Date and Time of the Query: 2019-08-17 T17:04:39 PDT
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Notes for object MESSIER 058

26 note(s) found in NED.

1. 2009ApJ...703.1034Y
Re:NGC 4579
NGC 4579. Quataert et al. (1999) have already modeled this source. They found
that the X-ray spectrum can be fitted by the ADAF very well. Our calculation is
in good agreement with theirs, as shown in the figure.

2. 2007MNRAS.379.1249D
Re:NGC 4579
NGC 4579 is an active galaxy classified as S1.9/L1.9 (Ho et al. 1997). It hosts
a NIR stellar bar of 9 kpc of diameter, oriented along PA = 58{degrees}.
Garcia-Burillo et al. (2005) observed this galaxy with the Plateau de Bure
Interferometer (CO) as part of the NUGA survey. They found a nuclear molecular
spiral from R [IMAGE] 1 kpc down to [IMAGE]200 pc, driven by the stellar bar and
detected highly non-circular motions over the spiral arms. They interpreted
these perturbations as outflow motions.
Fig. 4(f) presents our SAURON maps for this galaxy. The stellar continuum
isophotes are rather round in the centre and slightly elongated along a PA of
~60{degrees} corresponding to the orientation of the stellar bar. The
stellar velocity field presents a very regular rotation pattern, with a
kinematic major-axis oriented at a PA of 95{degrees}. The stellar velocity
dispersion rises regularly towards the centre.
The [O III] and H{beta} distribution and kinematics are very similar (Figs 4f
and B1). The ionized gas intensity maps show a spiral-like structure, which
corresponds to the nuclear molecular structure observed by Garcia-Burillo et al.
(2005). The [O III]/H{beta} ratio presents lower values in the spiral arms than
outside. The ionized gas kinematics is complex and shows strong departures from
axisymmetry. The gas kinematic major-axis (PA = 100{degrees}) is almost
perpendicular to the stellar bar, and varies within the SAURON FOV. Despite the
similarities between H{beta} and [O III] distributions and velocity fields,
their velocity dispersions are significantly different. The {sigma}_[O III]_ map
presents an elongated structure of high values along the stellar bar (Fig. 4f),
while {sigma}_H{beta}_ decreases in the central parts (Fig. B1).

3. 2007MNRAS.377.1696M
Re:NGC 4579
NGC 4579. VLBA measurements by Anderson et al. (2004) of the radio core,
unresolved at 1 mas, are: 14.6 mJy at 0.7 cm; 11.1 mJy at 1.35 cm; 15.3 mJy at
1.9 cm; 16.2 mJy at 3.6 cm; 19.2 mJy at 6 cm.
The various UV fluxes that haven been measured with HST, from low to high,
are: at ~2300 A in 1994, 33 * 10^-17^ erg cm^-2^ s^-1^ A^-1^ (Barth et al. 1996;
Maoz et al. 1998); at 2500 A in 2003, 61 * 10^-17^ erg cm^-2^ s^-1^ A^-1^ (M05,
mean of two epochs); at 3300 A in 2003, 42 * 10^-17^ erg cm^-2^ s^-1^ A^-1^
(M05, mean of two epochs); and at ~2300 A in 1993, 110 * 10^-17^ erg cm^-2^
s^-1^ A^-1^ (Maoz et al. 1995). Between the two epochs of M05, separated by less
than a month, the nucleus brightened by 7 per cent in both UV bands. I will
adopt the Maoz et al. (1995) measurement as a high point at 2500 A, the
difference between the Maoz et al. (1995) and the Maoz et al. (1998)
measurements at 2200 A as lower limits on the AGN flux, the M05 mean flux at
3300 A as a high point, and 7 per cent of this value as the lower limit on the
AGN flux at 3300 A.
Eracleous et al. (2002) find with Chandra an unabsorbed 2-10 keV nuclear flux
of 1300 * 10^-14^ erg cm^-2^ s^-1^, with a photon index of 1.8. Analysis by
Cappi et al. (2006) of a measurement with XMM-Newton gives 300 * 10^-14^ erg
cm^-2^ s^-1^ at 0.5-2 keV and 380 * 10^-14^ erg cm^-2^ s^-1^ at 2-10 keV, with a
photon index of 1.7. Since pile up is a concern in Chandra data for this bright
source (Terashima & Wilson 2003), I will adopt the XMM values.

4. 2006MNRAS.366.1265B
Re:NGC 4579
In addition to the main large-scale spiral arms, this Virgo galaxy exhibits a
nuclear spiral structure [the so-called "loop" in Pogge (1989) and Gonzalez
Delgado & Perez (1996)] within which is detected a gradient of up to ~500 km
s^-1^. The FP velocity field shows that the kinematical PA of this nuclear
spiral differs by ~90^deg^ from that of the main spiral arms. The kinematical
parameters of this galaxy shown in Table 5 are calculated for the grand-design
spiral structure (i.e. outside of the nuclear spiral structure) (see Fig. B19).
The PA of the nuclear structure is ~174^deg^ +/- 11 (Chemin et al. 2005).

5. 2006MNRAS.366..812C
Re:NGC 4579
The FP data presents an H? kinematics of NGC 4579 (M58) which is perturbed by
the streaming motions along the large-scale spiral arms and by a rather large
velocity dispersion in the receding half (by comparison with the approaching
side). The circumnuclear region is particularly interesting because it exhibits
a bright loop structure within a radius of ~1.5 kpc (Keel 1983; Pogge 1989;
Gonzalez Delgado & Perez 1996) and the nucleus is known to have an extremely
broad H{alpha} profile with a full width at zero intensity of up to 18 000 km
s^-1^ (Barth et al. 2001). The so-called loop is actually an asymmetric
nuclear spiral which displays a very large velocity gradient (~500 km s^-1^).
The kinematical major axis of the nuclear spiral is almost perpendicular to that
of the large-scale spiral structure. The high-resolution data of the molecular
gas component showed CO emission concentrated within the core (Helfer et al.
2003; Sofue et al. 2003a) and the neutral hydrogen emission was lying in an
annulus-like structure (Cayatte et al. 1990) which is actually the large-scale
spiral arms.

6. 2006A&A...460...45G
Re:NGC 4579
NGC 4579 (M 58, UGC 7796). This galaxy shows a compact nuclear source sitting in
a diffuse halo (Fig. 5). Eracleous et al. (2002) fitted the compact unresolved
central source detected in Chandra X-ray data, coincident with the broad-line
region detected in UV by Barth et al. (2002) with a simple power law spectra
with {GAMMA} = 1.88, which gives an estimated luminosity of 1.7 x 10^41^ erg
s^-1^. More recently, Dewangan et al. (2004) presented XMM-Newton data to search
for the presence of an FeK{alpha} line. The best-fit spectrum is rather complex:
an absorbed power law with {GAMMA} = 1.77 plus a narrow Gaussian at 6.4 keV and
a broad Gaussian at 6.79 keV with FWHM ~ 20 000 km s^-1^. This broad component
is interpreted as arising from the inner accretion disk. The estimated
luminosity amounts to 1.2 x 10^40^ erg s^-1^, lower than both Eracleous's
estimation and ours (1.4 x 10^41^ erg s^-1^).

7. 2005ApJ...627..674A
Re:NGC 4579
NGC 4579.This galaxy was essentially unresolved by the VLBA study of Ulvestad &
Ho (2001b) and A04. We have classified the short-term variability as tentative,
since the May data could possibly have u-v effects and the September data could
possibly be influenced by the phase calibration.

8. 2003PASJ...55...17S
Re:NGC 4579
6.13 NGC 4579 The CO distribution is elongated in the east-west
direction, about 30 deg displaced from the optical bar axis. There are
two major CO peaks with asymmetric peak intensities, which are
associated with symmetric spiral features as reported by Kohno et al.
(1999). The velocity field shows a higher rotation velocity than
200 km s^-1^ in the central few arcseconds, which is more clearly
visible in the position-velocity diagram.

9. 2003ApJ...583..145T
Re:NGC 4579
NGC 4579 (L1.9/S1.9). A result on the same data set is presented by
Ho et al. (2001). The nucleus is significantly piled up in the Chandra
observation. The Chandra hard-band image is dominated by the nucleus,
and no bright source is seen in the field. Therefore, we used ASCA
fluxes observed in 1995 and 1998. Detailed ASCA results are published
in Terashima et al. (1998) and Terashima et al. (2000c).
A long (33.9 ks exposure) Chandra observation performed in 2000 May is
presented in Eracleous et al. (2002). The 2-10 keV flux reported is
5.2 x 10^-12^ ergs s^-1^ cm^-2^, which is similar to that of the
second ASCA observation in 1998 [(5.3-6.1) x 10^-12^ ergs s^-1^

10. 2002ApJS..143...73E
Re:NGC 4579
NGC 4579.---SBa (see Fig. 4d): Bright, centrally condensed, slightly
elliptical bulge, threaded by a prominent bar with a P.A. offset
~30deg north of the bulge major axis. Bright ansae at the ends of the
bar are the origins of the spiral arms. Arms are smooth, with no
evidence of knots or substructure, and tightly wrapped. The arm
emanating from the SW end of the bar is the more prominent and can be
traced for ~300deg. The NE arm can be traced for ~200deg. Note in
Figure 4d that the outer spiral structure in NGC 4579 is very blue.
The difference in morphology between the optical and near-IR is driven
by the very blue outer star-forming spiral arms.

11. 2002ApJS..139....1T
Re:NGC 4579
NGC 4579 (S1.9/L1.9).-Detailed analyses of three ASCA observations are
presented in Terashima et al. (1998a, 2000c). A Chandra image in the
hard band is dominated by the nucleus (Ho et al. 2001).

12. 2001ApJS..133...77H
Re:NGC 4579
NGC 4579, M58 (S1.9/L1.9). - The previous 1" resolution 6 cm map of
van der Hulst et al. (1981) reported that the core of NGC 4579 is slightly
extended along P.A. = 134^deg^. Our maps, especially that at 20 cm (see
also Hummel et al. 1987), show that the source is a double, separated by
4.8" along P.A. = 133^deg^. We identify the brighter of the two with the
nucleus, since it lies within 0.6" of the optical position of the nucleus,
which is known to an accuracy of +/-0.16". Our data indicate that the core
has an inverted spectrum ({alpha}_6_^20^ = 0.49), consistent with the
measurements of Sadler et al. (1995) performed with the Parkes-Tidbinbilla
Interferometer at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz ({alpha} = 0.19). Other literature data
include a VLBI detection at 6 cm (S = 21 mJy, quoted in Hummel et al.
1987), an Arecibo interferometer measurement at 2.4 GHz
({DELTA}{theta} = 1", S = 20 mJy; Turner, Helou, & Terzian 1988), and a
VLA point at 3.6 cm ({DELTA}{theta} = 0.3", S = 36.5 mJy; Thean et al.

13. 2000ApJ...542..186N
Re:NGC 4579
NGC 4579.-Hummel et al. (1987) find a core flux density of 25.1 mJy in
the central 2" of their 1.3" resolution, 20 cm VLA map, with extended
emission in P.A. ~ 135^deg^. The radio core was found to have an
inverted spectrum between 13 and 3.6 cm with the Parkes-Tidbinbilla
275 km interferometer (S_{nu}_ is proportional to {nu}^0.2^; Sadler et
al. 1995). Van der Hulst, Crane, & Keel (1981) found the 6 cm emission
to be extended in P.A. 134^deg^, with extent 0.4" +/- 0.2" and flux
density 39.9 mJy.

14. 2000ApJ...530..688A
Re:NGC 4579
NGC 4579.-The optical line ratios of this galaxy (Gonzalez-Delgado &
Perez 1996b) satisfy only one of the criteria in Heckman's definition
([O II] {lambda}3727/[O III] {lambda}5007 = 1.53). However, the position
of the line ratios in the diagnostic diagrams is in the overlapping
region of LINERs and Seyfert galaxies, which lead Ho et al. (1997a) to
classify this galaxy as a Seyfert 1.9 or LINER 1.9. The AGN-dominated
nature of this LINER is confirmed by the detection of broad wings in the
H{alpha} line (Filippenko & Sargent 1985; Ho et al. 1997c) along with
broad lines in the UV (Maoz et al. 1998). NGC 4579 is the only galaxy
in our sample with a FWHM of the [Fe II] 1.257 micron line well above
the instrument resolution. The J-band spectrum does not show Pa{beta} in

15. 1997ApJS..112..391H
Re:NGC 4579
NGC 4579.--Broad H{alpha} emission has long been known to be present in this
LINER/Seyfert nucleus (Stauffer 1982; Keel 1983; Paper I), but its strength is
substantially weaker than that deduced from decomposition of the narrow lines
using single Gaussians. The extended, asymmetric base of [S II] largely
accounts for most of the broad base of the H{alpha}+[N II] complex.
Nevertheless, a detailed multicomponent fit undeniably requires a moderately
strong (f_blend_~21%) broad H{alpha} line (Fig. 13b). The BLR in NGC 4579
recently has also been revealed in the ultraviolet (Barth et al. 1996).

16. 1997ApJS..111..143B
V138 = NGC 4579 = M58 = UGC 7796.--An Sab galaxy with a LINER nuclear spectrum
and evidence of weak broad H{alpha} and X-ray emission (Fillipenko & Sargent
1985; Halpern & Steiner 1983). It was observed in the same FOC-HST snapshot
survey to have two near-nuclear sources, a bright nucleus and a nearby slightly
extended source (Maoz et al. 1995). The FOC nuclear source flux density
corresponds to a monochromatic magnitude at 2270 A of 16.22 mag. The slightly
extended source is two magnitudes fainter. However, the FAUST measurement
indicates that most UV emission does not originate from the nuclear region.

17. 1997ApJS..108..155G
Re:NGC 4579
The disk shows H II regions that are mainly along the spiral arms. The
circumnuclear emission is very complex, in the form of a loop with the
main axis parallel to the stellar bar (Keel 1983; Pogge 1989b). This
emission extends out to 1.5 kpc from the nucleus. A more detailed
description and analysis of the excitation mechanism can be found
in Gonzalez Delgado & Perez (1996e).

18. 1997A&A...319...33A
Re:NGC 4579
NGC 4579 A line of X-ray sources is shown in Fig. 13 running NW-SE through
NGC 4579. The two end sources are the strongest at C=8.5 and 4.3. The first is
well identified with an E=19.3 mag. BSO and the second with an E=19.6 BSO. The
C=4.4 source, 5.7'W of NGC 4579 is closely identified with an E=18.2 mag. BSO.
Another BSO candidate lies exactly 53" N of this latter position.

19. 1995ApJS...98..477H
Re:NGC 4579
Comprehensive multiwavelength data are available for this galaxy and a
few others in our survey. Collectively, the evidence makes NGC 4579 one
of the best examples of a low-luminosity AGN. Relevant factors include
the detection of broad H{alpha} emission (Paper I), an emission-line
spectrum typical of LINERs (Fig. 71), a UV continuum consistent with a
power law (Goodrich & Keel 1986), an unresolved nuclear source in the UV
(Maoz et al. 1995), a flat-spectrum radio core (Hummel et al. 1987), and
X-ray emission (Halpern & Steiner 1983).

20. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 4579
VCC 1727
Hubble Atlas, p. 13
Jan31/Feb 1, 1952
103aO + WG2
30 min
NGC 4579 is a prototypical Sab toward the late end of the Sab
section. There are two principal massive arms, threaded throughout by
many thin dust lanes. These lanes have kinks and branches that deviate
from curves with smooth derivatives. Note the segments of dust
branches connecting the bright inner arm in the lower-left quadrant
with the fainter arm farther out on the same side that is the
extension of the opposite inner main arm in the upper-right quadrant.
Dust lanes also exist in the smooth, central region. They are
only partially seen in the image here, which has been printed to show
the outer arms rather than the intricate and delicate interior dust
In classifying galaxies of this type, the classifier asks, "Is it
an Sa?" If not, it is later. Then, "Is it as late as an Sb?" If not,
then it must be an Sab. NGC 4579 is an Sab by this elimination method.

21. 1993ApJS...86....5K
Re:NGC 4579
NGC 4579; Sab, LINER.
NGC 4579 is a double radio source with a flat spectrum and an unresolved
core (Hummel et al. 1987b). X-ray emission has also been detected,
indicating the presence of a central, nonthermal source (Halpern &
Steiner 1983). It has been classified as a LINER and as a dwarf Seyfert 1
(Stauffer 1982; Keel l983b; Filippenko & Sargent 1985) based on the broad
H{alpha} emission line. Its UV spectrum has been analyzed by Goodrich &
Keel (1986), who found that the galaxy appears stellar in the UV. (The
spectra of NGC 4579 presented in this atlas include additional spectra to
those analyzed by Goodrich & Keel.) The UV spectrum contains both narrow
and broad emission lines, unlike the other LINER in the atlas; this may
be related to the fact that NGC 4579 has a double radio source with an
unresolved, flat-spectrum radio core. Goodrich & Keel (1986) propose
that its UV continuum is similar to the power law seen in Seyfert 2
galaxies, but our spectra suggest instead that the UV continuum is simply
that of a spiral galaxy.

22. 1993A&AS...97..887B
Re:NGC 4579
NGC 4579 was classified by K83 as a LINER and H87 found a strong 20cm
source at 6" from the position we used for the single CO(2-1) spectrum.
If the CO(2-1) and CO(1-0) spectra are of similar strength then
comparison with S88 yields a small source size (< 12"). P89 shows a
strong but small H{alpha} + NII source surrounded by a weaker ring about
30" in diameter.

23. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4579
= M58.
IAU Symp.44, 56, 1972.
Photometry (5 Color):
A.J., 73, 313, 1968.
Observatory, 88, 239, 1968.

24. 1973UGC...C...0000N
Re:UGC 07796
SAB(rs)b (de Vaucouleurs), Sb- (Holmberg)

25. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4579
= Messier 058
Small, bright, diffuse nucleus in a smooth lens with dark lanes. Pseudo (r):
2.2 arcmin x 1.5 arcmin. Smooth outer whorls form a pseudo (R): 4.1 arcmin x
3.0 arcmin.
Ap. J., 135, 7, 1962.
M.N.R.A.S., 94, 806, 1934.
HII Regions:
Zeit. fur Ap., 50, 168, 1960.

26. 1961Hubbl.B...0000S
Re:NGC 4579
Messier 058
Mar.31/Apr. 1, 1952
103aO + WG2
30 min
Enlarged 2.8X
This galaxy is a much later example of the NGC 4569 subgroup
than NGC 4826 or NGC 4569 itself. There are two very faint outer
spiral arms which are smooth in texture and are "massive"
in the sense of the spiral arms in NGC 4826 and NGC 4569. They
do not show well in the illustration because of their low
surface brightness. Two thin dust lanes can be traced in
this outer region near the smooth, massive arm, on the
north side of the galaxy. More prominent dust lanes, thin
and well defined, can be traced on the inside of the bright
inner spiral arms. There is a bar of enhanced luminosity
across the central amorphous region, though it is not
well enough defined to classify NGC 4579 as an SBb. The
galaxy is a transition between Sb and SBb. Note the partial
resolution of the arms into knots.

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