Date and Time of the Query: 2019-05-24 T01:08:42 PDT
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Notes for object MESSIER 086

16 note(s) found in NED.

1. 2005ApJ...635.1031B
Re:NGC 4406
NGC 4406.-Also known as M86, this lies in the central part of the cluster,
1.2^deg^ west of M87, and with a modest H I column (2.6 x 10^20^ cm^-2^). It
has a nearly radial orbit, as its redshift (-244 km s^-1^) differs from the
systemic velocity of the cluster by more than the cluster velocity dispersion.
It has an elongated X-ray distribution that has been interpreted as stripping
of the gas within NGC 4406 by the ambient cluster medium. The stellar continuum
is very faint, so it is difficult to detect any Galactic absorption features
(Fig. 14). The stronger O VI line would be shifted to 1031.1 A, and a possible
emission feature in this low S/N spectrum occurs at that location. Although
this is the broadest and most significant emission feature, it is less than a 3
{sigma} detection. The weaker O VI line is not detected, nor are any other
emission lines.

2. 2001AJ....122..653R
Re:NGC 4406
NGC 4406: This galaxy is well known for its photometric and kinematic
peculiarities. It exhibits minor axis rotation and has a kinematically
distinct core (Forbes et al. 1995). Surface brightness profiles obtained
from ground-based observations under good seeing showed that it has an
isothermal core (Kormendy 1985a). The HST profile is remarkably flat, both
in the optical in the NIR; our fit formally gives {gamma} = 0.00 +/- 0.003.
Little or no color gradient has been measured by Carollo et al. (1997) and
Tomita et al. (2000), suggesting that the flattening of the central light
profile is probably intrinsic and not due to dust extinction. We consider
this to be a strong candidate for a galaxy hosting an isothermal core
(section 7.3).

3. 2001AJ....121.2974L
Re:NGC 4406
NGC 4406: This luminous early-type (E3/S0) Virgo galaxy is also known as
M86. It is a rare example of an early-type galaxy with an X-ray plume,
presumably resulting from ram pressure stripping (Rangarajan et al. 1995).
A kinematically distinct core was found by Bender (1988). It was part of
the same HST study by Forbes et al. (1996) that included NGC 4365. Like
NGC 4365, no obvious bimodality was detected in the short exposure images.
Kundu (1999) found tentative evidence for bimodality with peaks at
(V-I)_0_ = 0.98 and 1.17; here we formally find peaks at (V-I)_0_ = 0.986
and 1.145, but still with bimodality detected at a low confidence level.

4. 1999ApJ...519...89C
Re:NGC 4406
NGC 4406 (M86).-M86 is a bright elliptical galaxy in the Virgo
cluster. We find a weak nuclear X-ray source and also detect the plume
of diffuse X-ray emission extending toward the northwest (Forman, Jones,
& Tucker 1985). We discuss the ASCA spectra of this galaxy in section 5.

5. 1997ApJ...481..710C
Re:NGC 4406
There is a slight decrease in the surface brightness in the region
surrounding the very center of NGC 4406 (out to ~0.4" radius). The shape
of the obscuration is reminiscent of a nuclear dust ring or torus seen
close to face-on. This ring appears extended along the minor axis, i.e.,
its axis is aligned with the stellar kinematic axis of the outer galaxy
(which is tilted 90^deg^ with respect to that of the core). The ring is
hardly seen in the V - I color map, i.e., it does not give rise to a
large amount of reddening. However, it induces the large scatter in the
isophotal parameters inside ~1" (since the scatter is reduced in the fit
to the dust-improved I frame). Outside this radius, the isophotal
parameters are well defined and show a transition between an internal
stellar disk (~1"-6") and outer boxy isophotes. The transition is
accompanied by a very weak (<=10^deg^) isophote twist. No associated
structure is seen in the V - I color map (although at those radii, the
signal-to-noise ratio might be inadequate).

6. 1997A&A...321..765B
Re:NGC 4406
3.3. NGC 4406
The detection of HI by Bregman et al. (1988) and the nondetection of CO by us
implies that the neutral ISM is strongly dominated by atomic rather than
molecular gas. A precise limit cannot be determined because our CO observations
only cover the center of the galaxy whereas the HI observations include a much
larger region. CO non-detections were also obtained by Lees et al. (1991) and
Wiklind et al(1995).

7. 1995A&A...297..643W
Re:NGC 4406
NGC 4406. This galaxy (also M 86) is a bright E3 galaxy in the Virgo
cluster. It has a high velocity relative to the average cluster velocity
dispersion and is probably on a radial orbit almost parallel to the
line-of-sight, passing close to the cluster core about every 5 x 10^9^
years. A plume seen in soft X-ray emission extends towards the north-west
(Forman et al. 1979). The galaxy has a faint optical extension in the
direction of the plume. NGC 4406 has a kinematically decoupled core, with
a clear central entity seen in the ellipticity, orientation and the
`disky' a4 Fourier component (Nieto et al. 1991). FIR emission has been
detected both in the center region and at a position displaced ~210" (18
kpc) from the center (Knapp et al. 1989; White et al. 1991). The
displaced region is situated within the optical boundary of NGC 4406, in
the direction of the X-ray plume. We have observed both the center and
the displaced region. The latter being referred to as NGC 4406a, in
concordance with Knapp et al. (1989). HI emission has been detected by
Bregman & Roberts (1990) who found ~1 x 10^8^ M_sun_ of atomic gas. The
HI emission is centrally concentrated, with a small enhancement on the
X-ray plume. The HI profiles have a narrow component with a velocity
width of ~60 km s^-1^ and a broad, less intense component with a width of
~300 km s^-1^. There is no signature of a systematic rotation or any
other kinematical features of the HI gas. We detect no CO emission and
infer an upper limit to the H_2_ mass of 3 x 10^7^ and 2 x 10^7^ M_sun_
for the center and displaced region, respectively.

8. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 4406
VCC 881
Hubble Atlas, p. 1
Feb 3/4, 1979
103aO + Wr2c
60 min
The extended outer envelope is more
pronounced in NGC 4406 than in most other
E/S0 cases. It is well shown in the facing print,
appearing almost as a two-zone image, characteristic
of pure S0 types described in the next
A few globular clusters exist in the envelope,
but the specific globular cluster frequency (number
per unit M_B_ = -15 luminosity) is much lower
than in NGC 4486 (panel 17), NGC 4472
(panels 18, 26), or NGC 4636 (panel 26).
The Virgo Cluster nucleated dwarf elliptical
VCC 882 (dE3, N) is at the lower right in this
print, whose orientation is south at the top, east
to the right.

9. 1994A&AS..106..199C
Re:NGC 4406
NGC 4406. Close to NGC 4374, it shows peculiar core kinematics (Bender &
Surma 1992) and minor axis rotation. Small gradient of Mg_2_ in the

10. 1994A&AS..105..481M
Re:NGC 4406
NGC 4406: This giant elliptical has rather complex PA and q profiles;
the isophotes are boxy except in a small range around l= 200 arcsec. The
envelope is much brighter and more extended than implied by the
extrapolated r^1/4^ law. NGC 4406 has peculiar kinematics (see Refs. in
Kormendy & Djorgovski 1989).

11. 1985AJ.....90.1681B
Re:VCC 0881
Double according to CGCG; here split.
This is only the bright component (= NGC 4406), the faint one is the
dwarf elliptical VCC 0882 projected on the disk of the giant.

12. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4406
= M86
= Holm 403a
Non-interacting pair with NGC 4402 at 10 arcmin
A.J., 79, 671, 1974.
Astrofizika, 1, 38, 1965.
Photometry (12 Color):
Ap. J., 145, 36, 1966.
Photometry (5 Color):
A.J., 7, 313, 1968.
A.J., 74, 50, 1969.
Photometry (P,V):
Ap. J., 169, 209, 1971.
Bol. A. A. Argentina, No. 16, 17, 1971.
A.J., 79, 671, 1974.
Spectrum and Velocity Dispersion:
IAU Symp. No.15, 112, 1962.
Observatory, 88, 239, 1968.
Mem. S.A. Ital., 43, 263, 1972.
Population Model:
A.J., 73, 313, 1968.
Dynamics and Mass Determination:
Ap. J., 139, 284, 1964.

13. 1973UGC...C...0000N
Re:UGC 07532
E+3 (de Vaucouleurs), E (Holmberg)
Companion superimposed at 1.4, 35, 0.8: x 0.6:
See UGC 07494

14. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4406
= Messier 086
= Holm 403a
Very bright center. Smooth nebulosity. Traces of zonal structure. Some
globular clusters? Faint envelope in outer parts.
Non-interacting pair with NGC 4402 at 10 arcmin.
Ap. J., 46, 231, 1917 = MWC 132.
Ap. J., 135, 6, 1962.
Ap. J., 71, 231, 1930.
Ap. J., 132, 306, 1960.
Ap. J., 135, 734, 1962.

15. 1961Hubbl.B...0000S
Re:NGC 4406
Messier 086
Apr. 20/21, 1950
30 min
Enlarged 3.6X
NGC 4406 is a normal E3 galaxy. The luminosity gradient
is uniform. There is no evidence of an external envelope
as in NGC 4636 or in normal S01 galaxies. NGC 4406 is
a giant E galaxy, in the Virgo Cluster, of M(pg) = -20.6 and
m(pg) = 10.1 (E. Holmberg, Medd. Lunds Astr. Obs., Ser. II, no.
136, 1958). The distance modulus is (m-M) = 30.7.

16. 1918PLicO..13....9C
Re:NGC 4406
Slightly oval, 2' long; bright center, which is not stellar in short exposures;
no spiral structure discernible. 5 s.n.

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