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Notes for object MESSIER 104

25 note(s) found in NED.

1. 2008MNRAS.385..553D
Re:NGC 4594
NGC 4594 (M104): This early-type galaxy is better known as the Sombrero
galaxy. The H{alpha} observations display only one diffuse ionized
region west of the nearly edge-on disc and the corresponding RVs are in
agreement with the galaxy's systemic velocity. Stellar kinematics reveal
for the rotation curve a rapid rise followed by a decrease which can be
explained by the prominent galactic bulge (Carter & Jenkins 1993). Mass
modelling using globular cluster kinematics has shown that the M/L value
increases with radius, hence that M104 has a dark matter halo (Bridges
et al. 1997). Another study of the dark matter distribution has been
done by Tempel & Tenjes (2006).

2. 2008A&A...484..341R
Re:NGC 4594
"Sombrero Galaxy". For this object the measured 11.9 micron flux, <60 mJy, is in
agreement with the results found at Maiolino et al. (1995) and Gorjian et al.

3. 2007MNRAS.377.1696M
Re:NGC 4594
NGC 4594. The radio core flux at 6 cm measured by Hummel, van der Hulst & Dickey
(1984) with the VLA at 1-arcsec resolution was 123 mJy, consistent with a VLBI
measurement by Graham, Weiler & Wielebinski (1981). At 2 cm, Hummel et al.
(1984) measured an unresolved (< 0.02 arcsec) flux of 100 mJy.
M05 reported short-term UV variations, with 20 per cent peak-to-peak
amplitude in F250W and 11 per cent in F330W, and mean UV fluxes of 7.5 * 10^-17^
erg cm^-2^ s^-1^ A^-1^ (F250W) and 15.3 * 10^-17^ erg cm^-2^ s^-1^ A^-1^
(F330W). I take as a lower limit on the 2500-A AGN flux the difference between
the level measured with the FOS in 1995 (Maoz et al. 1998; Nicholson et al.
1998) and the lowest level found by M05, (12 - 6.9) * 10^-17^ erg cm^-2^ s^-1^
A^-1^, and a high flux based on the FOS measurement. A lower limit at 3300 AA,
based on the variability observed by M05, is 0.11 * 15.3 * 10^-17^ erg cm^-2^
s^-1^ A^-1^.
In X-rays, I use the XMM-Newton measurements by Pellegrini et al. (2003b), 55
* 10^-14^ erg cm^-2^ s^-1^ at 0.5-2 keV and 130 * 10^-14^ erg cm^-2^
s^-1^ at 2-10 keV, with {GAMMA} = 1.9.
A central BH mass of 1 * 10^9^ M_sun_ has been measured by Kormendy et al.
(1996) using stellar kinematics.

4. 2006A&A...460...45G
Re:NGC 4594
NGC 4594 (M 104, Sombrero Galaxy). The Sombrero galaxy shows the typical X-ray
morphology of a compact unresolved nuclear source on top of a diffuse halo (Fig.
5). Dudik et al. (2005) class it with the objects that exhibit a dominant hard
nuclear point source. Pellegrini et al. (2003) present an investigation with
XMM-Newton and Chandra of the 7 " central nuclear source being consistent with
an absorbed power law of {GAMMA} = 1.89 with a column density of N_H_ =1.8 x
10^21^ cm^-2^, in close agreement, within the errors, with our fitted values.
Our value of the estimated 2-10 keV luminosity, 1.2 x 10^40^ erg s^-1^, agrees
fairly well with the data reported by Pellegrini from XMM-Newton.

5. 2005ApJS..157...59L
Re:NGC 4594
NGC 4594 is a nearly edge-on Sa spiral galaxy with pronounced dust lanes at a
distance of 9.77 Mpc. ULX1 and ULX2 are both on the dust lane.

6. 2004A&A...415..941E
Re:NGC 4594
NGC 4594 (M 014): Emsellem & Ferruit (2000) suggested that the Sombrero Galaxy
might be a double-bar system, based on color maps and 2D kinematics. The
extremely high inclination of this galaxy makes finding (and measuring) any bar
difficult, and Emsellem & Ferruit point to alternate explanations and emphasize
the tentative nature of this identification. (Part of the evidence for the inner
bar is an apparent straight dust lane, evoking the classic leading-edge dust
lanes of large-scale bars; but Maciejewski et al. (2002) and Shlosman & Heller
(2002) argue, on the basis of hydrodynamical simulations of double bars, that
straight dust lanes are probably not characteristic of inner bars.)

7. 2003AJ....126.2237D
4.3. LINERs
M104 (F12374-1120, Sombrero Galaxy, NGC 4594) is a well-known edge-on
disk galaxy with a large bulge. It has an intermediate radio excess of
u = 1.50 and very low radio power of L_{nu}_(4.8 GHz) = 10^21.9^ W
Hz-1. It also has a low FIR luminosity of {nu}L_{nu}_(60 micron) =
10^9.4^L_solar_. The optical emission-line spectrum is classified as a
LINER and the optical continuum is dominated by an old stellar
population (Kinney et al. 1993). Our ATCA observations show the
gigahertz spectral slope to be slightly inverted. The radio source has
a compact core less than 31 pc in extent (Thean et al. 2000) and
extended radio emission that is weak relative to the central source
and may be due to star formation or indirectly related to the AGN
(Bajaja et al. 1988).

8. 2002ApJS..139....1T
Re:NGC 4594
NGC 4594 (L2).-ASCA results are briefly discussed in Nicholson et
al. (1998). These authors reported that adding an RS component to the
power-law model did not affect the fit appreciably. By contrast, we find
that adding an RS component significantly improves the fit
({DELTA}{chi}^2^ = -33.8 for three additional parameters). Our result
agrees well with the independent analyses of the same data set by
Serlemitsos et al. (1996), Ptak et al. (1999), and Roberts, Schurch, &
Warwick (2001). Fabianno & Juda (1997) and Roberts et al. (2001)
detected a nuclear point source which dominates the soft X-ray
luminosity in the ROSAT HRI image. A Chandra image in the hard band is
dominated also by the nucleus (Ho et al. 2001).

9. 2002ApJ...574..740T
Re:NGC 4594
NGC 4594 (Kormendy et al. 1996b), NGC 4486B (Kormendy et al. 1997),
NGC 4350 (Pignatelli, Salucci, & Danese 2001), NGC 3031 = M81, and
NGC 3998 (Bower et al. 2000) exhibit strong evidence from stellar
dynamics for a black hole but do not yet have three-integral dynamical

10. 2001MNRAS.324..737R
Re:NGC 4594
A5 NGC 4594
The famous galaxy NGC 4594 (M104, the Sombrero) was one of the earliest
galaxies to show evidence for the possible presence of a supermassive
(up to 10^9^ M_sun_) black hole in its nucleus (Kormendy 1988). It was
classified by HFS as having a LINER 2 nucleus, and there is an abundance
of evidence to suggest that it is powered by a LLAGN. Most convincingly,
the high-resolution HST spectrum of NGC 4594 shows broad wings on the
nuclear emission lines (Kormendy et al. 1996). Examination of the
ionization budget for the optical lines highlights a deficit of near-UV
ionizing photons, which points to a non-stellar component in the nucleus
(Maoz et al. 1998), as does the FIR-radio ratio when compared with that
for Wolf-Rayet galaxies (Ji et al. 2000). Intriguingly, the SED of the
nucleus does not show evidence for a 'big blue bump' as seen in more
luminous AGN, although this may be an implicit characteristic of the
LLAGN class (Ho 1999).
The X-ray emission of NGC 4594 has been very well studied. Einstein
showed an extended X-ray source to be centred on the nucleus of the galaxy
(Fabbiano, Kim & Trinchieri 1992). Fabbiano & Juda (1997) investigated a
ROSAT HRI observation, finding that the emission broke down into three
components: a bright, point-like nuclear source with
L_X_ ~ 3.5 x 10^40^ erg s^-1^ (0.1-2.4 keV), clumpy disc emission and
unresolved bulge component. They concluded that if the nuclear emission is
the result of accretion on to a supermassive black hole, then it must be
severely sub-Eddington. ASCA spectroscopy was investigated by
Nicholson et al. (1998); the best fit to the combined ASCA and ROSAT PSPC
data is a power-law continuum with {GAMMA} ~ 1.6 and N_H_ slightly above
the Galactic value. However, if a putative soft X-ray cut-off is masked by
the extended thermal emission component then the absorption on the power-law
component could rise to 3 X 10^21^ atom cm^-2^. Nicholson et al. also look
at HST UV spectra, and find that the properties of NGC 4594 are consistent
with the presence of a LLAGN. Ptak et al. (1999) also fit a two-component
model to the ASCA and PSPC data, with similar results except that they find
more intrinsic absorption on the power law (~10^22^ atom cm^-2^).

11. 2001ApJS..137..139S
Re:NGC 4594
NGC 4594 (M104). - We adopt the SBF distance from Ajhar et al. (1997).

12. 2001AJ....121.2974L
Re:NGC 4594
NGC 4594: Known as "the Sombrero" (M104), it is one of the closest
Sa-type galaxies. With an exceptionally large bulge-to-disk ratio of ~6
(Kent 1988), it represents an intermediate case between elliptical galaxies
and early-type spiral galaxies. Its GC system is perhaps the most populous
system of any spiral galaxy, with 1200 +/- 100 estimated by Harris, Harris,
& Harris (1984). Photometry (Forbes, Grillmair, & Smith 1997b) and
spectroscopy (Bridges et al. 1997) of the GC system indicate a mean
metallicity similar to that for elliptical galaxies. Recently, Larsen,
Forbes, & Brodie (2001) have utilized three HST pointings of M104 to
conduct a detailed study of the GC system. They detected strong color
bimodality and found the red GCs to be ~30% smaller than the blue ones.
The Sombrero data used in this study are the same as those used by
Larsen et al. (2001).

13. 1998AJ....116.2682C
Re:IRAS 12373-1120
NGC 4594. LINER, Seyfert. Radio image showing both the compact core
and radio disk in Bajaja et al. (1988).

14. 1997ApJS..112..391H
Re:NGC 4594
NGC 4594.--Contrary to the conclusion in Paper I, we find no evidence of broad
H{alpha} in the LINER nucleus of NGC 4594 (also known as the Sombrero galaxy
and as M104). Careful inspection of the line profiles indicates that the [S II]
lines have large widths (FWHM~500 km s^-1^) and extended wings (FWZI~3000
km s^-1^); in fact, this is one of the rare instances in which the [S II] lines
are actually broader than the narrow H{alpha} and [N II] lines. The blend was
modeled assuming that H{alpha} and [N II] have identical profiles, each of
which can be represented by the sum of two Gaussians (Fig. 13c). Note that
broad H{alpha} has been detected in the recent, small-aperture HST spectra of
Kormendy et al. (1997), illustrating the advantages that can be gained from
data of high spatial resolution.

15. 1997A&A...319...33A
Re:NGC 4594
NGC 4594 This Seyfert is the famous "sombrero galaxy" or M 104. The most
interesting sources are a pair aligned across the minor axis and another,
crossed pair at about 90^deg^ angle, much like the two pairs in NGC 4258
(Pietsch et al. 1994), also see M51 (Ehle, Pietsch and Beck 1995, Fig. 2b) as
well as some other cases shown here. Because these sources are in or near the
optical image of the galaxy no identification is attempted here and no figure
is shown. But it is provocative to note that there are BSO's identifiable on
Schmidt prints further out - a candidate closely along each of the four
directions of X-ray sources from the center of NGC 4594.

16. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 4594
Hubble Atlas, p. 24
March 16/17, 1950
30 min
May 24/25, 1954
103aO + UG2
115 min
The form of NGC 4594 by itself reveals the two main processes in
galaxy formation by collapse, much in the manner described on the
preceding panel for NGC 7814. The processes are (1) free-fall collapse
accompanied by star formation so rapid that all the gas in the bulge
is changed into stars before completion of the collapse to the plane,
and (2) the later formation of the plane by dissipation, the
gravitational energy of position being radiated away by atomic
processes in the gas-gas collisions of the gas that remains (Eggen,
Lynden-Bell, and Sandage 1962).
The bulge, with its nearly spherical (initial) three-dimensional
velocity distribution, is formed on the short free-fall time
scale. The disk is formed on a longer time scale determined by the
radiation rate and the surface mass density build-up rate as the outer
regions of the protogalaxy continue to collapse, probably even into
modern times.
NGC 4594 is viewed at a slightly larger inclination angle than
NGC 7814, shown on the preceding panel. The front and back sides of
the disk are seen in the outer regions of the major axis away from the
intense light from the bulge. Knots (HII regions) are seen in the
disk. This disk appearance might well be observed if NGC 4380 (Sab;
panel 117) were seen nearly edge on, although the bulge of NGC 4380 is
evidently smaller than in NGC 4594.
Surface photometry is given by van Houten (1961), Burkhead
(1980), and Boroson (1980). Photometric data are also given by Jarvis
and Freeman (1985) where, as for NGC 7814, in discussing the dynamics
of bulges they consider rotation vs. pressure support for the bulge
The insert image is from a UY plate (103aO + UG2) which
suppresses the bulge and enhances the star-forming regions in the
disk. From a much deeper UV plate by Baade, shown by Lindblad (1951),
the many HII regions in the disk are easily seen. Lindblad, upon
measuring the positions of these knots and rectifying the image to
face on, attempted to trace the spiral pattern. His reconstruction is
that of an MAS multiple-armed spiral similar to NGC 4380 (Sab; panel
117) and NGC 488 (Sab; panels 115, 116, S3, S12).

17. 1994AJ....108.1987A
Re:NGC 4594
NGC 4594. Galaxy bigger than the frame. The ellipse fitting stopped at
bright levels. The results were not accurate enough.

18. 1993ApJS...86....5K
Re:NGC 4594
NGC 4594 (M 104); Sa, LINER.
The Sombrero galaxy has in its nucleus both a very compact and strong
nonthermal radio source (Shaffer & Marscher 1979; Condon et al. 1982) and
a strong X-ray source (Halpern & Steiner 1983). The radio and X-ray
emission may be related to the galaxy's activity as a LINER (Heckman
1980; Keel 1983a,b). However, in common with the other LINERs in this
atlas, there are no emission lines in the UV. A search for a central
massive object by Kormendy (1988) resulted in a velocity dispersion
profile consistent with a mass of M ~ 10^8.5^ -10^9.5^ M_sun_. The lack
of emission features in our UV spectrum indicates that the LINER activity
is not strong, while the absorption lines (Mg II {lambda}2800 and Fe I
{lambda}{lambda}2868, 3025) and the shape of the continuum indicate the
predominance of an old stellar population (Ellis et al. 1982).

19. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4594
= M104
P.A.S.P., 79, 600, 1967.
A.J., 74, 515, 1969.
Atlas Gal.Austr., 1968.
Photometry (5 Color):
A.J., 73, 313, 1968.
Photometry (2 microns):
Ap. J. (Letters), 161, L203, 1970.
"Nuclei of Galaxies", 195, 1971.
Ap. J., 141, 109, 1965.
Ap. J., 171, 397, 1972.
Ap. J., 175, 649, 1972.
Astrophys. Lett., 14, 1, 1973.
P.A.S.P., 79, 600, 1967.
Rotation Curve:
Systemic Velocity Astr. Ap., 8, 364, 1970.
Radio Observations:
A.J., 75, 523, 1970.
Astr. Ap., 29, 249, 1973.

20. 1974UGCA..C...0000N
Re:UGCA 293
UGCA 293:
= NGC 4594 = M 104
SA(s)a? (RC1)

21. 1968MCG4..C...0000V
Re:MCG -02-32-020
This is M 104. {omega} = 78.5 degrees according to Danver and
84 degrees according to Sandage. Many of its globular clusters are
nicely visible, but no condensations in the arms are visible!
Hub - Sa
Sand - Sb
vdB - Sb-
Morg - kS6p, kDS6,
deV - SA(s:)a and SA(r?)a.
Photo: Sand (Sa/Sb), where a half a hundred globular clusters,
brighter than 20 mag, are visible.
Photograph in UV in P.A.S.P., 63, 133; S.T., 18, No. 3;
S.T., 10, No. 12; Ap.J., 120, No. 3;
Sci Amer., 1956 Sept; Lund. Ann., No. 7,
and with smaller telescopes in many other publications.
HII Regions: Sersic.
Ap.J., 120, 439; Ann. Ap., 11, 247; M.N., 106, 159;
Ap.J., 98, 47; B.A.N., 16, 1;
Mem. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liege (4), 15, 411;
Bull. Astr. Belg. 3, 326; Handbuch der Phys., 53.
Redshift = +1,034 km/sec
+ 894 km/sec. (A.J., 67);
CI = 0.89, B-V = 1.02, U-B = 0.64.
Spinrad - D.
Photo: Ann. Ap., 23; Ap.J., 135, 715.
Rotation and mass: Ap.J., 95, 5; Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 2, 520.
Inclination and rotation: Ap.J., 97, 112; A.J., 57, 15.

22. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4594
= Messier 104
Very bright central bulge. Narrow, patchy arms in a lens. Strong dark lane
in front. Many globular clusters.
Lund 7 dimensions are for the bright part only.
Ap. J., 97, 114, 1943.
Ap. J., 98, 47, 1943.
Ap. J., 120, 444, 1954.
B.A.N., 16, 1, 1961,
Handbuch der Ap., 5, 2, 843, 1933.
M.N.R.A.S., 106, 171, 1946.
Ann. d'Ap., 11, 247, 1948.
Ap. J., 83, 424, 1936.
Ap. J., 98, 47, 1943.
Ap. J., 120, 439, 1954.
B.A.N., 16, 1, 1961.
Ap. J., 135, 716, 1962.
Orientation and Rotation:
Ap. J., 127, 487, 1958.
P.A.S.P., 63, 133, 1951.
P.N.A.S., 2, 517, 1916.
Ap. J., 97, 117, 1943.
HII Regions:
Observatory, 79, 54, 1959.
Zeit. fur Ap., 50, 168, 1960.
Radio Emission: (unobserved),
M.N.R.A.S., 123, 279, 1961.

23. 1961Hubbl.B...0000S
Re:NGC 4594
Messier 104
Mar. 16/17, 1950
30 min
Enlarged 6.6X
NGC 4594 is very difficult to classify because the fundamental
plane is inclined only 6 degrees to the line of sight. The
most prominent feature of the photographic image is the
dust lane that defines the fundamental plane. It is significant
for the physics of the problem that most or all of the
dust in any galaxy is confined to a very thin plane, which
undoubtedly is the plane perpendicular to the angular
momentum vector. This statement concerning the dust
can be made from the observational data in only those
galaxies whose fundamental planes are nearly in the line
of sight. Other examples of such galaxies are shown on
page 25.
A remarkable picture of NGC 4594 was published by
Lindblad from a plate taken by Baade in ultraviolet light
(Publ. A. S. P., 63, 133, 1951). The knots and segments
of spiral arms can be seen in this photograph. These
knots, together with what appear to be almost circular
spiral arms, suggest a face-on spiral pattern like that in
NGC 0488 or possibly NGC 5055.
Another notable feature of NGC 4594 is the large central
nuclear bulge. The tight spiral pattern, which of
course is nearly impossible to trace, and the large nuclear
bulge place NGC 4594 as either a late Sa or a very early Sb.
There appears to be a concentration of stars or nebular
images in the halo of NGC 4594. These are believed to be
globular clusters similar to those found throughout the image
of NGC 4486 (M87, pg. 2). The number of clusters in NGC 4594 is
far below that in M87. The distance modulus of about
(m-M) = 30.6 for NGC 4594 together with a threshold of about
m = 20 for these images puts the absolute magnitude of
the brightest condensation at M(pg) = -10.6, which matches
the brightest gLobular clusters in our own galaxy.

24. 1957HPh....53..275d
Re:NGC 4594
(Plate 39)
The very bright and large spheroidal component, made up of
high-velocity stras, emits most of the light of this object.
The thin and flat component includes only very few bright
Population I supergiants.
It is surrounded by a heavy peripheral ring of obscuring material.
The spiral pattern is faint and smooth.
Compare with NGC 4569 = Messier 090 (Plate 17), and NGC 4736 =
Messier 094 (Plate 21).

25. 1918PLicO..13....9C
Re:NGC 4594
7' x 1.5' in p.a. 92^deg^; very bright. A remarkable, slightly curved, clear-cut
dark lane runs along the entire length to the south of the nucleus; probably the
finest known example of this phenomenon. There are very slight traces of spiral
whorls. See Abs. Eff. 11 s.n.

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