Date and Time of the Query: 2022-01-22 T13:53:27 PST
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Notes for object MESSIER 089

26 note(s) found in NED.

1. 2009MNRAS.397.2148G
Re:NGC 4552
While Faber et al. (1997) report neither severe nor moderate nucleation in the
core galaxy NGC 4552, a small amount of excess flux within 0.1 arcsec may be
apparent in the light profiles shown by Byun et al. (1996) and Carollo et al.
(1997). Renzini et al. (1995) have however reported that the point source in
this LINER Seyfert 2 galaxy is variable at ultraviolet wavelengths, and is
therefore likely to be due to an AGN. We have, however, elected not to include
this S0 galaxy (Caon, Capaccioli & D'Onofrio 1993) because an accurate spheroid
mass is not available.

2. 2008MNRAS.386.2242H
Re:NGC 4552
The black hole masses of NGC 2974, NGC 3414, NGC 4552, NGC 4621, NGC
5813 and NGC 5846 are taken from Cappellari et al. (2007b) with a formal
error of 10 per cent (1{sigma} CL), which is approximately converted
from the 30 per cent error at 3{sigma} CL.

3. 2008MNRAS.386.2242H
Re:NGC 4552
The black hole masses of NGC 2974, NGC 3414, NGC 4552, NGC 4621, NGC 5813 and
NGC 5846 are taken from Cappellari et al. (2007b) with a formal error of 10 per
cent (1{sigma} CL), which is approximately converted from the 30 per cent error
at 3{sigma} CL.

4. 2007MNRAS.377.1696M
Re:NGC 4552
NGC 4552. Nagar et al. (2002) measured with the VLBA at 6 cm (2-mas resolution)
a flux 99.5 mJy, and with the VLA at 2 cm (150-mas resolution) a flux of 59 mJy.
The various UV measurements of this nucleus with HST are: 1.5 * 10^-17^ er g
cm^-2^ s^-1^ A^-1^ (at 2300 A) and 1.8 * 10^-17^ erg cm^-2^ s^-1^ A^-1^ (at 2800
A), with HST/FOC in 1993 (Cappellari et al. 1999); 2 * 10^-17^ erg cm^-2^ s^-1^
A^-1^ at 2500 A with HST/FOS in 1996 (Cappellari et al. 1999); M05 observed it
at two epochs between which it brightened by 20 per cent in both F250W and
F330W. I adopt the means of the measurements of M05, 2 * 10^-17^ erg cm^-2^
s^-1^ A^-1^ (F250W) and 1.5 * 10^-17^ erg cm^-2^ s^-1^ A^-1^ (F330W), and take
20 per cent of them as lower limits on the AGN flux.
Flohic et al. (2006) used Chandra to derive unabsorbed fluxes for the nuclear
source of 5.0 * 10^-14^ erg cm^-2^ s^-1^ at 0.5-2 keV and 6.0 * 10^-14^ erg
cm^-2^ s^-1^ at 2-10 keV, and a photon index of 2.0 +/- 0.2. Machacek et al.
(2006) find a photon index of 1.7, and I will adopt a value of 1.8.

5. 2006MNRAS.369..497K
Re:NGC 4552
This large elliptical shows regular line strength gradients, consistent with
Sanchez-Blazquez (2004) and Rampazzo et al. (2005). The H{beta} map appears flat
and shows notably low values.

6. 2006MNRAS.366.1151S
Re:NGC 4552
Ionized-gas emission, mostly from the [O III] doublet, is clearly detected in
the central regions of this object although template mismatch severely affects
the measured values of {sigma}_gas_. In the central 4 arcsec, the gas kinematics
is strongly decoupled from the stellar kinematics, confirming that the observed
emission is not purely an template-mismatch artefact. H{alpha}+[N II] emission
was detected also by Macchetto et al. (1996). Nuclear [O III] emission was found
also by Cappellari et al. (1999). Patchy absorption features are visible on the
north-western side of the centre and ~8 arcsec to the north-east. Upon closer
inspection, the HST image shows the presence of a very small ring of dust (r~
0.25 arcsec) surrounding the nucleus, consistent with the analysis of Carollo et
al. (1997).

7. 2006ApJS..164..334F
Re:VCC 1632
VCC 1632 (M89, NGC 4552).Two thin dust filaments radiate from the center in the
west-northwest direction, out to a distance of about 6". Small dust patches are
visible within 11". A small dust patch, less than 1" across, surrounds (but it
is not centered on) the center of the galaxy. There is a very red object to the
southwest of the center, at a distance of about 110". The isophotes are very
regular; there is no indication of a nucleus.

8. 2006ApJ...647..140F
Re:NGC 4552
This galaxy (T2, E1) has a bright, hard central source, plus four other point
sources in its central kiloparsec and soft diffuse emission. The spectrum of the
central source is well fitted by a power law or a Comptonized blackbody. These
models give a luminosity of L_0.5-10 keV_ = 3.7 x 10^39^ ergs s^-1^. This source
was clearly detected at 4.85 GHz with S_{nu}_ = 64 mJy and a spectral index
{rho} = -0.23 (Condon et al. 1991), so we calculate log R_X_ = -1.5, which means
that this source is radio-loud. Moreover, a UV flare from this source was
detected (Renzini et al. 1995; Cappellari et al. 1999) and the UV flux was
observed to vary over a short period of time (Maoz et al. 2005), indicating a
weak AGN. The stellar population was estimated to be old (9.6 Gyr; Terlevich &
Forbes 2002). The X-ray luminosity from the central 2.5" region is L_2-10 keV_ =
3.4 x 10^39^ ergs s^-1^, and the luminosity of the AGN is L_2-10 keV_ = 2.0 x
10^39^ ergs s^-1^. Thus, the X-ray luminosity of this LINER comes mostly from
its AGN (~60%).

9. 2006ApJ...639..136H
Re:NGC 4552
NGC 4552. We extracted spectra in three contiguous, concentric annuli with
outer radii 0.3', 1.2', and 2.4' (1.2, 5.2, and 10 kpc), respectively. We
tied abundances between all annuli. Only one hot gas component was
required in any annulus to fit the data. There is some evidence of a
central temperature peak, similar to that found in NGC 1332 (Humphrey et
al. 2004): we found kT = 0.58 keV in the center, falling to ~=0.33 keV by
the next annulus. Using ASCA, Finoguenov & Jones (2000) found Z_Fe_ <
0.12, when fitting the spectrum with a single hot gas component. We
attribute this discrepancy to the Fe bias. The abundance ratios reported
by those authors also disagree with our measured values, which is
presumably a related effect.

10. 2006A&A...460...45G
Re:NGC 4552
NGC 4552 (M 89, UGC 7760). This galaxy shows an unresolved source in the hard
band over an extended nebulosity morphology with the peak of emission coincident
with the galaxy center determined from 2MASS data (Fig. 5). Xu et al. (2005)
found from Chandra ACIS-S data that the central source is the brightest in the
field and that it coincides with the optical/IR/radio center of the galaxy
within 0.5". The X-ray-identified source is compact and variable on short time
scales of 1 h. Their best-fitted model of the source is consistent with an
absorbed power-law with spectral index {GAMMA} = 2.24 in rather good agreement
with the ASCA data reported by Colbert & Mushotzky (1999). The inferred
luminosity in the 2-10 keV is 4 x 10^39^ erg s^-1^, consistent with our result
(2.6 x 10^39^ erg s^-1^). Their main conclusion based on the variability, the
spectral analysis, and multi-wavelengh data is that the central source is more
likely a low-luminosity AGN than contribution from LMXBs. Our best -fit
parameters are consistent with a model of a power law with an spectral index
{GAMMA} = 1.81 plus a thermal RS of kT= 0.83, in much better agreement with the
results by Filho et al. (2004) on the analysis of Chandra archival data, with
{GAMMA} = 1.51 and kT=0.95.

11. 2006A&A...447...97B
Re:UGC 07760
UGC 7760: Filho et al. (2004) find a bright X-ray nuclear source,spatially
coincident with the radio core position. The spectrum of the nuclear source
(1200 net counts) is well fitted by a two component model, i.e. a power law (
{GAMMA} = 1.51) plus Raymond-Smith thermal plasma (KT = 0.95 keV).

12. 2005ApJ...635.1031B
Re:NGC 4552
NGC 4552.-This galaxy (M89) also lies in the Virgo Cluster but has slightly
more extinction than most other members (2.56 x 10^20^ cm^-2^) and shows clear
evidence of Galactic molecular hydrogen absorption. Although Galactic atomic
and molecular absorption compromises our ability to detect the redshifted O VI
{lambda}1038 line, the redshifted O VI {lambda}1032 line is in a part of the
spectrum that is uncontaminated by Galactic absorption or airglow (Fig. 18).
There is an emission feature near the redshift of the systemic velocity of the
galaxy (for the O VI {lambda}1032 line), although the center of the emission
feature is redshifted relative to the systemic velocity by about 0.5 A (150 km
s^-1^; the stellar velocity dispersion is 260 km s^-1^, or an equivalent FWHM
of 615 km s^-1^, so the line shift is well within the velocity dispersion
value). The O VI {lambda}1032 line is visible on both the LiF1a and LiF2b

13. 2005ApJ...622..235T
Re:NGC 4552
H{alpha} undetected at log(LH{alpha}) < 38.06; modest radio source;

14. 2004MNRAS.352..721E
Re:NGC 4552
NGC 4552: We detect weak rotation in this galaxy and a corresponding
weak correlated h_3_ field (Bender et al. 1994). The zero velocity curve
is significantly twisted.

15. 2004A&A...418..429F
Re:NGC 4552
NGC 4552 The soft X-ray emission extends almost to the limits of the
optical galaxy (~2'), exhibiting a somewhat hourglass structure. We find
a strong hard X-ray nuclear source, coincident with the radio core
position (Nagar et al. 2002; Filho et al. 2000). The spectrum of the
nuclear source (1200 net counts) yields a satisfactory fit with a two
component model - power law ({GAMMA}=1.51) plus Raymond-Smith thermal
plasma (kT=0.95 keV).

16. 2001AJ....121.2974L
Re:NGC 4552
NGC 4552: This Virgo elliptical galaxy is also known as M89, and it is
known to possess a kinematically distinct core (Simien & Prugniel 1997).
Kundu (1999) found possible bimodality, which we confirm as statistically
significant with the same mean colors (to within +/-0.01).

17. 2000ApJS..129...93F
Re:NGC 4552
NGC 4552 (M89). - We detect about 77 mJy in a strong core. NVSS
detected a 103 mJy source. Since BWE91 measured 64 mJy at 5 GHz, the
radio source in NGC 4552 must have a relatively flat radio spectrum,
which is in agreement with findings by Condon et al. (1991). The radio
source appears to be variable (Wrobel & Heeschen 1984; Ekers, Fanti, &
Miley 1983; Sramek 1975a, 1975b; Ekers & Ekers 1973). Our recent
subarcsecond-resolution 8.4 GHz images have confirmed this object's

18. 1999ApJ...519...89C
Re:NGC 4552
NGC 4552 (M89).-This elliptical galaxy is also quite a bright radio
source (Wrobel & Heeschen 1984). HFS95 label it as a transition object.
We find a central compact X-ray source coincident with the nucleus,
surrounded by diffuse X-ray emission. The ASCA spectra of this source
are discussed in section 5.

19. 1999A&AS..136..269F
Re:NGC 4552
This is an S0 galaxy with a very small amount of absorption at our limit
of detection, in the form of filaments, more elongated to the NE
direction, while the gas extends farther to the SW.

20. 1997ApJ...481..710C
Re:NGC 4552
The nucleus of this galaxy is obscured by an arc-shaped dust lane that
runs northeast of it. The lane is clearly visible in the V image and in
the V - I color map, in which it resembles an incomplete (asymmetric)
ring. More extended, radially elongated, filaments are also visible in
the frames. Inside about 0.4", the isophotal parameters are strongly
affected by the dust. Outside ~1", the isophotes become very round, a
small isophotal twisting is present, and the higher Fourier terms are
negligible. The V - I color profile shows a bump inside ~0.25", most
likely due to the nuclear dust. The central point source, reported as
variable in the UV by Renzini et al. (1995), is seen in our frames (V ~
20.6, V - I ~ 0.5 mag). A detailed analysis of this and of the other two
points sources detected in NGC 4278 and IC 1459 will be reported

21. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 4552
VCC 1632
May 25/26, 1948
30 min
NGC 4552 is a clear S0 rather than an E.
The extended outer envelope is definite, although
not pronounced; the S0 characteristics are
intermediate. The departure from a normal E
morphology is well shown in the print here. The E0
classification in the RC2, based on the POSS
paper prints, is inappropriate.

22. 1994AJ....108.2128C
Re:PGC 041968
PGC 041968 = NGC 4552 = M89. Type = .E.0+.. , S_T_ = V.

23. 1994A&AS..105..481M
Re:NGC 4552
NGC 4552: The boxyness is well detected for l > 15 arcsec, although the
ellipticity remains small. The envelope is again well above the
extrapolated r^1/4^ law.

24. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4552
= M89
Description and Photograph:
Ap. J.Let, 165, L65, 1971.
Photometry (12 Color):
Ap. J., 145, 36, 1966.
Photometry (5 Color):
A.J., 73 313, 1968.
Ap. J. (Letters), 164, L35, 1971.
Observatory, 88, 239, 1968.
Ap. J. (Letters), 193, L49, 1974.
Ap. J. (Letters), 179, L93, 1973.
Dynamics and Mass Determination:
Ap. J., 139, 284, 1964.
Radio Observations ("Curved" spectrum):
A.J., 75, 523, 1970.
Astrophys. Lett., 6, 49, 1970.
IAU Symp.44, 222, 1972.

25. 1973UGC...C...0000N
Re:UGC 07760
E0 (de Vaucouleurs)

26. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4552
= Messier 089
Ap. J., 71, 231, 1930.
Ap. J., 132, 306, 1960.

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