An especially large concentration of HII
regions is located near the northern end of the bar, and a smaller number
of HII regions, but of higher luminosity, are found near the southern end.
No SF is visible in the bar itself, but the CNR (Fig. 2h) is the site of
substantial H{alpha} emission, the morphology of which is however not fully
resolved with our imaging. The B-I image reflects in blue colours where
these main sites of SF are. The fact that the CNR, so bright in H{alpha},
is not as blue as the regions near the ends of the bar may indicate
substantial amounts of dust in the central regions. Alternatively, a
substantial fraction of the CNR H{alpha} emission is due to the Seyfert
nucleus and not to circumnuclear SF. We refer to Colina et al. (1997) and
Colina & Arribas (1999) for more detailed imaging of the CNR of this
galaxy.

15. 2002ApJS..143...73E
Re:NGC 4303
NGC 4303.---SBbc: Bright, centrally condensed circular bulge. Bulge is
threaded by a faint bar that makes the outer bulge isophotes appear
elliptical. System has an inner pseudoring formed by the spiral arms.
Arm pattern is complex and irregular. Both arms start near the bar
ends, but slightly offset from them. The south arm has a great deal of
structure near its base but becomes smooth and diffuse after only
~45deg. At 90degit bifurcates, with one segment turning abruptly to
the west and then fading rapidly. The other segment completes the
inner pseudoring on the west side. The north arm bifurcates
immediately. The inner segment forms the east side of the pseudoring
and continues for a total of ~240deg before fading. It has
star-forming knots for the first 180deg and then becomes smooth and
diffuse. The outer segments of the north arm form a wide series of
knotty filaments to the NE. All of these fade from view after~90deg.

16. 2001A&A...368...16M
Re:NGC 4303
31. NGC 4303 = M 61 is a face-on Sc spiral in the Virgo cluster. It has a
weak bar in NS direction (RC3: Type SAB(rs)) which caused no problems for
the disk-bulge fit. However, a star forming ring of ~6" diameter (Colina
et al. 1997; Colina & Arribas 1999) produces a clear corresponding
signature in the residuum image (Fig. 6 in on-line version).

17. 2000MNRAS.317..234P
Re:NGC 4303
3.8 NGC 4303
Buta & Crocker (1993) classify this galaxy as having a nuclear ring,
based on their H{alpha} data. Elmegreen et al. (1997), using NIR
observations, did not detect any ring. According to them, the ring
consists of very young stars which do not show up in the NIR. However,
we can see a well-defined ring in our J-K and H-K images (Fig. 2h).
There is a pair of dust lanes which connect the bar to the nuclear ring
in the south and north. The reddest colours are seen where the dust
lanes merge with the nuclear ring.
Colina et al. (1997) present a UV (~ 2200 A) HST image of the CNR of
NGC 4303, which shows spiral structure outlining massive SF, continuing
all the way into the unresolved core on the north-east side of the
nucleus. The UV SF spiral is strongest on the side opposite to where we
see the largest concentrations of dust (darkest patches in Fig. 2h) in
our NIR colour index maps. Our HST H-band image shows some spiral
structure in the NIR, but emission is dominated by the central bulge
component.
There are strong isophotal twists within the central 7 arcsec, and a
possible nuclear bar with a radius of 2 arcsec where the ellipticity
reaches a peak of 0.2 and the PA is constant at about 220^deg^. The
signature of the ring can be recognized as a red peak in the J-K and
H-K colour profiles, as well as in all other profiles.

18. 2000AstL...26..285C
Re:NGC 4303
NGC 4303. Its two adjacent rows have unusually clear-cut outlines.

19. 2000ApJ...534..670T
Re:NGC 4303
NGC 4303.-Because of some irregularities caused by spiral arms, the M/L
in the disk region behaves irregularly, although it increases outward on
the average. In the compact bulge region the M/L decreases inward
steeply from r = 2 kpc to 500 pc. It then turns to increase within
r = 200 pc toward the center.

20. 1999AJ....118.2331V
Re:NGC 4303
A pair of 80s F606W WFPC2 exposures of NGC 4303 was available.
Three SNe II occurred in this galaxy: SN 1926A, SN 1961I, and SN 1964F.
Unfortunately, the site of SN 1961I is not on these images. (We consider
SN 1964F in section 3.1.3.) To find the site of SN 1926A on the HST
image, we determined the position of the nucleus of NGC 4303 and used
the nuclear offset, 11" west and 69" north, given in the online Asiago
SN catalog; the uncertainty is assumed to be 10".
Van Dyk et al. (1996) found that this SN was associated with an
H II region of about 4" radius, offset from the nucleus by 8" west and
70" north. Within the large error circle, we find that the SN appears to
have occurred near two spiral arms, with several small clusters and
associations of stars near the site. A small cluster to the west of the
SN's nominal position contains stars with F606W magnitudes that range
from about 23.4 to 24.4. Assuming a distance modulus m - M = 30.91
(Tully 1988), these imply V ~ -7.5 to -6.5, corresponding to bright
(presumably massive) supergiant stars.

21. 1999AJ....118.2331V
Re:NGC 4303
In section 3.1.1 we already discussed this image, on which we also
find the site of SN 1964F. This SN has been identified in the literature
as a SN I, but based on R. Barbon's reexamination of the SN spectra, the
Asiago SN catalog lists it as a SN II. From the nuclear offset in the
Asiago catalog (28" west and 1" south), we derive a SN position near
which are several bright stars or clusters. These stars have F606W
magnitudes that range from about 23.1 to 23.7. Again, adopting
m - M = 30.91 (Tully 1988), these correspond to approximate V magnitudes
of -7.8 to -7.2, which are likely bright (massive) supergiants or,
possibly, small clusters of stars (which may be true for the brightest
objects).

22. 1999A&AS..138..253B
Re:NGC 4303
NGC 4303 - SNe 1926A, 1961I, 1964F: at all these sites some features are
present. From visual inspection and its blue color, the faint arc-shaped
patch at the SN 1926A site looks promising. It is brighter than a
3{sigma} detection limit. The extended, bright, round patch at the site
of SN 1961I is quite likely to be a HII region or young open cluster.
SN 1926A is classified as a candidate (see Table 3). Both SNe 1926A and
1964F are visible in the WFPC-2 images of the host galaxy. We believe we
can confirm what we noticed in our ground based observations.

23. 1998MNRAS.297..579C
Re:NGC 4303
NGC 4303. This is a Sersic-Pastoriza galaxy, classified as a LINER by Huchra,
Wyatt & Davis (1982). Filippenko & Sargent's (1985) observations show that H II
regions are prominent in the nucleus and circumnuclear region. They also found a
substantially broader component in each line and proposed that we are seeing a
faint Seyfert 2 or LINER nucleus hidden by H II regions.
The Ws are similar to an S5 template at the nucleus, decreasing to values
similar to an S6 template at the ring (5 arcsec; Fig. 40). From 7 to 15 arcsec
from the nucletis the Ws are similar to an S4 template, decreasing to S6-S7 in
the outer regions. The continuum ratios behave like the Ws, with the exception
of the nucleus and ring, where they indicate redder templates, S4 and S5
respectively. In the other regions, Ws and continuum ratios indicate similar
templates. Our results are in good agreement with those of Bonatto et al.
(1989).

24. 1998AJ....116.2682C
Re:IRAS 12194+0444
NGC 4303. LINER, Seyfert. Optical position from Argyle & Eldridge
(1990).

25. 1997AJ....114.2428S
Re:NGC 4303
NGC 4303: This is a nearly face-on galaxy of Sc type, having a sign of bar. The
CO intensity sharply peaks near the nucleus, and shows a high concentration
within a radius of 15" (0.8 kpc). The rotation velocity increases very steeply
within 0.5 kpc to about 120 km s^-1^.

26. 1997A&A...319...52V
Re:NGC 4303
NGC 4303 has been called a Liner by Huchra et al. (1982); Filippenko & Sargent
(1985) showed that the nuclear spectrum is that of a HII region, each line,
however, having a broad base suggesting the presence of a faint Seyfert 2
nucleus since, for these broad components, {lambda}6584/H{alpha}>1.0.
Veron-Cetty & Veron (1986b) have confirmed this diagnostic by finding that the
H{alpha} and [NII] lines have two components with widths equal to 180 and 400
km s^-1^ respectively; the narrow-line system has {lambda}6584/H{alpha}=0.43,
while the broad-line system had {lambda}6584/H{alpha}=3.21. Moreover, in the
nucleus, the {lambda}5007 line is broad and strong, while the H{beta} line is
narrow and weak (Kennicutt et al., 1989).

27. 1995AJ....109.1608R
Re:NGC 4303
Keel (1983) classified the nuclear spectrum of this SAB(rs)bc type
galaxy as H, indicating that it is dominated by H II regions. Pogge
(1989) found that the nuclear H{alpha}+[N II] emission formed a nuclear
ring. He found no detectable circumnuclear H{alpha}+[N II] emission
interior to the ring. In this regard, the galaxy is similar to NGC 4321
and NGC 1O68.
Prodigious star formation is occurring in the galaxy. There have been
three supernovae since 1926 (Martin & Roy 1992). Martin & Roy note that
the galaxy is not H I deficient, like most Virgo spirals. They identified
the galaxy as barred, and found the abundance gradient to be no different
than that of an unbarred spiral galaxy.
B and I images both show strong dust lanes parallel to a barlike oval
distortion runing almost north-south. However, the oval is noticeably
more mottled in the B image than the I image. Because there is no
detectable H{alpha} emission in the bar region (Martin & Roy 1992; Pogge
1989), it is likely the mottling is due to selective extinction rather
than star formation.
The innermost I isophotes are oriented orthogonal to the bar. The bar
is not evident in the K image. It is likely that this is due to the small
area mapped in K. A deeper, larger area map, would be needed to
definitively test for the presence of a bar in K band. There is a
definite K band isophote twist at intermediate radius.

28. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 4303
VCC 508
Hubble Atlas, p. 29
Sc(s)I.2
CD-2136-S
March 22/23, 1982
M61
103aO
50 min
As with NGC 4321 at the left, NGC 4303 is
among the largest-angular-sized spirals in the
Virgo Cluster region. Both are considered
members of the cluster. Both have redshifts larger
than the Virgo Cluster mean of = 976 km/s
(Sandage and Tammann 1990). The redshift of
NGC 4321 is v_o = 1464 km/s that of NGC 4303
is v_o = 1404 km/s.
The arm pattern in NGC 4303 begins at the
center as two thin dust lanes that wind outward
through the inner disk, meeting the two principal
luminous arms of the grand design type at the
edge of the bright part of the disk. One of the
principal arms is bent into two straight sections
that meet at a sharp angle.
The arms are filled with HII regions that
must be identified and eliminated from a candidate
list before a survey of the brightest stars
can be made.

29. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4303
= M61
= Holm 369a
Pair with NGC 4303A at 10 arcmin
Description and Classification:
P.A.S.P., 79, 152, 1967.
"Nuclei of Galaxies", 27, 1971.
Photograph:
"Stellar Structure", Stars and Stellar Systems, Vol. VIII, 396, 1965.
A.J., 74, 515, 1969. ,
Astrofizika, 6, 367, 1970.
IAU Symp. No. 38, pp.11 23, 1970.
"Nuclei of Galaxies", 26, 1971.
Photometry:
A.J., 74, 354, 1969.
Astrofizika, 6, 367, 1970.
Photometry (10 microns):
Ap. J. (Letters), 159, L165, 1970.
Ap. J. (Letters), 176, L95, 1972.
Spectrum:
A.J., 74, 515, 1969.
Ap. J., 159, 405, 1970.
Spectrophotometry:
Observatory, 88, 239, 1968.
Ast. Tsirk., No. 648, 1971.
Izv. Crimea Obs., 48, 37, 1973.
HII Regions:
Ap. J. Suppl., 27, No. 239, 1974.
SN1961I.
"Stellar Structure", Stars and Stellar Systems, Vol. VIII, 396, 1965.
Ap. J., 182, 225, 1973.
SN1964f.
IAU Circ. No. 1868, 1873, 1964.
Comm. Padova, No. 35, 1964.
HI 21cm:
M.N.R.A.S., 150, 337, 1970.
Radio Observations:
A.J., 78, 18, 1973.

30. 1973UGC...C...0000N
Re:UGC 07420
SAB(rs)bc (de Vaucouleurs), Sc- (Holmberg)
SN 1926a, SN 1961i, SN 1964f

31. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4303
= Messier 061
= Holm 379a
Extremely bright nucleus in a broad diffuse bar with many dark lanes.
Hexagonal pseudo (r): 1.6 arcmin x 1.6 arcmin. Partially resolved,
filamentary outer arms form pseudo (R): 5.4 arcmin x 5.2 arcmin.
Pair with NGC 4301 at 10 arcmin.
HII Regions:
Zs. fur Ap., 50, 168, 1960.
SN 1926
P.A.S.P., 38, 182, 1926.
P.A.S.P., 48, 111, 1936.
P.A.S.P., 52, 306, 1940.
H.B., 836, 1926.
Ap. J., 88, 291, 1938.
Ap. J., 89, 193, 1939.
SN 1961
P.A.S.P., 74, 215, 1962.

32. 1961Hubbl.B...0000S
Re:NGC 4303
Messier 061
Sc
PH-719--S
Apr. 6/7, 1954
103aO + GG13
30 min
Enlarged 2.2X
NGC 4303 is probably a member of the Virgo Cluster although
it lies about 8 degrees south of the main concentration.
The redshift of 1557 km/sec makes it a likely candidate.
The galaxy has some characteristics of a barred spiral.
The central lens does not show well here but is like the
lens in NGC 6951 (p. 46). Two thin dust lanes (width
about 150 parsecs) wind out through the pseudo bar to
the inside of the beginning of the two main luminous arms.
Many faint arms are present on the outside of the two
bright ones. The many knots in the brighter arms are
undoubtedly HII regions.

33. 1918PLicO..13....9C
Re:NGC 4303
Vol. VIII, Plate 34. M. 61. Nearly round; 6' in diameter; very bright. A
beautiful spiral, with a very bright, almost stellar nucleus, and many almost
stellar condensations in its open, somewhat irregular whorls. 40 s.n.


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