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Notes for object MESSIER 064

24 note(s) found in NED.


1. 2012ApJ...754...67F
Re:NGC 4826
NGC 4826 RSAT2..-Also named the "black eye" galaxy. An extreme dust spiral in
the central 50" stands in strong contrast to a virtually dust free outer disk.
The central dust content leads to a classification as pseudobulge in Fisher &
Drory (2008). The major axis kinematic profile is rich in structure. The
rotational velocity rises quickly from the center to a value of ~=50 km s^-1^ at
r = 4". It then forms a shallow trough around 8" and then rises again-more
slowly-out to 50" where it finally flattens out. The velocity dispersion in the
disk is ~=45 km s^-1^, it shows a distinct central increase inward of 50". The
dispersion reaches values of up to 110 km s^-1^ inside of the bulge radius (r_b_
= 25.4"). From there on it stays relatively constant with decreasing radius
except for a mild depression down to 90 km s^-1^ in the central few arcseconds.
The h_3_ moments are strongly anti-correlated with velocity for r < 9" and reach
absolute values of up to 0.15. The h_4_ moments show two peaks at about +/-3".
We find weak rotation along the minor axis (~= +/- 10 km s^-1^). The central
increase in velocity dispersion is also seen along the minor axis, the increase
sets in at a radius of about 25". This is much closer to the center than in the
case of the major axis and points to a flattened structure. For the photometry
we obtain a mean bulge ellipticity of 0.23. The radial difference of the
dispersion increase along the major and the minor axis would point to an
ellipticity of about 0.45. The center of the velocity dispersion profile is
asymmetric which may be a consequence of the strong dust. The minor axis h_3_
and h_4_ moments are compatible with zero. The fact that the final flattening of
the rotational velocity and the inset of the dispersion increase at 50"
coincides with the sudden appearance of the strong dust structure is intriguing
and lets one suspect that the actual bulge radius fall closer to 50". The much
smaller bulge radius from the decomposition may be a consequence of the strong
dust content in t he central regions (see also discussion in Section 5.4).

2. 2009A&A...503..409H
Re:NGC 4826
NGC 4826 (M64): There is a low level of polarized emission detected in the
southern quadrant of this system that nowhere exceeds 4{sigma}. The best
estimate of the Galactic foreground RM in this field comes from the brighter
lobe of a double radio source yielding -8 +/- 2 rad m^-2^.

3. 2008MNRAS.385..553D
Re:NGC 4826
NGC 4826 (M64): The H{alpha} distribution of this galaxy, confined to the
inner disc, is more extended on the north-west receding side than on the
approaching side, which is consistent with CO emission (Helfer et al.
2003). The H I gas, on the other end, extends far beyond the optical
radius R25 and is also distributed asymmetrically. The H I velocity
field reveals a counter-rotating gaseous disc outside the 2 arcmin
diameter (Braun, Walterbos & Kennicutt 1992). A detailed kinematical
study, based on H{alpha} long-slit spectroscopy, reveals a transition region
near the prominent dust lane (50"<=/<= 70") where the gas motion is
undergoing a change in its orbital direction, from prograde in the inner
disc to retrograde in the outer disc (Rubin 1994). This situation,
symptomatic of a merger, has been widely seen in elliptical galaxies,
but rarely in disc galaxies.

4. 2008AJ....136.2648D
Re:NGC 4826
4.13. NGC 4826, or the "Evil-Eye" galaxy, is an early-type spiral with the
presence of two counter-rotating gas disks as its most remarkable kinematic
feature (Braun et al. 1994). The inner high-column density H I disk is
associated with the bright stellar disk and rotates in the same direction. The
outer, much lower column-density H I disk rotates in the direction opposite to
that of the stars. The transition between the two disks occurs around ~100"
radius. Braun et al. (1994) speculate that the outer disk might find its origin
in a merger of a gas-poor spiral with a gas-rich and star-poor dwarf with a
retrograde spin (with the mass ratio of the dwarf and the spiral <~ 0.1; Rix et
al. 1995). In Figure 16 we compare our rotation curve with that of Braun et al.
(1994). Even though to first order there is reasonable agreement, the scatter in
the velocities is much larger than in any of the other rotation curves presented
here. Braun et al. remark that between 100" <~ R <~ 300" (4 kpc <~ R <~ 12 kpc)
the kinematic parameters are difficult to determine due to what they call a
"severe distortion" in the velocity field, showing that the transition region
between the two counter-rotating disks deviates from circular motions. Similar
conclusions were reached for the ionized gas by Rix et al. (1995).

5. 2007MNRAS.382.1552L
Re:NGC 4826
NGC 4826: The well-known large and clumpy dust lane on the northern side of the
disc, which gives the galaxy its nickname 'Evil Eye', is clearly seen in our
image. The FIRST radio map is overlaid on to the image. At higher resolution the
central radio emission contains discrete components (Hummel et al. 1987; Turner
& Ho 1994). Five sources are found within a radius of ~100 pc (see Table 2); one
of them coincident with the nucleus. Spectra were acquired for the nucleus and
for two radio sources (see Table 5). The nuclear spectrum is dominated by
absorption features with the presence of weak emission lines, while the radio
sources (labelled 2 and 3) are dominated by nebular emission, although a clear
stellar component is also present.
The [S II] {lambda}{lambda}6717,6730/H{alpha} and [N II]{lambda}{lambda}6548,
6584/H{alpha} for sources 2 and 3 indicate that they are both SNRs.
Source 3 had been previously identified as a possible SNR by Rix et al. (1995).

6. 2007A&A...461.1209D
Re:NGC 4826
NGC 4826: BeppoSAX data were unpublished. The source is faint and only a
simple model has been tried. The shape of the continuum is typical for a
Seyfert galaxy ( {GAMMA}~ 1.8), but the quality of the hampers to
constrains it.

7. 2002PNAOJ...6..107M
Re:KUG 1254+219
Messier 64 Black eye galaxy.

8. 2002AJ....124..675C
Re:UGC 08062
Very large galaxy. The NVSS flux density may be too low.

9. 2001A&A...368...16M
Re:NGC 4826
37. NGC 4826 = M 64 is an Sab spiral of medium high inclination. The galaxy
shows two counter-rotating gas disks (ionized gas and neutral hydrogen) in
the outer region, pointing towards an accretion event (e.g. Braun et al.
1994; Rubin 1994). The strong dust lane (bad eye galaxy, e.g. Walterbos
et al. 1994) is still visible even in the NIR, leading to some problems
with the fit.

10. 2000MNRAS.319...17L
Re:NGC 4826
NGC 4826: The nucleus of NGC 4826 has been classified as a transition
object (a combination of a LINER and an HIIR nucleus) by Ho et al. (1995).
The galaxy was observed with the Einstein IPC, and a nuclear flux of
7.89 x 10^-13^ erg s^-1^ cm^-2^ was measured within a 4.5-arcmin-radius
aperture (Fabbiano et al. 1992), in good agreement with the flux found in
Table 4. Fig. 35 shows the azimuthally averaged profile as observed by the
ROSAT HRI. Significant extended emission is observed within >~ 20 arcsec
of the central peak.

11. 2000ApJS..129...93F
Re:NGC 4826
NGC 4826 (M64). - We detect about 21 mJy of low surface brightness
emission. The central region on the full-resolution map (not presented
here) shows a double-peaked component, which can be compared to the
complex inner triple structure of the 15 and 5 GHz, 2" resolution maps
of Turner & Ho (1994). Combining the data indicates that this is a
steep-spectrum source. NVSS detected a 101 mJy source, and BWE91
detected a 56 mJy source. The 1.49 GHz, 10 resolution data of
Condon et al. (1998b) and Condon (1987) show a ~ 100 mJy source, as do
the data of Gioia & Fabbiano (1987) at 40" resolution.

12. 2000ApJ...530..688A
Re:NGC 4826
NGC 4826 (M64).-This galaxy satisfies the LINER definition of Heckman
(1980), however it is located in the region between transition objects
and LINERs in Ho et al. (1997a) diagrams. No broad H{alpha} component is
detected (Ho et al. 1997c). The range of optical line ratios measured by
Keel (1983) and Ho et al. (1997a) are well reproduced with our model of
H II regions and SNRs. This fact seems to indicate that NGC 4826 is a
starburst-dominated LINER. In addition, this galaxy shows a chain of
H II regions near the center and evidence for shock-excited gas some 4"
off the nucleus (identified as an SNR by Rix et al. 1995).

13. 1999ApJS..124..403S
Re:NGC 4826
5.13. NGC 4826
NGC 4826 has a conspicuous dust lane to the northeast of the
nucleus and is thus called "Black-Eye Galaxy." Counterrotating H I gas
has been found in the outer regions (Braun, Walterbos, & Kennicutt
1992). The CO emission sharply peaks toward the galactic center with the
peak surface density of molecular gas 2 x 10^3^ M_sun_ pc^-2^
(inclination-corrected), and the mass of molecular gas 3 x 10^8^ M_sun_
within the central kiloparsec (in the galactic plane). Four clumps of CO
with sizes ~ 200 pc (10") and masses ~ 1 x 10^7^ M_sun_ surround the
nucleus at a radius of ~ 500 pc (25"), three of the clumps being in the
dust lane. The molecular disk extends out to a radius of 700 pc (35") in
our map, which is limited by the primary beam, and to a radius of 2 kpc
(100") in the single-dish observations by Casoli & Gerin (1993). The
asymmetry (more extension to NE) of CO emission in our data corresponds
to the dust lane (black eye). Hydrogen column density at the dark lane
is 1-3 x 10^2^ M_sun_ pc^-2^ (A_V_ = 7-21 mag), which is 2 times larger
than at the opposite side of the nucleus. The net asymmetry in
extinction by the excess gas is thus {DELTA}A_V_ = 3-10 mag, presumably
causing the black eye. The velocity field is quite ordinary with a hint
of noncircular motions at the radius of the CO clumps. Molecular gas is
not counterrotating with respect to stars in the inner regions. The
quiescent velocity field suggests that neither the outer
counterrotating H I gas nor the prominent dust lane has much effect on
the gas kinematics in the central kiloparsec. CO line profiles are
single-peaked in the black eye, suggesting that most of gas in the dark
lane has already settled in the disk even if the gas accreted from
outside.

14. 1998ApJS..114...59L
Re:NGC 4826
NGC 4826 (M64).--This is probably a true LINER since [O I]/[O III] = 0.65 (Keel
1983), but [O II] is not measured. The infrared spectra look very similar to
NGC 4736, with the relatively weak [Fe II] detection and fairly strong atomic
absorption features. A strong Pa{beta} absorption line is also apparent.
Optical spectra from Filippenko & Sargent (1985) show strong emission lines,
many atomic absorption features, but no broad H{alpha}. Along with NGC 4258 and
NGC 3998, it has the lowest ratios of [Fe II] and H_2_ to hydrogen lines of
this sample, and their ratios are actually located within the range typical of
Seyferts.

15. 1998AJ....116.2682C
Re:IRAS 12542+2157
NGC 4826. Seyfert. High-resolution VLA maps of the nucleus at 20 cm
(Hummel et al. 1987), 6 and 20 cm (Turner & Ho 1994).

16. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 4826
M64
Hubble Atlas, p. 13
Sab(s)II
S-Ritchey #65
May 5/6/7/8, 1910
Blue plate
7 hr 56 min
The morphology of NGC 4826 is nearly identical to that of NGC
4569 on the preceding panel. Massive, smooth outer arms exist which
would normally require an early-Sa classification. However, the
central region is covered with dust to an extent inconsistent with a
typical Sa morphology, yet the star-formation rate is low both in the
central region and in the arms. As with NGC 4569, the compromise
classification is Sab.

17. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 4826
Hubble Atlas, p. 13
Sab(s)II
S-Ritchey #58
March 8/9, 1910
Blue plate
4 hr
The images of NGC 4826 here and at the top are from different
original plates, both taken by Ritchey in 1910 as tests of the newly
commissioned Mount Wilson 60-inch telescope, whose optics were made by
Ritchey. The exposure on the plate used here was made on a single
night. The plate for the top print, above, was made over a
three-night interval, exposed for a total of 476 minutes.
The massive dust features in the central regions are seen
silhouetted against the bulge light on the near side. The fact that
the asymmetry in the luminosity distribution is parallel to the major
axis suggests that the apparent dust asymmetry is due to the viewing
angle at the high inclination and not to a true nonuniform dust
distribution in the plane.

18. 1993ApJS...86....5K
Re:NGC 4826
NGC 4826 (M64); Sb, LINER.
The "Black-Eye" galaxy has a complex emission structure with numerous
H II regions and an irregular nuclear low-ionization zone (Keel 1983a).
This galaxy is considered a LINER based on optical properties (Keel
1983b; Halpern & Steiner 1983). Like other LINERs, the radio, X-ray, and
far-infrared luminosities of NGC 4826 are typical of normal galaxies
(Fabbiano, Gioia, & Trinchieri 1988). The UV spectrum is typical of an Sb
galaxy but with a possible emission line of C III] {lambda}1909).

19. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4826
= M64
Photograph:
Ap. J., 141, 885, 1965.
A.J., 72, 1032, 1967.
Sov. A.J., 17, 643, 1974.
Photometry:
A.J., 72, 1032, 1967.
Sov. A.J., 17, 643, 1974.
Photometry (I.R. 2-10 microns):
Ap. J. (Letters), 161, L203, 1970.
Ap. J. (Letters), 176, L95, 1972.
Spectrum:
Ap. J., 141, 885, 1965.
Bull. A.A.S., 4, 332, 1972.
Spectrophotometry:
Ap. J., 186, 21, 1973.
Rotation Curve and Mass Determination:
Ap. J., 141, 885, 1965.
HII Regions:
Bull. A.A.S., 6, 343, 1974.
Radio Observations:
Astr. Ap., 29, 231, 1973.

20. 1973UGC...C...0000N
Re:UGC 08062
(R)SA(rs)ab (de Vaucouleurs), Sb+ (Holmberg)

21. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 4826
= Messier 064
Extremely bright nucleus partially hidden by a very small, dark lane. Pseudo
(r): 1.5 arcmin x 0.7 arcmin in a bright part 3.9 arcmin x 2.0 arcmin.
2 main, smooth, outer arms form a pseudo (R): 6.0 arcmin x 2.6 arcmin.
Note +10 arcmin correction to HA 88,2 declination.
Photometry:
Ap. J., 46, 206, 1917.
Ap. J., 50, 385, 1919.
Ap. J., 83, 424, 1936.
Ap. J., 108, 415, 1948.
Spectrum:
Ap. J., 135, 699, 1962.
Ap. J., 135, 734, 1962.
Rotation:
Ap. J., 97, 117, 1943.
Radio Emission:
M.N.R.A.S., 122, 479, 1961.

22. 1961Hubbl.B...0000S
Re:NGC 4826
Messier 064
Sb
Ri-65 (60")
May 5,6,7,8, 1910
7 hr. 56 min.
Enlarged 3.7X
NGC 4826 is the earliest Sb shown in the atlas. This plate
was taken by Ritchey in a four-night exposure with the
60-inch. Note the very soft texture to the spiral arms.
These arms are nearly circular, and they show no trace of
resolution into knots. NGC 4826 is classed as Sb rather
than as Sa because of the very heavy dust lane in the center,
which is shown below.

23. 1961Hubbl.B...0000S
Re:NGC 4826
Messier 064
Sb
Ri-58 (60")
Mar. 8/9, 1910
240 min
Enlarged 3.7X
This is a shorter exposure of NGC 4826 than the one
shown above. The dust pattern in the nucleus is very
prominent. The bright filaments, which make up the
inner spiral structure, are also visible. Although the
strongest concentration of the dust is in a single dark lane,
a fainter dust arm can be seen on the inner edge of the
last luminous arm on the north side of the galaxy in this
illustration.

24. 1918PLicO..13....9C
Re:NGC 4826
Vol. VIII, Plate 45. The central portion of this fine nebula is very bright, and
there is a bright, almost stellar nucleus. It is 8' x 4' in p.a. 110^deg^. The
whorls are rather compact, and of very uniform texture, without irregularities
or condensations. The most striking feature of this spiral is the somewhat
irregular, but very clear-cut, absorption area on the north of the
nucleus. See Abs. Eff. 2 s.n.


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