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Notes for object MESSIER 084

41 note(s) found in NED.


1. 2008MNRAS.386.2242H
Re:NGC 4374
NGC 4374 - As pointed by T02, the published measurement of M_bh_ in NGC
4374 (M84) is differ from each other beyond the stated errors.

2. 2008ApJS..177..148F
Re:3C 272.1
4.2.5. 3C 272.1 (NGC 4374, M84); z = 0.003536 A large well-studied elliptical in
the Virgo cluster with a prominent dust lane visible in the optical, and faintly
detectable in the NICMOS image Bower et al. (2000). The radio source is a
double-sided FR I jet and core. However, its radio power is somewhat lower than
the fiducial cutoff for radio-loud quasars. It is described as a "weak radio
galaxy" by Laing & Bridle (1987).

3. 2006MNRAS.369..497K
Re:NGC 4374
This well-known giant elliptical shows notable dust absorption (Quillen et al.
2000) and has a BL Lac nucleus (Bower et al. 2000). The metal lines have a
similar morphology to those in NGC 4278, following the isophotes in general. The
H{beta} absorption map is rather flat, showing a slight increase towards the
edge of the field, also present in the data of Davies et al. (1993), Carollo et
al. (1993) and Sanchez-Blazquez (2004).

4. 2006MNRAS.366.1151S
Re:NGC 4374
Known for its low-luminosity radio jet (e.g. Laing & Bridle 1987), this galaxy
also shows intense ionized-gas emission. This is confined along a lane running
across the galaxy from east to west, which broadens up in the north-south
direction at large radii. The central dust lane also runs across the nucleus in
the same direction as the ionized gas, and perpendicular to the radio jet. The
gas kinematics indicates a coherent rotation, except in the eastern direction
where the initially approaching gas gradually reverses its angular momentum and
eventually, beyond ~15 arcsec, is fully receding. Clear stellar rotation is
observed only in the central ~3 arcsec, in almost the opposite direction to the
gas. The [O III]/H{beta} map shows rather uniform values, between 1 and 2. We
note that Chandra observations reveal an H-shaped distribution for the soft
X-ray emission (Finoguenov & Jones 2001) that is broadly consistent with the
ionized-gas distribution.

5. 2006ApJS..164..334F
Re:VCC 0763
VCC 763 (M84, NGC 4374).Like M87 (=3C 374), M84 (=3C 272.1) is a well-known
radio source. Two parallel dust lanes, one crossing (but not centered on) the
galaxy's center, the other just north of the first, run in the east-west
direction. The larger (northern) dust lane extends for approximately 14', while
the lane crossing the center extends for about 5". Both lanes are surrounded by
fainter dust wisps and filaments. The isophotes are very regular.

6. 2006ApJ...647..140F
Re:NGC 4374
This galaxy (L2, E1) has four point sources in its nucleus. The brightest one is
at the center and has a hard X-ray spectrum. There is also significant soft,
knotty, diffuse emission, although the knots could be embedded point sources.
There are many models that give good fits, in particular a power law and a
plasma model plus a power law. The F-test justifies the addition of a plasma
component to the power law (chance probability of 4 x 10^-4^). The luminosity is
L_0.5-10 keV_ = 7.7 x 10^39^ ergs s^-1^. The stellar population of NGC 4374 is
quite old (13.7 Gyr, Proctor & Sansom 2002; 11.8 Gyr, Terlevich & Forbes 2002).
Radio images of NGC 4374 show structures resembling jets (De Young et al. 1980;
Laing & Bridle 1987), which is a strong indication of an AGN. The flux of the
core at 5 GHz was measured to S_{nu}_= 160 mJy (Nagar et al. 2002), giving log
R_X_ = -1.3, which means that this source is radio-loud. The total X-ray
luminosity in the central 2.5" radius region is L_2-10 keV_ = 4.4 x 10^39^ ergs
s^-1^ and the luminosity of the AGN is L_2-10 keV_ = 4 x 10^39^ ergs s^-1^
(obtained by integrating the power-law spectral component). Hence, the
contribution from the LLAGN to the X-ray luminosity is 90%.

7. 2006ApJ...642...96E
Re:3C 272.1
A single power law provided an acceptable fit to the nuclear spectrum ({chi}^2^
= 30.3 for 25 dof). However, the fit was significantly improved ({DELTA}{chi}^2^
= 19 for one additional parameter) with the inclusion of relatively mild
intrinsic absorption (N_H_ = 1.9^+0.9^_-0.7_ x 10^21^ atoms cm^-2^) at the
redshift of 3C 272.1. No statistically significant improvement in the fit was
achieved with the inclusion of a thermal Apec model, which implies that the
local background subtraction has accounted for most of the extended thermal
emission. We compared the results of our spectral fitting with previously
published Chandra work (e.g., Harris et al. 2002) and found the power-law photon
index, normalization, and intrinsic absorption to be consistent. Using the same
Chandra data, Donato et al. (2004) determined the best-fitting spectral model to
be the sum of an absorbed power law and thermal emission. The detection of
thermal emission by Donato et al. (2004) is likely due to the selection of an
off-source region from which to extract the background spectrum. The intrinsic
absorption and photon index we measure agree with the analysis by Donato et al.
(2004), and the integrated power-law luminosity is approximately consistent.

8. 2006A&A...460...45G
Re:NGC 4374
NGC 4374 (M 84, UGC 7494, 3C 272.1). An unresolved nuclear source is detected
both in (4.5-8.0* keV) and 6-7 keV band images (Fig. 5). Satyapal et al. (2004)
have already described the X-ray morphology traced by Chandra ACIS imaging of
this galaxy as revealing a hard nuclear source embedded in soft diffuse
emission. The Chandra ACIS-S data are analyzed by Finoguenov & Jones (2001)[*];
they report a remarkable interaction of the radio lobes and the diffuse X-ray
emission, and provide the parameters for a fit with an absorbed (N_H_ = 2.7 x
10^21^ cm^-2) power law ( {GAMMA} = 2.3) and the corresponding L(0.5-10 keV) =
4.7 x 10^39^ erg s^-1^, all in very good agreement with the ones we give in this
paper (see Tables 3 and 6); but they differ somewhat from the ones obtained from
the ASCA spectrum (Terashima et al. 2002), most probably due to the different
spatial resolutions.

9. 2006A&A...447...97B
Re:UGC 07494
UGC 7494: this object is part of the 3C/FR I sample of low luminosity
radio-galaxies (3C 272.1). The Chandra data are presented in Balmaverde &
Capetti (2005).

10. 2005ApJ...635.1031B
Re:NGC 4374
NGC 4374.-This elliptical in the Virgo Cluster has radio lobes, and this is
classified as a LINER. Despite being at high Galactic latitude (b = 74^deg^),
it has moderate absorption, and the FUSE spectrum (Fig. 13) shows clear
evidence for Galactic H_2_ absorption. The day spectrum had particularly strong
airglow lines, so we used the night-only spectrum, which had only 3.7 ks, yet
it reveals a strong O VI {lambda}1032 at the galaxy redshift (also present at
the same level in the day+night spectrum). The red side of the line may be
partly absorbed by the Galactic C II {lambda}1036 line. The weaker O VI line
lies between two airglow lines and there is an instrumental feature near 1044
A, but a line half of the strength of the O VI {lambda}1032 line is consistent
with the level of the spectrum above that expected from the stars. The line
width of 130 km s^-1^ (FWHM) is only about one-fifth the velocity dispersion of
the stars, an equivalent FWHM of 674 km s^-1^, although we cannot rule out that
the line has a broader base.

11. 2005ApJ...622..235T
Re:NGC 4374
Classical double radio; no large-scale dust at submillimeter
wavelengths; nuclear dust lane; core-jet radio source perpendicular to
lane; one-sided radio "jet"; M84; 3C 272.1

12. 2004MNRAS.352..721E
Re:NGC 4374
NGC 4374: The velocity map is consistent with V = 0 everywhere in the
SAURON field (Davies 1981), except for a very weak large-scale gradient
and a rotation pattern in the central 3 arcsec. With NGC 4278 and NGC
4486, this is among the galaxies in the SAURON E/S0 sample with the
highest relative contribution from emission lines.

13. 2004A&A...418..877A
Re:NGC 4374
NGC 4374: this is a large radio galaxy. The close X-ray source has long
been known as a quasar of z=1.25. Again, this was not included in the
CP02 catalog because its known high redshift.

14. 2004A&A...416...41X
Re:NGC 4374
NGC 4374. NGC 4374 is a giant elliptical galaxy which shows strong radio
emission and a two-sided jet emerging from its compact core. HST images
reveal dust lanes in the core of the galaxy while no significant amount
of diffusely distributed cold dust was detected at submillimeter
wavelengths (Leeuw et al. 2000). As in NGC 4278 we do not detect any
excess at 6.7 micron but we detect 15 micron excess.

15. 2003ApJS..148..419N
Re:NGC 4374
NGC 4374 (M84; UGC 7494).-This E1 galaxy has a nuclear dust lane (width
: length = 0.15). It has a core-jet radio morphology on VLBA scales and
a twin-jet morphology on VLA scales. The STIS slits were aligned
approximately perpendicular to the radio jets, which lie close to the
major axis of the emission-line gas. The central kinematic and flux
properties are listed in Table 19; the gas exhibits a regular rotation
profile. See also Bower et al. (1998). The fit to the central spectrum
is not significantly improved the addition of a broad component. Data
for this galaxy are shown in Figure 15 (see key in Fig. 1 for an
explanation of these plots).

16. 2002ApJS..139....1T
Re:NGC 4374
NGC 4374 (L2).-The X-ray images in the soft and hard bands are clearly
extended. The contribution of the AGN to the hard emission should be
small; this is confirmed by the Chandra of Ho et al. (2001). The most
likely origin of the extended hard emission is X-ray binaries in the
host galaxy, as discussed in Matsushita et al. (1994). The hot gas
component in this elliptical galaxy has been analyzed by Matsumoto
et al. (1997), Buote & Fabian (1998), and Matsushita et al. (2000).

17. 2002ApJ...574..740T
Re:NGC 4374
NGC 4374 (M84) has strong evidence for a black hole from gas dynamics,
but the published estimates of the black hole mass differ by far more
than the stated errors:
Bower et al. (1998) find (0.9-2.6) x 10^9^ M_sun_;
Maciejewski & Binney (2001) find 4 x 10^8^ M_sun_, and
a preliminary estimate from Barth et al. (2001a) is 10^9^ M_sun_.
The mass assigned to this galaxy is a factor of 4 larger in sample
FM2 than in sample G2, which is by far the largest discrepancy
between the two samples.

18. 2001ApJ...552..508G
Re:3C 272.1
1222+13 (3C 272.1). - A preliminary map of this source at 5 GHz
presented in Giovannini et al. (1995) suggested a possible two-sided
structure. We present now a new, better image obtained at 1.7 GHz, where
this nearby source shows a clear one-sided structure (Fig. 13). A new
reduction of previous 5 GHz data confirms the one-sidedness of this source.
The main problem in the 5 GHz data is the poor UV coverage with large gaps
and the relatively faintness of the extended emission. The present image
is in agreement with results obtained in different observations using the
full VLBA by Xu et al. (2000).
From the present data, we derived a limit on the ratio between the jet
and counterjet of >~10, which implies {theta} <~ 65^deg^. The low core
radio power suggests that it is strongly deboosted and therefore at a
large angle with respect to the line of sight. We conclude that {theta}
has to be >~60^deg^. Taking into account both constraints, we estimate
{theta} ~ 60^deg^-65^deg^ with {beta} >~ 0.9. This result is in agreement
with the asymmetry visible at the beginning of the arcsecond jet and with
the gap of radio emission in the subarcsecond scale.

19. 2001AJ....122..653R
Re:NGC 4374
NGC 4374: The multiple dust lanes of NGC 4374 (M84) are clearly visible
in the residual image and have been extensively discussed in the literature
(van Dokkum & Franx 1995; Bower et al. 1997; Verdoes Kleijn et al. 1999).
Extensive H{alpha} emission is associated with the dust. The embedded
nucleus, detected in the optical (Bower et al. 1997) and in the NIR (this
study), is significantly reddened by the dust (Bower et al. 1997).

20. 2000ApJS..131...95F
Re:VSOP J1225+1253
J1225+1253 (M84, 3C 272.1). - Early 2.3 GHz VLBI observations
(Jones, Terzian, & Sramek 1981) indicate an elongated source structure
in the north-south direction, in agreement with our image.
Giovannini, Feretti, & Comoretto (1990) measured a 180 mJy correlated
flux density at 1.6 GHz on the shortest VLBI baselines.

21. 2000ApJS..129...33D
Re:3C 272.1
3C 272.1 (NGC 4374, M84), z = 0.0031. - This galaxy is an
elliptical in the Virgo cluster, in which dust was first detected long
ago (e.g., Hansen et al. 1985). The model absorption map (Fig. 18; see
also Verdoes Kleijn et al. 1999) shows a dust lane divided into several
distinct strands. There are bends in each strand that mimic each other.
The projected length extends out to almost 1 kpc, and the dust appears
to flair out at the end.
The large-scale structure of the radio source shows an S shape. The
dust lanes make a right angle with the radio jet. Apart from this, there
seems to be no correlation between the morphology of the large-scale
radio structure and the morphology of the dust.

22. 2000AJ....120.2950X
Re:UGC 07494
UGC 07494 (NGC 4374=3C 272.1=M84)-We detect core-jet structure in
this source, with the VLBA jet pointing toward the northern and the
stronger and narrower of the VLA jets.

23. 2000A&AS..144...53K
Re:NGC 4374
The galaxy shows OIII emission in the inner 3 arcsec, where some
differences between the two sides of the galaxy in the (folded)
velocity, h_3_ and {sigma} appear larger than the errorbars. No rotation
is detected along the major axis; there is a hint of a 10 km s^-1^
(cylindrical) rotation as measured parallel to the minor axis (the 17
arcsec shift). Apart from the inner 3 arcsec (where emission is seen)
there is no template mismatching. The last datapoint has low S/N and
h_4_ might not be reliable. The antisymmetric term h_3_ is
approximately zero everywhere; the h_4_ is small and slightly positive.
The comparison with the v and {sigma} profile of Davies and Birkinshaw
(1988) is satisfactory (Fig. 3). Their {sigma} data tend to be
systematically higher than ours (at most 20 km s^-1^ at R=10 arcsec).
This might be due to their bad spectral resolution and/or differences in
the slit aperture. Carollo et al. (1993) compare their data (affected by
rather large errors) with Davies & Birkinshaw (1988), finding agreement.

24. 2000A&AS..144...53K
Re:NGC 4374
We used the photometry of Michard (1985). The innermost data point was
removed.

25. 1999MNRAS.309..969H
Re:3C 272.1
3.20 3C 272.1
This nearby FRI source (M84) is extended in the X-ray. Our results
are taken from a fit of point source plus {beta}-model (Table 2).

26. 1999ApJS..122...81M
Re:3C 272.1
3C 272.1 (M84, NGC 4374). - The outer halo of this large elliptical
galaxy is smooth and pockmarked with a prominent globular cluster
population. The central kiloparsec is streaked by two important, warped
dust filaments along an east-west direction. To the east of the nucleus,
the northern filament breaks up into three or four strands, which slowly
bend along a more north-south axis. A weak, unresolved nucleus is
detected on the edge of the southern filament. Bower et al. (1998)
present optical long-slit spectroscopy of the nuclear gas disk of M84
acquired with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). They
derive a mass of ~ 1.5x10^9^ M_sun_ for the central supermassive black
hole.

27. 1999ApJ...519...89C
Re:NGC 4374
NGC 4374 (M84).-M84 is a classical example of a radio galaxy
(cf. Bridle & Perley 1984) and is hosted by a giant elliptical galaxy.
We find an X-ray source coincident with the nucleus and also find
diffuse X-ray emission surrounding the nuclear X-ray source. The ASCA
spectra of this X-ray source are discussed in section 5.

28. 1999AJ....118.2592V
Re:NGC 4374
NGC 4374 resides in the Virgo cluster and is part of Markarian's
Chain. The two filamentary dust lanes (total size ~1 kpc/13.0") that
flare at the ends have been known for a long time (e.g., Hansen et al.
1985; van Dokkum & Franx 1995; Bower et al. 1997). The P.A. of the dust
lane and the stellar distribution differ by 50^deg^-60^deg^. Quillen &
Bower (1999) recently proposed a model in which the misalignment and the
warps of the dust lanes are caused by jet-induced pressure gradients.
Our emission image agrees well with results found by Bower et al. (1997)
using a different subtraction technique. NGC 4374 has a central
emission-gas disk and lower level emission that follows the dust
distribution. Bower et al. (1998) derived a black hole mass of ~1.5 x
10^9^ M_sun_ from velocities measured in the central emission-gas disk.
Deeper imaging of the emission gas shows an S-shaped twist from P.A.
~ 70^deg^ to ~115^deg^ at r ~ 7" (Hansen et al. 1985; Baum et al.
1988). Although the nucleus is most likely obscured by dust, it is
clearly bluer than its surroundings. M84 has a two-sided radio jet
(Jones, Sramek, & Terzian 1981; Laing & Bridle 1987).

29. 1998ApJS..114..177Z
Re:3C 272.1
3C 272.1 (M84).--This galaxy is one of the most prominent ellipticals near the
center of the Virgo Cluster and is associated with M84. The F702W image shows a
normal looking elliptical galaxy; however, closer inspection reveals a compact
nuclear source and two dust lanes (visible in the enlargement and even more so
in the V-I image) that are perpendicular to the radio axis and are oriented
roughly in an east-west direction. These structures are discussed extensively
by Hansen et al. (1985), Jaffe et al. (1994), Bower et al. (1997). The most
recent HST V, I, and H{alpha}+[N II] images (F547M, F814W, and F651N) of Bower
et al. show the two dust lanes and the filamentary H{alpha}+[N II] emission
particularly well. Apparently the H{alpha}+[N II] emission has three
components, namely, nuclear gas disk, an ionization cone, and outer filaments.
Thus, M84 might contain a nuclear gas disk. Since a compact nuclear source is
observed at optical wavelengths, one would also expect to see it in the UV;
however, after 900 s of integration, still no F220W flux was detected. We
suspect that the dust lanes are responsible for blocking the nuclear UV light
which is most prominent at 2200 A, i.e., for the F220W filter.

30. 1995A&A...297..643W
Re:NGC 4374
NGC 4374. This E1 galaxy (also M 84) is a Virgo cluster elliptical.
H{alpha} emission and indications of dust absorption have been observed
in the central region. NGC 4374 is source of strong radio continuum,
submillimeter and X-ray emission (Hummel et al. 1983; Knapp & Patten
1991; Fabbiano et al. 1989). An HI detection is reported in Huchtmeier &
Richter (1989) of 1 x 10^9^ M_sun_, but there are also several non-
detections reported with limits well below the detected value. We
consider NGC 4374 as a non-detection in HI. We obtain a three sigma
upper limit to the H_2_ mass of 3 x 10^7^ M_sun_.

31. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 4374
M84
VCC 763
E1
CD-723-S
Feb 1/2, 1979
103aO + Wr2c
45 min
NGC 4374 is one of the brightest galaxies in the Virgo
Cluster. Its total apparent blue magnitude is B_T_ = 10.2. The two
brightest galaxies in the cluster are NGC 4472 (B_T_ = 9.3; panels 18,
26) and NGC 4486 (B_T_ = 9.6; panel 17).
A few globular clusters exist in the image of the envelope, but
they are much rarer in this galaxy than in either NGC 4472 or NGC
4486.
Very faint dust patches exist near the center, shown in the
insert negative print made from a plate (H-271-H, Feb 20, 1923) taken
by Hubble with the Mount Wilson 100-inch Hooker Telescope. The image
to the right of the bulge in this insert print is an artifact of the
multiple exposures; the plate was moved between several successive
exposures.

32. 1994AJ....108.1579v
Re:NGC 4374
NGC 4374 (Messier 084 = 3C 272.1)
The giant elliptical radio galaxy, NGC 4374 forms a pair with NGC 4406
(=M86). The outskirts of these galaxies overlap at {mu}_B_ = 26. NGC 4374
harbors dust lanes in its central region (e.g., Hansen et al. 1985; Paper
I). These lanes are oriented perpendicular to the radio jet (Hansen et
al. 1985). Furthermore, the nuclear region shows a H{alpha}+[N II]
emission line region aligned with the dust lanes, and extending 12" on
both sides of the nucleus (Baum et al. 1988). These features heavily
disturb the isophotes for a <~ 10". At larger radii the complex isophotal
shapes are consistent with previous studies of this galaxy (Bender et al.
1988; Peletier et al. 1990).

33. 1994A&AS..106..199C
Re:NGC 4374
NGC 4374. It has a large dust lane and ionized region along a skewed axis
perpendicular to the distribution of the radio continuum. The velocity
field is slightly asymmetric (Bender & Surma 1992).

34. 1994A&AS..105..481M
Re:NGC 4374
NGC 4374: The envelope, with an ever decreasing ellipticity, is well
above the r^1/4^ law.

35. 1994A&AS..105..341G
Re:NGC 4374
Prominent skewed dust lane in central region (see also Hansen et al.
1985; Kim 1989), associated with ionized gas. Detected by IRAS at 60 and
100 microns. X-ray emission. Classical double lobed radio galaxy. The
orientation of the dust lane is perpendicular to that of the radio
continuum emission (Kotanyi & Ekers 1979).

36. 1994A&AS..104..179G
Re:NGC 4374
Prominent skewed dust lane in central region causes the different
behaviour of the Fourier terms in the different passbands. C4 ~ -0.05 at
larger radii. Detected by IRAS at 60 & 100 microns. Classical double lobed
radio galaxy.

37. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4374
= M 84
= 3C 272.1
= Holm 403b
Non-interacting pair with NGC 4387 at 10.5 arcmin
Description and Chain of Galaxies:
P.A.S.P., 80, 129, 1968.
Photograph:
A.J., 69, 236, 1964.
A.J., 79, 671, 1974.
Photometry:
Astrofizika, 1, 38, 1965
Photomery (5 Color):
A.J., 73, 313, 1968.
Photomery (UBV):
A.J., 74, 335, 1969.
Bol. A.A.Argentina, No. 16, 17, 1971.
Ap. J., 178, 25, 1972.
Photometry (BVR):
Ap. J., 183, 731, 1973.
Isodensitometry:
A.J., 79, 671, 1974.
Spectrum:
Ap. J. (Letters), 164, L35, 1971.
Spectrophotometry:
Observatory, 88, 239, 1968.
Sov. A.J., 13, 593, 1970.
Ap. J. (Letters), 193, L49, 1974.
Bull. A.A.S., 6, 332, 1974.
Dynamics and Mass Determination:
Ap. J., 139, 284, 1964.
SN1957B:
A.J., 69, 235, 1964.
Ap. J., 182, 225, 1973.
Radio Observations:
Observatory, 84, 30, 1964.
A.J., 72, 230, 1967.
A.J., 73, 1, 1968.
A.J., 75, 523, 1970.
Astrophys. Lett., 6, 49, 1970.
M.N.R.A.S., 157, 349, 1972.
Astr. Ap., 25, 451, 1973.
Astr. Ap., 34, 341, 1974,
Ap. J., 196, 303, 1974.
X-rays:
Ap. J. (Letters), 165, L49, 1971.

38. 1973UGC...C...0000N
Re:UGC 07494
E+1 (de Vaucouleurs), S0 (Holmberg)
SN 1957b
See A.J. 66, 555

39. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4374
= Holm 403b
Very bright, center. Smooth nebulosity. Some globular clusters?
Pair with NGC 4387 at 10.5 arcmin.
Photograph:
Ap. J., 135, 6, 1962.
Photometry:
Ap. J., 71, 231, 1930.
Ap. J., 132, 306, 1960.
Spectrum:
Ap. J., 135, 734, 1962.
Radio Emission:
Observatory, 80, 325, 1960.
Observatory, 81, 202, 1961.
SN 1957
A.N., 284, 141, 1958.
A.J., 63, 146, 1958.
A.J., 65, 54, 1960.

40. 1964ApJ...140...35M
Re:3C 272.1
No. 27.-According to Sandage, there is absorption in the nucleus (Wade 1960). A
member of the Virgo cluster of galaxies, richness 1. Redshift from Humason et
at. (1956).

41. 1918PLicO..13....9C
Re:NGC 4374
Very bright; round, 1' in diameter. Center large. No spiral structure
discernible.


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