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Notes for object MESSIER 088

21 note(s) found in NED.

1. 2012ApJ...754...67F
Re:NGC 4501
NGC 4501 .SAT3..-A nuclear spiral extends all the way to the center in HST
F606W. Fisher & Drory (2010) classify the bulge as a pseudobulge. The major axis
velocity profile rises quickly from the center to the bulge radius of 6.2" but
then flattens out at the bulge radius and forms a shelf out to about 20". The
velocity dispersion rises from 75 km s^-1^ in the disk to about 150 km s^-1^ at
15". The h_3_ moments are strongly anti-correlated with velocity inside the
bulge and reach values of +/- 0.1 at the bulge radius. h_4_ moments are mostly
compatible with zero at all radii. The minor axis velocity dispersion profile
starts rising with decreasing radius inward of 30" and reaches a maximum of
~=155 km s^-1^ at r = 10". The minor axis velocity dispersion exhibits a central
depression of about 15 km s^-1^. The minor axis velocity, h_3_ and h_4_ moments
are mostly compatible with zero.

2. 2008MNRAS.390.1241B
Re:NGC 4501
4.6 NGC 4501 The XMM-Newton spectrum of NGC 4501 reveals another apparently
unabsorbed Seyfert 2 galaxy in X-rays. It is well fitted by a power law with no
intrinsic absorption plus emission from a thermal plasma component, but shows no
clear hard excess or other spectral evidence supporting a deeply buried AGN
(such as iron K{alpha} emission). An entirely different picture emerges,
however, when one considers the Chandra data, which have higher spatial
resolution. The Chandra image of NGC 4501 reveals a hard X-ray emission
coincident with the optically defined nucleus (Fig. 4) consistent with heavy
X-ray absorption. It also shows that there are also multiple extra-nuclear
sources present, including diffuse soft emission close to the nucleus, which
XMM-Newton could not resolve. The implication is that the unabsorbed nature of
the XMM-Newton spectrum, which has a larger beam size, is due to contamination,
and that the true nuclear emission is heavily obscured. We performed a spectral
extraction of the optically defined nucleus using the region identified in Fig.
4 which did indeed reveal a hard excess above the unabsorbed power law, as in
NGC 3486 and 3976, which we fit with a Compton reflection component (pexmon).
Using the reflection component to estimate the intrinsic L_HX_ shows that the
X-ray faintness of NGC 4501 is probably due to heavy absorption (Fig. 2). There
is also no evidence for variability of NGC 4501, either between subsequent
observations by XMM-Newton and Chandra or during them.

3. 2008MNRAS.390.1241B
Re:NGC 4501
5.3.2 NGC 4501 By constraining hard X-ray emission to the nucleus in the Chandra
observation of NGC 4501, we confirmed that this source is in fact Compton thick.
Since the extra-nuclear sources seen in the Chandra image lie outside the
XMM-Newton spectral extraction region used, we surmise that the power law and
thermal emission which dominate over the reflection component in the XMM-Newton
spectrum does not originate from ULXs or the AGN, but from diffuse galactic
emission close to the nucleus. If this is scattered emission from the nucleus,
the scattered fraction is ~3 per cent in this Seyfert.

4. 2006MNRAS.366..812C
Re:NGC 4501
The H{alpha} velocity map of NGC 4501 (M88) appears regular with the exception
of non-circular motions associated to the spiral structure, as particularly seen
along the minor axis. NGC 4501 exhibits one of the largest velocity range among
all the galaxies presented here, indicating a very massive object. Notice that
part of the NW H{alpha} spiral arm is missing in the approaching half of the
disc, which is probably due to a dust obscuration effect and to a low
transmission of the interference filter. The CO kinematics in the +/-4 arcsec
region around the photometric centre is complex, as revealed by double peaks in
the molecular gas emission (Onodera et al. 2004). The H{alpha} PV diagram also
shows a complex central kinematics. Cayatte et al. (1990) showed compressed
contours of H I distribution to the SE.

5. 2005MNRAS.357..361S
Re:NGC 4501
NGC 4501. Unfortunately, both SCUBA bolometer arrays were so noisy throughout
the observations of this mid-inclination Virgo spiral (i= 58^deg^) that 25
per cent of the 450-{mu}m bolometers and 40 per cent of the 850-{mu}m bolometers
had to be blanked. None the less, submillimetre emission is detected from the
galaxy and its peak coincides with the optical centre.

6. 2003PASJ...55...59S
Re:NGC 4501
4.6 NGC 4501 A compact central peak and spiral arms are prominent in
the intensity map. The velocity field is normal, showing a typical
spider pattern. The PVD shows a central component superposed by a
disk/arm component. The RC indicates a sharp central rise followed by a
gradually rising part and flat outer rotation. The SMD indicates a
central core plus bulge and disk.

7. 2003PASJ...55...17S
Re:NGC 4501
6.7 NGC 4501 A nuclear concentration of the molecular gas of radius 3"
is remarkable, as reported by Sakamoto et al. (1999a). This is
classified as the "single-peak" type, although the peak intensity is
not particularly high compared with the other typical single peaks.
This central peak is surrounded by an extended component elongated in
the SE to NW direction, with the SE end at 5" radius being brighter.
Two prominent molecular arms are running at r~20". The north-eastern
arm is much stronger than the south-western arm. Both arms are
associated with the dark lanes along the optical spiral arms. The
velocity field and PV diagram indicate sharp rise of rotation velocity
in the nuclear disk. Detailed description and modeling by spiral-shock
accretion mechanism are given in Onodera et al. (2003:private

8. 2002ApJS..139....1T
Re:NGC 4501
NGC 4501 (S2).-The image in the 0.5-2 keV band is extended. A Gaussian
fit to the radial profile yielded {sigma} = 1.O' +/- 0.4'. In the hard
band (2-10 keV and 4-10 keV), the radial profiles are consistent with
the PSF ({sigma} = 0.7' +/- 0.4'and 0.6'^+1.3'^_-0.6'_,respectively).
The ROSAT HRI image is extended (Halderson et al. 2001). The X-ray
spectrum shows no indication of significant absorption
(N_H_ <2.3 x 10^22^ cm^-2^), and there is no strong evidence for Fe K
emission (adding a narrow Gaussian at 6.4 keV gives {DELTA}{chi}^2^
= -2.9), although the EW upper limit is large (<2310 eV). The
L_X_/L_H{alpha}_ ratio (17) lies in the range for unobscured AGNs
(Terashima et al. 2000a). These facts suggest that this Seyfert 2
galaxy is not heavily obscured in the X-ray band. Alternatively, it is
possible that the hard X-ray emission comes mainly from X-ray binaries,
whatever contribution from an obscured AGN being strongly diluted, as
in the case of NGC 5194 (Terashima et al. 1998b; Terashima & Wilson
2001; Fukazawa et al. 2001).

9. 2002A&A...392..817F
Re:NGC 4501
3.7 NGC 4501
We clearly detected two ULX in this galaxy, one of them just on the
border of the D_25_ ellipse. ULX2 has sufficient counts for a spectral
fitting. The best fit ({chi^2^=26.3, {nu} = 26) is a power law with
{GAMMA}=2.3+/-0.4, which corresponds to a flux of 1.0 x 10^-13^
erg cm^-2^ s^-1^ and a luminosity of 3.7x10^39^ erg s^-1^. Other acceptable
models are BB ({chi^2^=40.9, {nu} = 26) with kT = 0.28 +/- 0.09 keV and
MCD ({chi^2^=35.6, {nu} = 26) with kT = 0.5 +/- 0.3 keV. For BR we obtain
only an upper limit for kT<4 keV ({chi^2^=30.2, {nu} = 26).

10. 2001ApJS..133...77H
Re:NGC 4501
NGC 4501, M88 (S2). - We detected an unresolved core in both bands.
Hummel et al. (1987) give a 20 cm flux density of S_20_ = 2.7 mJy
({DELTA}{theta} = 1.3"), in reasonable agreement with our value. The
galaxy was not detected at higher resolution ({DELTA}{theta} = 0.3") by
Thean et al. (2000) at 3.6 cm; their upper limit of S_3.6_ < 0.2 mJy
implies that the source is variable, it is somewhat resolved at the higher
resolution, or its spectrum is much steeper than we inferred from our data
({alpha}_6_^20^ = -0.48).

11. 2001A&A...368...16M
Re:NGC 4501
34. NGC 4501 = M 88 is a prominent Sbc spiral in the Virgo subcluster
around NGC 4486. On red HST images Carollo et al. (1998) could follow the
spiral structure of NGC 4501 down to the nucleus. Due to the medium high
inclination of this galaxy a reasonable fit with our limited field of view
was still possible. The arm structure is very regular; we obtained very
good residua.

12. 1999ApJS..124..403S
Re:NGC 4501
5.10. NGC 4501
CO emission concentrates toward the galactic center. The
sensitivity of the one-track observations is not enough to make an
isovelocity map. However clear velocity gradient is seen along the
optical major axis of the galaxy (P.A. = 142^deg^) in the channel maps.
The mass of molecular gas in the central peak is 3 x 10^8^ M_sun_
within a radius of 500 pc.

13. 1998AJ....116...68C
Re:NGC 4501
Spiral-like dust lanes down to the necleus.

14. 1997ApJS..112..391H
Re:NGC 4501
NGC 4501.--NGC 4501 harbors a previously unrecognized Seyfert 2 nucleus (Paper
III). Judging by the faint wings on either side of [N II], it appears that an
extremely faint (f_blend_~9%), broad (FWZI~5000 km s^-1^) H{alpha} component is
present (Fig. 12h), but its detailed parameters are uncertain because of
ambiguities in the true shape of the narrow lines.

15. 1997A&AS..125..479J
Re:NGC 4501
NGC 4501 (SAb/Seyfert 2, 1"~150 pc, I=60.2^deg^)
The bulge region is characterized by growing ellipticity. However, the
constancy of the PA (140-144^deg^ interior to a=18") - as well as the fact that
its value corresponds to that of the outer disk - is compatible with a
spheroidal shape of the bulge: there is no evidence for a bar or other
triaxiality. The change of eccentricity and PA behind a=18" reflects the
presence of spiral arms.

16. 1995AJ....109.1608R
Re:NGC 4501
Keel (1983) noted LINER activity in this SA(rs)b type galaxy and
attempted to obtain IUE spectra. However, NGC 4501 was too faint for the
IUE's spectrometer. The galaxy has many finely defined arms. To the
southwest, there is a pair of detached outer arms.
In the inner arcmin, strong dust extinction lines the insides of the
arms. This is particularly evident southeast of the nucleus.
The angular profile may show an isophotal twist. However, the data are
too noisy to clearly determine this.
This galaxy is very close to M87. However, the finely detailed spiral
pattern argues strongly that this is a projection effect. NGC 4438 is
only slightly nearer M87 (in angle), but shows evidence of a strong

17. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 4501
VCC 1401
Feb 4/5, 1979
103aO + Wr2c
50 min
NGC 4501 is a very-large-angular-diameter
(D_25_ = 7') spiral, located 2^deg^ north of the center
of Virgo subcluster A associated with NGC 4486.
The galaxy is one of the largest spirals in the
Virgo Cluster region. It is similar in angular size
to the other large Virgo Cluster member spirals,
such as NGC 4192 (panel 135) and NGC 4216
(panel 149) of type Sb, and NGC 4321 (panel 213),
NGC 4535 (panel 297), NGC 4303 (panel 213),
NGC 4254 (panel 224), NGC 4536 (panel 174),
and NGC 4654 (panel 302), of type Sc.
Images of these largest of the Virgo Cluster
spirals are printed to a common angular scale in
an atlas of Virgo Cluster galaxies given elsewhere
(Sandage, Binggeli, and Tammann 1985a).
The many, well-organized dust lanes,
silhouetted against the bright background disk,
are prominent in the multiple-armed spiral pattern
of NGC 4501. The spiral morphology here is a
later version of that of NGC 488 (panels 115,
116, S3, S12) if viewed at this inclination.
The largest of the several HII regions may
resolve at about the 2" level, corresponding to a
linear diameter of about 200 psc, adopting a
distance of 21.8 Mpc (m - M = 31.7) for the
Virgo Cluster. However, it is not established
beyond doubt that NGC 4501 is, in fact, a member
of the cluster. Its redshift is high, v_o = 2161
km/s, which is near the upper limit for the
arbitrary redshift range for Virgo Cluster
inclusion. And further, the galaxy is away from
the main concentration of member galaxies.
However, NGC 4548 (SBbI-II), which has nearly the
same angular size and which is close to NGC 4501
in the sky, has v_o = 366 km/s, assuring
its membership in the cluster and improving the
circumstantial case for membership of NGC 4501.

18. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4501
= M88.
Description and Classification:
"Nuclei of Galaxies", 27, 1971.
A.J., 74, 515, 1969.
Coll. Int. Novae & SN, CNRS, Paris, 166, 1965.
IAU Symp.38, 11, 1970. No. 44, p.373,, 1972.
"Nuclei of Galaxies", 27, 1971.
Astrofizika, 2, 53, 1966.
Photometry (5 Color):
A.J., 73, 313, 1968.
Photometry (P,V):
Bol. A.A.Argentina, No. 16, 17, 1971.
Ap. J. Suppl., 26, No. 230, 1973.
A.J., 74, 515, 1969.
Observatory, 88, 239, 1968.

19. 1973UGC...C...0000N
Re:UGC 07675
SA(rs)b (de Vaucouleurs), Sb+ (Holmberg)
SN? 1961 (Rosino, probably variable star)
Companion 6.9, 190, 0.9: x 0.6:, dwarf

20. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4501
= Messier 088
Very small, bright nucleus. Pseudo (r): 1.1 arcmin x 0.55 arcmin. Many
knotty, filamentary arms with dark lanes.
(B-V) source A rejected. Unusual relation, (B-V) interpolated.
Hubble, Observational App. to Cosmology, Plate II, 1936.
Ap. J., 135, 7, 1962.
HII Regions:
Zeit. fur Ap., 50, 168, 1960.

21. 1918PLicO..13....9C
Re:NGC 4501
Vol. VIII, Plate 37. A bright, beautiful spiral 5' x 2.5' in p.a. 140^deg^.
Bright, elongated nuclear region, including a bright, almost stellar nucleus,.
The whorls are rather close, and show numerous condensations. 17 s.n.

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