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Notes for object NGC 1365

35 note(s) found in NED.

1. 2009ApJ...702.1127R
Re:NGC 1365
This Sy1.8 nucleus is hosted in a galaxy with intense nuclear star formation.
The X-ray emission of NGC 1365 is also remarkable, showing the most dramatic
spectral changes observed in an AGN (Risaliti et al. 2005, 2007). The rapid
X-ray variability is attributable to variations in the LOS density, which is
compatible with a low number of clouds along the LOS. The clumpy models fit the
SED of NGC 1365 well, but the model parameters are not well constrained. The
number of clouds has a median value of 7 +/- ^5^_4_ (which is consistent with
the rapid X-ray variability), {sigma} = 35^deg^ +/- ^20^_13_, and {tau}_V_ = 111
+/- ^58^_56_. Low values of q and i (q < 1.7 and i < 42^deg^) are more probable.
The optical obscuration due to the torus is A^LOS^_V_ < 170 mag. The silicate
feature is completely absent in the fitted models.

2. 2009ApJ...690.1322W
Re:NGC 1365
NGC 1365. This source is a "changing-look" AGN, observed in both Compton-thin
and Compton-thick states. The source has been observed extensively by XMM-Newton
and Chandra with relevant papers: for instance, Risaliti (2007) and Risaliti et
al. (2005). For simplicity,we averaged the XRT observations, taken within a day
of each other. However, the spectral parameters of this source, particularly
column density, are quite variable.

3. 2009ApJ...690.1322W
Re:NGC 1365
NGC 1365. The spectral fit to this source also includes the addition of an apec
model with kT of 0.74^+0.07^ _-0.10_ keV and an Fe K line at 6.54^+0.08^ _-0.09_
keV with EW >~ 780 eV. The fitted column density has large errors.

4. 2008A&A...484..341R
Re:NGC 1365
Figure A.2. A face-on spiral galaxy with a prominent bar. Our 11.9 micron image
shows an unresolved nucleus and two point sources to the north east, identified
by Galliano et al. (2005) as M5 and M6. This structure is surrounded by an arm
like faint extended emission. In addition, the deconvolved image shows slight
point like emission from sources M7 and M4 of Galliano et al. (2005). The
authors identify their M4, M5 and M6 sources with radio counterparts of Saikia
et al. (1994), and conclude that these sources are embedded young massive star
clusters. Flux measurements of the nucleus are in excellent agreement with
Galliano et al. (2005), but are higher than those of Siebenmorgen et al. (2004)
who measured a flux of 400 mJy at 8.5 micron and 460 mJy at 10.4 micron. This
discrepancy can be explained by the multi-source structure of NGC 1365, causing
flux measurements very sensitive to telescope positioning. The weak extended
emission to the South West of the nucleus also appears as two point sources in
the 11.9 and 10.4 micron deconvolved maps of Galliano et al. (2005) and is most
likely not an artifact.

5. 2007A&A...461.1209D
Re:NGC 1365
NGC 1365 and NGC 1386: The BeppoSAX data of these sources are probably
contaminated by each other (the two sources lyeing at the edge of the
PDS FOV of the other). The total amount of such contribution is unclear.
Studying the PDS light curve of NGC 1365, Risaliti et al. (1999)
supposed that NGC 1386 could contribute up to 50% of what was measured
by the PDS observing NGC 1365. NGC 1386 shows a very steep spectrum
({GAMMA}=2.6+/-1.0) in the 2-10 keV band. Starting from this, we
simulated the possible contribution from this source to the NGC 1365 PDS
data, assuming an intermediate scenario Compton-thin/Compton-thick, with
N_H_~3-5 x 10^24^ cm^-2^, i.e., a scenario for which NGC 1386 would
contribute at maximum to the NGC 1365 data. In this scenario, the 2-10
keV band of NGC 1386 is dominated by a warm scattering component, so to
explain both the steep spectrum and the huge FeK{alpha} EW ~ 6 keV (the
last value being in agreement with what was previously found by Maiolino
et al. 1998). It turns out that, also assuming that the 2-10 keV flux in
NGC 1386 is dimmed by a factor of 300, this source is expected to
contribute for ~5% to the 20-100 keV flux measured observing NGC 1365.
Nonetheless, further Suzako observations are needed to definitively
solve this problem.

6. 2005ApJS..157...59L
Re:NGC 1365
NGC 1365 is a two-armed Sb galaxy with a giant bar. ULX1 is on the edge of the
bar. Its luminosity dropped from 7 * 10^39^ to below 3 * 10^39^ ergs s^-1^ in 1
year. Two ULXs are outside the D_25_ isophote but lie on the extension of a
spiral arm. ULX2 (IXO 16) is close to a faint point source with B2 = 18.73 and
R2 = 19.32. This could be a very young massive star cluster (M_B2_ ~ -12
mag) in NGC 1365, or a background QSO. The luminosity of ULX3 (IXO 15) dropped
from 6 * 10^39^ to below 3 * 10^39^ ergs s^-1^ in 1 year.

7. 2005ApJ...633..105D
Re:NGC 1365
4.2 NGC 1365 - NGC 1365, a strongly barred galaxy in the Fornax Cluster, has
been reviewed extensively by Lindblad (1999). Its AGN exhibits both broad and
narrow components to the H{alpha} line, the FWHM of the former being 1800 km
s^-1^ (Alloin et al. 1981), somewhat wider than the ~1000 km s^-1^ we find for
the Br{gamma} line. Assigning 1800 km s^-1^ to the broad component in our data
would only be possible if the narrow component had FWHM 500 km s^-1^, in
conflict with Alloin et al. (1981), who reported it as unresolved. The soft
X-ray (0.1-2.5 keV) luminosity, which can in principle be explained entirely in
terms of star formation, suggests that the AGN is of rather low luminosity
(Stevens et al. 1999). On the other hand, the presence of a relatively
unabsorbed power-law component at higher (up to 10 keV) energies and a 6.6 keV
Fe K emission line indicate that there must be an AGN (Iyomoto et al. 1997).
The ionization cone, seen in [O III] and with kinematics indicative of
outflowing gas, was modeled by Hjelm & Lindblad (1996), wh o found that the
cone axis lay close to the galaxy's rotation axis and the opening angle was
sufficient to include the line of sight to the partially obscured Seyfert
nucleus. The galaxy has a prominent circumnuclear ring at a distance of 5"-10"
from the nucleus, which is actively forming stars. It has been observed in both
recombination line and optical/infrared/radio continuum emission and is also
clearly seen in our data.

8. 2005A&A...437..837D
Re:NGC 1365
In Figs. 4 and 5 the observational line ratio gradients and the results of our
models for NGC 1365 are shown. An angular scale 1" = 88 pc (Roy & Walsh 1997)
was assumed. Unfortunately, due to the generally low level of excitation in NGC
1365, no direct measurements of electron temperature are available in the
literature, so only empirical methods were used to derive abundances. Figure 6
shows our abundance results, as well as (i) O/H and N/O ratios calculated by
Pilyugin et al. (2004) via the P-method for R < 20 kpc, (ii) the abundance
ratios obtained by Pagel et al. (1979) and Alloin et al. (1981) deriving
electron temperatures from the T_e_ vs. R_23_ empirical calibration by Pagel et
al. (1979), and (iii) the O/H gradient derived by Roy & Walsh (1997) using the
R_23_ vs. O/H calibration from Edmunds & Pagel (1984).
Roy & Walsh (1997) found a break in the O/H radial distribution. For R < 16.9
kpc they derived a gradient of {DELTA}log\(O/H)/ {DELTA}R = -0.05 dex kpc^-1^,
while for R > 16.9 kpc they found a constant oxygen abundance of 12+\log(O/H) =
8.65. As can be seen in Fig. 6, the O/H gradient derived by us does not show any
evidence of an abundance break in NGC 1365. We found a smooth gradient
represented by 12+log(O/H)= (-0.010 +/- 0.001) R (kpc) + (8.97 +/- 0.01).
Recently, Pilyugin (2003b) also contested the existence of an abundance break in
NGC 1365. He reported that, although O/H estimates derived by the R_23_ index
and by the P-method can show an oxygen abundance gradient break in the NGC 1365
disk, this result may be spurious since these methods yield incorrect O/H
values, once the abundances at the break region are close to the turnover point
of the oxygen calibrations and also due to the low excitation of the nebulae.
However, the existence of abundance breaks in barred spiral galaxies has been
predicted in numerical simulations by Friedly et al. (1994) and by Friedly &
Benz (1995), and it has been interpreted as an indicator of the presence of
young bars in this type of galaxy (Roy & Walsh 1997; Friedli 1999; Considere et
al. 2000). Another theoretical support was presented by Mishurov et al. (2002),
who showed that bimodal abundance gradients can be a consequence of the
existence of a corotation resonance in spiral arms. As pointed out by Pilyugin
(2003b) the oxygen abundances in NGC 1365 will only be confirmed via direct

9. 2005A&A...437..837D
Re:NGC 1365
The O/H abundances derived from our models are overestimated in relation to
the ones obtained via the P-method by a factor of about 0.4 dex. The O/H
determinations derived by Alloin et al. (1981) and by Pagel et al. (1979) agree
qualitatively with our results. The abundances for the three innermost H II
regions present a very large scatter (~~0.8 dex). These regions have unusual
emission-line intensities when compared with outer regions. This behavior can be
the signature of a secondary ionization mechanism, probably due to the
hard-ionizing radiation coming from the NGC 1365 active nuclei. The use of a
general oxygen calibration can yield unreliable abundance values for this type
of object (Evans & Dopita 1987), so we did not use the line ratios of these
objects in the average computation of the data.
Figure 6 shows that the N/O results obtained from our models and from the
P-method are consistent. We found an N/O gradient of log (N/O)= (-0.015 +/-
0.003) R(kpc) - (0.68 +/- 0.05). On the other hand, the N/O values by Alloin et
al. (1981) and by Pagel et al. (1979) are quite independent of galactocentric
distance; and with a mean value of log (N/O)= -1.10, they are up to 0.5 dex
lower than our results. These authors estimated the N/O abundance using the [N
II]/[O II] ratio and a calibration of the electron temperature T_e_ with the
R_23_ and [N II]/[O III] line ratios, which can yield uncertain T_e_ values and
consequently inaccurate N/O ratios (Pilyugin 2001a). Moreover, a variation in
the value of [N II]/[O II] does not necessarily follow a change in the N/O
abundance. There is also a dependence of the [N II]/[O II] ratio on T_e_ (Pagel
et al. 1979), which should be taken into account in the derivation of N/O
(Pilyugin et al. 2003).
Our models suggest a constant S/O value of log(S/O) = -1.51 +/- 0.02. The
T_eff_ parameter showed a systematic behavior following the relation
T_eff_(10^4^ K) = (0.019 +/- 0.002) R (kpc) + (3.77 +/- 0.03), and log U ranged
from -2.3 to -2.8.

10. 2004A&A...419..501F
Re:NGC 1365
NGC 1365- We combined the Br{gamma} measurement of Puxley et al. (1988) with
the H{alpha} flux integrated within the same region from an H{alpha} +
[N II] map to derive the extinction, and assumed that it represents
accurately the extinction within our larger aperture. The Seyfert
nucleus does not contribute importantly to the H line and MIR dust
emission. The total H{alpha} flux in the central 4" x 4" (Veron-Cetty &
Veron 1986), which also includes emission from adjacent "hot spots," is
only 8% of that in 40". MIR diagnostic line ratios suggest that star
formation activity dominates the low excitation (<=50 eV) line spectrum
at these wavelengths as well as the MIR and far-infrared continuum
luminosities (Sturm et al. 2002). The nucleus is unresolved in the
ISOCAM maps, preventing an accurate estimate of its contribution to the
MIR fluxes, but the ISOCAM CVF data do not provide evidence for a
significant AGN contribution based on the diagnostics of Rigopoulou et
al. (1999) and Laurent et al. (2000). The [N II]/(H{alpha} + [N II])
ratio in the central 4" x 4" and in several hot spots within 14" x 20"
is {approx}0.3 (Alloin et al. 1981; Veron-Cetty & Veron 1986).

11. 2004A&A...418..877A
Re:NGC 1365
NGC 1365: this is a well known Seyfert Galaxy in the Fornax Cluster.
About 12 arcmin to the SE in the direction of its extended spiral arm
lies a very strong X-ray BL Lac (Arp 1998, p. 49). The distance to the
Fornax Super Cluster is about the same as to the Virgo Super Cluster in
the opposite direction in the sky, or about 15 Mpc (or see Arp 2002 for
a Cepheid distance of 18 Mpc). With this distance to NGC 1365, the BL Lac
object comes within the acceptance radius of the IXO Catalog and is
included in Table 1.
Closer in radial separation on the other side of NGC 1365 is a strong
X-ray source with z= 0.904 (La Franca et al. 2002).

12. 2004A&A...415..941E
Re:NGC 1365
NGC 1365: Suggested as double-barred by Jungwiert et al. (1997) and Laine et al.
(2002), using ground-based and NICMOS images, respectively. Inspection of the
NICMOS images shows that the ellipticity peak is due to a nuclear ring, with no
evidence for a bar inside; a similar conclusion was reached by Emsellem et al.
(2001) based on stellar kinematics from long-slit spectroscopy.

13. 2003MNRAS.343..192R
Re:NGC 1365
3.2 NGC 1365 NGC 1365 is a nearby (z = 0.00546; distance = 21.7 Mpc)
SB(s)b galaxy in the Fornax cluster with a Seyfert 1.8 nucleus. NGC 1365
is undergoing intense starburst activity in its bar concentrated into a
ring-like structure with a diameter of ~15 arcsec (1.6 kpc) (e.g.
Kristen et al. 1997; Stevens, Forbes & Norris 1999). The hollow
high-excitation outflow cone of NGC 1365 (PA = 130deg; e.g. Kristen et
al. 1997) is parallel to the radio jet (Sandqvist, Jorsater & Lindblad
The H- and K-band nuclear spectra of NGC 1365 are shown
in Fig. 2, the extent of the main emission lines in Fig. 3 and the
spectra at different distances from the nucleus in Fig. 6. The most
intriguing feature in the spectra is that unlike all the other galaxies
in our sample, NGC 1365 does not exhibit nuclear H2 emission.
This may be partly due to the strong non-stellar continuum which
dominates the K-band emission. In fact, only He I 2.058 {microns}, several
Brackett series lines and weak [Fe II] 1.64{microns} , are detected.
Br{gamma} is broad, with a FWHM of ~1190 km s^-1^, and no evidence for
the narrow component is seen (Fig. 10).
Br{gamma} 2.166 {microns} is the only extended nuclear emission line.
It decays smoothly towards the star-forming regions (~6 arcsec; 600pc),
where other emission lines (e.g. H_2_ and He I) become visible. [Fe II]
is detected perpendicular to the ionization cone, but not parallel to it,
as there are no strong star-forming regions coincident with the slit in
that direction. There is a fair correlation between 1-0 S(1), Br{gamma},
[Fe II] and He in the star-forming ring, suggesting a common
origin. This is further supported by the fairly similar velocity curves
in the ring (Fig. 5).
The velocity field of NGC 1365 is shown in Fig. 5. The nuclear
Br{gamma} emission is blueshifted by ~220 km s^-1^ with respect to the
overall velocity curve. This blueshift is also observed in the H-band
Brackett lines, which are also broad (~1170 km s^-1^).
No H_2_ lines are detected in the nucleus. The 3{sigma} upper limit
for 1-0 S(1) emission in the nuclear 1.4-arcsec aperture is 8 x
10^-16^ erg cm^-2^ s^-1^, giving an upper limit in an 1.4-arcsec aperture
of 60 M_{sun}_. The integrated mass of the excited hydrogen is 290_{sun}_
perpendicular to the cone and ~90 _{sun}_ parallel to it.
Perpendicular to the ionization cone, there are three separate Br{gamma}
emission regions, the two innermost of which are associated with the
starburst ring. These regions are also visible in the H-band Brackett
lines, He I and [Fe II], which trace star formation, and also in 1-0
S(1). The equivalent width of Br{gamma} reaches up to 70 {Angstrom},
much larger than e.g. in the ring of NGC 1097 (Kotilainen et al. 2000;
~15 {Angstrom}), implying recent star formation. Parallel to the cone
there are no separate Br{gamma} knots, but the ring is observed as a
plateau in the spatial line emission profile. The extinction derived
from the Br 10-4/Br{gamma} and Br 11-4/Br{gamma} ratios (A_K_ = 0.67 and
0.69, respectively) is identical to that based on the continuum colour
(A_K_ = 0.68). Notwithstanding the existence of a strong UV radiation
field as evidenced by the Brackett lines, H2 appears to be thermally
excited, as the 2-1 S(1)/1-0 S(1) ratio is 0.16 +- 0.05 (T_vib_ = 2600
+- 400 K).

14. 2002ApJS..140..303L
Re:NGC 1365
NGC 1365 (Fig. 42).-The quality of the spectrum of NGC 1365 is very
marginal.We decided to include the data since this galaxy hosts L4, a
super-star cluster with a carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet population. This
cluster may be at the edge of the aperture. The spectrum (which has
been smoothed over 5 pixels) has broad C IV absorption. This is the
only evidence for massive stars. A 10 Myr old model is consistent with
the observations. We find no evidence for emission from the active
galactic nucleus.

15. 2002ApJS..139....1T
Re:NGC 1365
NGC 1365 (S1.8). The results of the ASCA observations, performed in
1994 August and 1995 January, are presented in Iyomoto et
al. (1997). A serendipitous source is detected at 1.5' SW of the nucleus
in the second observation, but the separation is too close to allow the
two sources to be separated with GIS, which has a broader PSF than SIS.
Iyomoto et al. (1997) generated five spectra: (1) SIS spectrum of the
nucleus in 1994, (2) SIS spectrum of the nucleus in 1995, (3) SIS
spectrum of the serendipitous source in 1995, (4) GIS spectrum of the
nucleus in 1994, and (5) GIS spectrum of the nucleus plus the
serendipitous source in 1995, fitted simultaneously. The spectral models
they used were (a) a sum of a power law, Gaussian, and RS plasma for
(1), (2), and (4) (nuclear component), (b) a power law for (3)
(serendipitous source), and (c) a sum of the nuclear component and the
serendipitous source model for (5). The spectral parameters for SIS
and GIS were assumed to be same. No spectral variability was assumed
between the 1994 and 1995 observations.
We applied a similar technique to fit both the nucleus and the
serendipitous source. We fitted the three spectra (SIS spectrum of the
nucleus [(1) + (2)], SIS spectrum of the serendipitous source (3), and
GIS spectrum of the nucleus plus the serendipitous source [(4) + (5)]
simultaneously. The radii used to extract the spectra are the same as
those in Iyomoto et al. (1997). In the present analysis, the background
spectra were extracted from a source-free region in the same field of
view. Various models were examined for the AGN component, as in the
other galaxies. The best-fit model consists of a power law, a Gaussian,
and a RS component. We confirmed the presence of a strong Fe line
(EW = 1.9^=1.0^_-0.8_keV) at a center energy
higher than 6.4 keV (6.59^+0.04^_-0.05_keV).
The X-ray flux obtained in a later BeppoSAX observation
(Risaliti et al. 2000) is higher by a factor of 6 compared to ASCA, and
an absorbed (N_H_ = 4 x 10^23^ cm^-2^) direct continuum from the nucleus
appeared. The Fe line center energy in the BeppoSAX observation is
slightly lower than 6.4 keV.
A soft-band image obtained with the ROSAT HRI may be extended
compared to the PSF (Stevens, Forbes, & Norris 1999; but see also
Komossa & Schultz 1998). Plausible origins of the soft component are
soft thermal gas due to starburst activity or scattered emission from
the AGN.

16. 2002A&A...391...83B
Re:NGC 1365
NGC 1365 (Fig. 7) is the intrinsically largest and radio-brightest
galaxy in our sample. Its bar length is ~29 kpc. It has a Seyfert 1-type
nucleus surrounded by a starburst region (see review by Lindblad 1999).
Similarly to NGC 1097, it has significant (though weaker) polarized
radio emission upstream of the shock fronts and relatively weak
emission enhancements on the dust lanes. The turn of magnetic field
lines towards the dust lanes near the bar major axis is much smoother
than in NGC 1097. The magnetic field orientations near the centre also
form a spiral pattern. Sandqvist et al. (1995) describe a circumnuclear
elliptical ring of about 1 kpc in radius, visible in radio continuum at
{lamda}{lambda}20 and 6 cm at a resolution of 2.3" x 1.0", and note its
similarity to that in NGC 1097. Kristen et al. (1997) have revealed, in
the optical range, a large number of bright spots arranged along the ring
and suggest that the continuous ring structure might be obscured by dust
absorption. The ring is not resolved in our observations. Faraday rotation
between {lambda}22 cm and {lambda}6 cm is significant only in the central
region (RM~-20 rad m^-2^ ). RM between {lambda}6 cm and {lambda}3 cm
jumps between ~+600 rad m^-2^ and ~-600 rad m^-2^ near the centre. The
spiral arms outside the bar region are bright in radio and the regular
magnetic field is well aligned with them (different from NGC 1097). A
ridge of polarized emission (Fig. 25) is observed on the inner side of
the northwestern spiral arm which may indicate field compression by a
density wave, a "magnetic arm'', or depolarization along the optical
spiral arm. This galaxy has an extended, almost circular, polarized
envelope with the regular field aligned with the optical spiral arms.

17. 2002A&A...386..379R
Re:NGC 1365
NGC 1365: NGC 1365 is one of the few sources for which
our models do not provide a good fit
({chi}^2^_r_ = 1.26 in model C). A more careful analysis
of this object was performed by Risaliti et al. (2000).
According to this work, the PDS data of NGC 1365 could
be contaminated by the nearby active galaxy NGC 1386.
Moreover, NGC 1365 shows an high and complex variability
during the BeppoSAX observation. However, the best fit
values in Risaliti et al. (2000) are in agreement with
those obtained with our model C.

18. 2001ApJS..136...61S
Re:NGC 1365
5.9. NGC 1365
NGC 1365 is a spiral barred galaxy located in the Fornax cluster. It
exhibits a conical [O III] emission morphology (Kristen et al. 1997) and
shows starburst activity (e.g., Telesco, Dressel, & Wolstencroft 1993) with
star-forming regions concentrated in "hot spots" around the nucleus,
outside of our field of view. Kristen et al. (1997) observed this galaxy
with the FOC on board HST and detected numerous bright super star clusters
associated with the circumnuclear star-forming regions (Stevens,
Forbes, & Norris 1999). Risaliti, Maiolino, & Bassani (2000) observed
NGC 1365 with BeppoSAX and found its 4-10 keV emission to be highly
variable over the course of the observations (varying by a factor of
2 over 50,000 s). Broad hydrogen emission lines have been seen on the
nucleus (see, e.g., Schulz et al. 1999; Edmunds & Pagel 1982) indicating
the presence of an AGN. Our data also show a broad nuclear Br{gamma} line,
together with a red continuum with relatively weak stellar absorption
features. VLA observations (Sandqvist, Joersaeter, & Lindblad 1995) reveal
a radio jet from the nucleus in the direction of the optical emission line

19. 2001A&A...376...98S
Re:FCC 121
FCC 121 (NGC 1365) was used as an intra-cluster check of system performance
by separately reducing each 10-min observation, in each polarisation band,
of this galaxy. Note that only the final averaged data are given in the

20. 2001A&A...368...52E
Re:NGC 1365
NGC 1365, Seyfert 1, 1" ~ 90 pc: The Seyfert 1 nucleus of NGC 1365
dominates the light in the central arcsecond, and thus strongly dilutes the
absorption ^12^CO bandhead: this prevented us to derive any meaningful
kinematics in this region. We will deal here only with the profiles outward
R >= 2".
Like in NGC 1097, the flatness of the velocity profile along Slit 2 is a
consequence of the slit orientation with respect to the line of nodes. The
central kpc morphology of this galaxy is disturbed by an intense star
formation (see Lindblad 1999 for a review on this object). It is thus
difficult to see the signature of the bar in the luminosity profile.
Ellipse fitting on H-band isophotes provided by Jungwiert et al. (1997)
gave a rough estimate of the extent of the presumed secondary bar: ~9-10".
However, high resolution near-infrared images of the central region of
NGC 1365 recently obtained with NICMOS/HST, and the VLT (ISAAC and FORS1)
suggest that the ellipticity of the component detected in the central 10"
is solely due to the inclination of the galaxy (the photometric major-axis
being thus coincident with the line of nodes). There are therefore no
evidence left for the presence of a nuclear bar. We then simply interpret
the observed flattened system in the centre as a nuclear disc, well
circumvented by a ring-like (and spiral arm) structure at a radius of ~7".
Inside this radius, the velocity increases up to its maximum value
(V_max,1_ ~ 175 km s^-1^ at R ~ 5") with a steep gradient
(~390 km s^-1^ kpc^-1^), and then remains roughly constant until the end
of the disc. The dispersion along both axis shows no clear structure: it
remains nearly constant inside the nuclear disc with a mean
{sigma}_1_ ~ 100 km s^-1^. There may be a slight increase outwards up to
{sigma}_2_ ~ 120-130 km s^-1^, but this is within the error bars.

21. 2000MNRAS.314..573T
Re:NGC 1365
NGC 1365: There is no alignment between the four compact radio
components observed, and none is coincident with the photographic
position of the nucleus which lies at
{alpha} = 03^h^ 33^m^ 35.57^s^, {delta} = -36^deg^ 08' 22.9" (NED),
or either of the two infrared sources observed by Telesco, Dressel &
Wolstencroft (1993), the brightest of which lies at
{alpha} = 03^h^ 33^m^ 36.17^s^, {delta} = -36^deg^ 08' 25.9"
(positional error of 1.5 arcsec).

22. 1999ApJ...516...97N
Re:NGC 1365
NGC 1365: RC3 lists major axis P.A._RC3_ = 32^deg^ and
log R_25_ = 0.26. The H I kinematic studies of Ondrechen & van der Hulst
(1989) indicate a major axis P.A._H I_ of 222^deg^ and an inclination of
46^deg^. Thus, P.A._RC3_-P.A._H I_ = 10^deg^.

23. 1999AJ....118.2331V
Re:NGC 1365
Images of NGC 1365 in the F160BW, F336W, F547M, F555W, and F814W
bands are available from two different programs, one of which is the HST
Extragalactic Distance Scale Key Project. Unfortunately, the Key Project
images for this galaxy did not include the site of the SN Ic 1983V. The
exposure times for the two sets of UV images were too short to be
useful, and we did not consider them further. The F547M, F555W, and
F814W images have reasonable S/N ratio after coaddition, such that we
could produce limited color-magnitude diagrams for the SN environment.
The absolute position from Lindblad & Grosbol (1983) was used to isolate
the SN site, and we show the SN environment in Figure 8. Van Dyk et al.
(1996) had found that the SN occurred within a bright H II region of
about 5" radius. From the HST image we see the stars and small clusters
that are presumably ionizing the region.
We performed PSF-fitting photometry on the F555W and F814W images
(the F547M band does not provide any additional color information and is
less sensitive in the same wavelength range than the F555W band). In
Figure 9 we show the resulting CMD. The reddening to SN 1983V may be
between E(B-V) ~ 0.18 and 0.4 (Clocchiatti et al. 1997). We assume both
values of the reddening, applying them to the theoretical isochrones. We
also apply to the isochrones the distance modulus to NGC 1365 determined
from Cepheids using HST, m - M = 31.31 (Silbermann et al. 1999).
The positions of the stars on the CMD in Figure 9 appear to agree
better with the lower reddening than the higher. One can see that the
three objects in or very near the error circle around the SN position
appear too bright to be individual stars and are probably compact blue
star clusters. The resolved stars near the SN site have ages about 4-10
Myr. We can age-date the compact clusters by using the color evolution
models for starbursts from Leitherer & Heckman (1995). In Figure 10 we
show the colors of these probable star clusters, compared with the color
evolution models for an instantaneous starburst from Leitherer &
Heckman, transformed to WFPC2 synthetic colors, and reddened by
E(B-V) = 0.18. The line conventions in Figure 10 are the same as
Figure 1 of Leitherer & Heckman.
These clusters are evidently bluer than the model predictions.
Ideally, one would make this comparison having more color information.
However, we find that the cluster colors are consistent with very young
starbursts, of ages <~5 Myr. If the progenitor of SN 1983V was
associated with these clusters, then it may have had a comparably young
age, implying a very high initial mass of about 40 M_sun_. Stars of this
mass generally evolve to the Wolf-Rayet stage toward the end of their
lives. Thus, analysis of the environment of SN 1983V is consistent with
the Wolf-Rayet progenitor model for SNe Ib/c, but the data are of
limited sensitivity and color information.

24. 1999A&AS..137..457M
Re:NGC 1365
NGC 1365: This is a well known southern barred galaxy. It was observed
in the radio continuum (20, 6 and 2 cm) by Sandqvist et al. (1995,
hereafter SJL95). As in SJL95, our map (Fig. 6) shows a ring of emission
with angular dimensions 8" x 20" This ring-like emission is similar to
that found in NGC 1097. SJL95 also identify the existence of a jet-like
structure originating from the nucleus and about 5" long in position
angle (PA) 125^deg^ (i.e., aligned with the minor axis of the galaxy).
We observe a similar structure in our map. The detailed study of the
spectral data (SJL95) indicate that both the jet and the nucleus have a
steep spectral index. This jet-like feature appears to be aligned with
the axis of the ionized gas. NGC 1365 has also been observed with the
PTI at 13 cm (~0.1" resolution) by Roy et al. (1994) (hereafter R94) and
S95 in which a 4 mJy component was detected. This object has been
extensively studied in H I by Jorsater & van Moorsel (1995).

25. 1999A&AS..136...35S
Re:NGC 1365
NGC 1365 -- The detection of broad C III {lambda}5696 and
C IV {lambda}5808 (marginally) in this giant extragalactic HII region
was made by Phillips & Conti (1992).

26. 1997A&AS..125..479J
Re:NGC 1365
NGC 1365 (SBb/Seyfert 1, 1"~93 pc, I=58.1^deg^)
The galaxy has an IR-bright Seyfert nucleus and, as in the case of NGC 613, a
nuclear spiral, best seen as prominent dust lanes in optical images (e.g.
Teuben et al. 1986). NGC 1365 is also classified as a starburst galaxy (e.g.
Telesco et al. 1993), with the star-forming activity concentrated in
circumnuclear "hot-spots".
The morphology of the nuclear region is complex and patchy also in our H image,
indicating that the emission of old red stars is probably strongly contaminated
by the light of new red giants and supergiants formed in the starburst. The
nuclear spiral is well recognized and we identify a nuclear bar embedded in it:
the peak in the ellipticity (e_max_^s^=0.46 at a=8.3) is related to that bar
while the adjacent minimum in the PA is related to the nuclear spiral. The
nuclear bar is roughly parallel (NE-SW) to the elliptical distribution of
circumnuclear molecular gas mapped by Sandqvist et al. (1995). Neither the
spiral nor the bar are smooth, unlike in NGC 613.

27. 1997A&A...319...33A
Re:NGC 1365
NGC 1365 In this PSPC exposure there are no conspicuous pairings or alignments.
Fig. 16 shows a very conspicuous BL Lac object, however, located only 12.3'
from this SBb class Seyfert. The active, compact galaxy actually has a stronger
flux at the time of the observation than the Seyfert. The catalogued apparent
magnitude for the BL Lac object is V=18.0 mag. and the redshift is z=.308.
Active galaxies of this type falling near our sample of Seyferts are listed in
Table 2 and discussed in the summary.
NGC 1365 was the brightest of six Seyfert galaxies analyzed by Turner, Urry and
Mushotzky (1993). They reported 55 X-ray sources detected around 6 Seyferts in
an annular ring area between 3' average density of 23 sources deg sq^-2^ to a flux of >=3x10^-14^
erg cm^-2^ s^-1^. The flux in their .1-2 keV band is about twice the flux in
our .5-2 keV band and enables us to estimate a background expectation of
sources of about 11-13 sources deg sq.^-2^ (The factor two is supported by the
fact that they measure for NGC 1365 C=115 and we measure 56.6 cts ks^-1^). That
would require about half their 55 sources to be associated, or an excess of 4.6
sources per Seyfert. That more than confirms our ~2 sources for Seyfert but
their Seyferts were very X-ray strong for fainter optical apparent magnitudes.
Moreover, excluding NGC 1365 their five Seyferts averaged z^bar^=.027, or about
4.5 times our average z^bar^=.006. On the redshift distance assumption their
excess density of a factor of 8 inside r=3' would transform to an excess
density inside our r<=13.6' - well within the radius range where we find our
excess density.

28. 1996ApJS..103...81C
Re:NGC 1365
NGC 1365.--Seyfert 1. MOST 843 MHz map in Harnett (1987). VLA B-configuration
map of the central region at 4.885 GHz in Saikia et al. (1994).

29. 1996A&AS..115..439E
Re:NGC 1365
NGC 1365 has the highest I_CO_ value of all our observed galaxies, namely
106.0 K km s^-1^. It is a barred spiral Seyfert 1.5 galaxy in the Fornax
cluster with a circumnuclear ring of starburst activity signposts. It has been
mapped extensively in the radio continuum with the VLA and in the J = 2-1 and
1-0 CO emission lines with the SEST by Sandqvist et al. (1982, 1995), and with
the NRAO Kitt Peak 12-m millimetre wave telescope by Sandqvist et al. (1988).
The H I distribution and velocity field has been mapped with the VLA by
Jorsater & van Moorsel (1995). NGC 1365 does not have any companion.

30. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 1365
FCC 121
Dec 31/Jan 1, 1980/1981
75 min
NGC 1365 is nominally classed as a member
of the Fornax Cluster on the basis of its position
and its redshift. It is 1.2^deg^ southwest of the center
of the cluster defined by NGC 1399. The core
radius of the cluster is 0.7^deg^ (Ferguson 1989);
hence NGC 1365 is 1.7 core radii from the
cluster center. The redshift velocity of NGC 1365
is v_o = 1562 km/s, which is close to the
mean cluster redshift of = 1366 km/s. The
velocity dispersion of the cluster is 325 km/s.
Despite the close agreement of the position
and redshift of NGC 1365 to the Fornax Cluster
values, the cluster membership of NGC 1365 is
often questioned because its angular size,
D_25_ = 9.8', is so large. Yet this angular size is
comparable to the D_25_ angular diameters of the
largest spirals in the Virgo Cluster, which is at
nearly the same distance. The four largest Virgo
spirals and their angular diameters and redshifts
v_o are NGC 4192 (9.5', -251 km/s), NGC 4536
(7.4', 1646 km/s), NGC 4321 (6.9', 1464 km/s),
and NGC 4501 (6.9', 2161 km/s).
The negative redshift of NGC 4192 and
other large spirals in the Virgo Cluster region
assures Virgo Cluster membership; negative
redshifts occur in the RSA (excluding galaxies in the
Local Group) only in the 6^deg^ radius centered on
the Virgo Cluster (Sandage and Tammann
1976a), attributable to the large velocity dispersion
in the Virgo Cluster.
The morphological type of NGC 1365 is
later than NGC 1300 (SBb; panels 154, S8),
which is the prototype of the (s)-subtype barred
spirals; the bar in NGC 1365 is less straight and
less smooth, and the arms which spring from the
ends of the bar are more open. Hence, the type
is intermediate between SBb and SBc.
The straight dust lanes are on opposite sides
of the bar. Again (as in the SBb types) these lanes
are on the leading edges of the bar relative to the
direction of rotation. The positions of maximum
star formation in the thin arms begin at the ends
of the bar. The largest HII regions resolve into
disks at about the 2" level.
The circulation pattern of the well-ordered
but intricate velocity field in the vicinity of the
bar appears to be well traced by the delicate
wisps of dust lanes that begin at the two strong
shock positions. Note that these delicate lanes are
along the following edges of the bar and that they
are nearly perpendicular to the resulting two
nearly straight dust shock lanes in the bar.
The luminosity class of NGC 1365 is in the
highest bin, at I, because of the regularity and
thinness of the arms.

31. 1985SGC...C...0000C
Re:NGC 1365
Plate 2698
Overexposed center, very patchy bar and arms with many knots.
Arms form (R'): 10' x 5'.

32. 1982ESOU..C...0000L
Re:ESO 033141-3618.4
=ESO 358- G 17
in foreground? of cluster

33. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 1365
In the Fornax I Cluster? possibly foreground.
Description and Classification:
P.A.S.P., 77, 287, 1965.
P.A.S.P., 79, 152, 1967.
P.A.S.P., 81, 51, 1969.
P.A.S.P., 77, 287, 1965.
81, 51, 1969.
Vistas in Ast., Vol. 14, p.219, 1972.
Ap. J., 192, 279, 1974.
Atlas Gal. Australis, 1968.
M.N.R.A.S., 164, 155, 1973.
Ap. J., 192, 279, 1974.
Ap. J., 192, 279, 1974.
Carnegie Inst. Yearbook, 57, 1958.
HI 21cm:
Source R2 (Astr. Ap., 3, 292, 1969), quality D rejected.
Radio Observations:
Australian J. Phys., 16, 366, 1963.
Australian J. Phys., 19, 883, 1966.

34. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 1365
In the Fornax I Cluster.
Extremely bright complex nucleus
with a twisted dark lane.
Narrow bar: 2.5 arcmin x 0.55 arcmin
with dark lanes.
2 main, partially resolved arms
form pseudo (R): 10.05 arcmin x 5.9 arcmin.
Occ. Notes R.A.S., 3, No.18, 1956.
Stockholm Ann., 17, No.3, 1951.
Ap. J., 132, 30, 1960.
Ap. J., 136, 118, 1962.
Mem. R.A.S., 68, 69, 1961.
Ap. J., 135, 697, 1962.
Rotation and Mass:
Ap. J., 132, 30, 1960.
Ap. J., 136, 118, 1962.
A.J., 67, 112, 1962.
SN 1957
Carnegie Inst. Yearbook., 57, 1958.
Handbuch der Phys., 51, 785, 1958.

35. 1957HPh....53..275d
Re:NGC 1365
(Plate 30)
The upper right inset shows the complex structure of the nucleus
due to "crossing-over" of the main dark lane running along the
bar which is seen here foreshortened in projection.
The two bright and knotty main spiral arms emerge at right
angles to the bar and return to it after a half-turn
(lower inset), thus simulating an outer ring.
Compare with NGC 2323 (Plate 27), NGC 7552 (Plate 29),
NGC 7741 (Plate 31) and (Plate X).

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