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Notes for object NGC 1386

22 note(s) found in NED.


1. 2009ApJ...702.1127R
Re:NGC 1386
NGC 1386 is one of the nearest Sy2 galaxies and therefore extensively studied.
Mauder et al. (1992) resolved its NLR on a 0.3" scale (~15 pc) using speckle
interferometry, detecting individual NL76R ou clouds and claiming a clumpy
structure. The detection of a water vapor megama ,mser in NGC 1386 (Braatz et
al. 1997) constrains the inclination angle of the torus to be i ~ 90{degree}, as
in the case of Circinus and Mrk 573. The fit with the clumpy models reproduces
the observed SED; we find N_0_ = 11 +/- 3, {sigma} = 50{degree} +/- ^16^_19_,
{tau}_V_ = 95 +/- ^66^_51_, and q = 1.5+/-^0.9^_1.0_ at a 68% confidence level.
The optical extinction produced by the clumpy torus is A^LOS^_V_ < 1460 mag. The
fitted models show a shallow silicate absorption feature ({tau}^app^_10 {mu}m_ =
0.41) from which we derived an optical extinction of A^app^_V_ = 11 mag. As for
most of the galaxies in the sample, we find N^LOS^_H_ < N^X-rays^_H_, indicating
that the X-ray obscuring region must be closer to the central e ngine than the
torus material.

2. 2007A&A...461.1209D
Re:NGC 1386
NGC 1365 and NGC 1386: The BeppoSAX data of these sources are probably
contaminated by each other (the two sources lyeing at the edge of the
PDS FOV of the other). The total amount of such contribution is unclear.
Studying the PDS light curve of NGC 1365, Risaliti et al. (1999)
supposed that NGC 1386 could contribute up to 50% of what was measured
by the PDS observing NGC 1365. NGC 1386 shows a very steep spectrum
({GAMMA}=2.6+/-1.0) in the 2-10 keV band. Starting from this, we
simulated the possible contribution from this source to the NGC 1365 PDS
data, assuming an intermediate scenario Compton-thin/Compton-thick, with
N_H_~3-5 x 10^24^ cm^-2^, i.e., a scenario for which NGC 1386 would
contribute at maximum to the NGC 1365 data. In this scenario, the 2-10
keV band of NGC 1386 is dominated by a warm scattering component, so to
explain both the steep spectrum and the huge FeK{alpha} EW~6 keV (the
last value being in agreement with what was previously found by Maiolino
et al. 1998). It turns out that, also assuming that the 2-10 keV flux in
NGC 1386 is dimmed by a factor of 300, this source is expected to
contribute for ~5% to the 20-100 keV flux measured observing NGC 1365.
Nonetheless, further Suzako observations are needed to definitively
solve this problem.

3. 2006A&A...448..499B
Re:NGC 1386
3.2.1 NGC 1386. The source was found to be a reflection-dominated object in the
XMM-Newton observation (Guainazzi et al. 2005a). This is confirmed by the strong
iron line in the Chandra spectrum (see Fig. 3 and Table 2), which by far
dominates the hard spectrum and whose properties are fully consistent with those
found with XMM-Newton. Moreover, both the soft and the hard X-ray fluxes are in
agreement with the ones reported by Guainazzi et al. (2005a). The EPIC soft
X-ray spectra were best fitted with two thermal components (Guainazzi et al.
2005a). However, this model, though leading to values similar to those found
with XMM-Newton (temperatures of 0.14^+0.05^_-0.06_ and 0.72^+0.06^_-0.07_ keV,
with a metal underabundance of 0.07^+0.04^_-0.03_), fails to produce a good fit
on the Chandra data ( {chi}^2^ = 62/38 d.o.f.). A much better fit is achieved
with the "scattering'' model ( {chi}^2^ = 18/20). The lines included in the
model are from H- and H-like N, O, Ne, Mg, possibly blended with Radiative
Recombination Continua (RRC) from C and O (see Table 3). The latter features, if
confirmed by future, high resolution spectra of NGC 1386, would strongly favour
an origin of this emission from photoionized plasma, like in the cases of NGC
1068 (Brinkman et al. 2002; Kinkhabwala et al. 2002) and Mrk 3 (Bianchi et al.
2005b; Sako et al. 2000). A final comment must be spent on a feature found at
0.29 keV. While it is possibly associated with the C V K{alpha} triplet, its
large flux (of the order of 10^-3^ ph cm^-2^ s^-1^) makes its identification as
an emission line troublesome. However, the feature lies at the end of the band
considered "good'' for ACIS spectra: below 0.3 keV calibration and background
issues prevent us from performing a reliable analysis.

4. 2003ApJS..148..327S
Re:NGC 1386
5.16. NGC 1386
This is a Seyfert 2 galaxy known, based on observations from the
ground, to have extended [O III] and radio emission (Weaver, Wilson,
& Baldwin 1991; Storchi-Bergmann et al. 1996). The image presented in
Figure 7 (middle right panel) shows that the [O III] emission
consists of several blobs along the N-S direction, misaligned by
25^deg^ from the host galaxy major axis and extending over a region
of 5.9" (330 pc). The emission along the perpendicular direction is
extended by only 1.6" (90 pc). There are three blobs of emission to
the north of the nucleus, located at 0.8", 1.3", and 2.8", while to
the south there is a blob at 1" and a ring of blobs at 2" from the
nucleus. The direction of the extended [O III] emission is similar to
the extended radio emission detected by Nagar et al. (1999). Ferruit
et al. (2000) present a detailed study of this and other HST
narrowband images of this galaxy.

5. 2003ApJS..146..249B
Re:NGC 1386
5.4. NGC 1386
This nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy has two prominent narrow features near
967 and 977 km s^-1^ and a broad feature at ~860 km s^-1^, near the
galaxy's systemic velocity of 847 km s^-1^. The drift in the narrow
features is measured to be -0.07 +/- 0.14 km s^-1^ yr^-1^ (967) and
-0.12 +/- 0.14 km s^-1^ yr^-1^ (977). Individual features in the broad
systemic component have not been traceable from one epoch to the next
because of the signal-to-noise limitations and blending of the lines,
but it is clear that future studies making use of the GBT will be able
to track such features. The GBT spectrum also reveals several
blueshifted components near 600 km s^-1^. It is possible that the
features near 600 and 970 km s^-1^ are analogous to the high-velocity
features, and those near 860 km s^-1^ to the systemic features, in
NGC 4258. Except for flux variability in the narrow redshifted
features, the maser profile in this galaxy appears remarkably
unchanged over the monitoring period.

6. 2002ApJS..139....1T
Re:NGC 1386
NGC 1386 (S2). -Detailed results are discussed in Iyomoto et
al. (1997). In the NGC 1386 field, nonuniform diffuse emission due to
the Fornax cluster is seen. In the present paper, we measured the
temperature and brightness of the cluster component using a region which
is located the same distance from the cluster center as is NGC 1386, and
then added it to the spectral model instead of subtracting it from the
data in order to improve the photon statistics. A power law absorbed
with N_H_ = 4.5 x 10^23^ cm^-2^ is seen in our ASCA spectrum. Maiolino et
al. (1998), on the other hand, modeled the BeppoSAX spectrum of this
source using a cold reflection model. The difference in spectral models,
however, does not necessarily imply true spectral variability, because
the photon statistics of the BeppoSAX spectrum are very limited.

7. 2002A&A...389...68G
Re:NGC 1386
NGC 1386: our two methods give identical results for this quite
inclined galaxy, which are furthermore in agreement with the
photometric estimates. We adopt the values from our two methods.

8. 2001ApJS..136...61S
Re:NGC 1386
5.10. NGC 1386
The presence of the AGN in this galaxy is revealed by both water maser
emission and their associated velocities (Braatz et al. 1997), as well as
by a strong Fe-K emission line seen in ASCA observations (Iyomoto et al.
1997). An infrared excess is observed in the L and N bands (Sparks et al.
1986) but not in the J, H, and K bands. Our K-band spectra shows little
evidence for a continuum diluting the relatively strong stellar absorption
features. Speckle H{alpha} observations show an elongated structure ~3"
long (centered on the nucleus) along a position angle of ~30^deg^
consisting of several knots (Mauder et al. 1992). Our broadband H- and
K-band maps do show similar elongation to that found by Mauder et al.
(1992). Ulvestad & Wilson (1984b) found that the morphology of the nuclear
radio continuum is extended toward the southwest along galaxy major axis
(P.A. 55^deg^) by about 400 pc. Evidence for nuclear outflow along the
same axis is found by Weaver, Wilson, & Baldwin (1991).

9. 2000ApJS..128..139F
Re:NGC 1386
5.2. NGC 1386 - Seyfert 2
NGC 1386 is an Sa galaxy (see discussion in Weaver, Wilson, &
Baldwin 1991) hosting a Seyfert 2 nucleus. Our continuum images are
shown in Figure 3 (top and middle panels). These images show the
presence of very strong dust features, especially on the northwest side
of the galaxy and in the nuclear regions. Using ellipse fitting of the
outer isophotes (less affected by the dust features), we derive a
photometric major axis P.A. of 35^deg^ at a radius of ~ 10" (0.9 kpc),
which is slightly higher than the value of 25^deg^ found by
Weaver et al. (1991) at larger distances from the nucleus
(~ 45" [4 kpc] radius). Still avoiding the dusty central regions, we
infer an ellipticity of ~ 0.25 at a radius of ~ 8" - 10" (0.7-0.9 kpc).
The ellipticity increases steeply with radius, reaching values of
0.4-0.5 at a radius of ~ 15" (1.3 kpc) from the nucleus.
The dust features, already obvious in the continuum images, can be
clearly seen in our color maps (Fig. 3, bottom panels). Our large-scale
color map (bottom left-hand panel) shows that if we divide the galaxy
along its photometric major axis, the northwest side of the galaxy is
very red (log [F547M/F791W] ~ -0.3) compared to its southeast side
(log [F547M/F791W] ~ 0). This suggests that the near side of the galaxy
disk is the northwest side. Assuming that both sides have a similar
stellar population and using equation (1), we derive a typical E(B-V)
for the disk of ~ 0.6 mag. The color map of the nuclear regions (bottom
right-hand panel) shows the presence of several strong dust lanes
(log [F547M/F791W] ~ -0.1 to -0.2) running either parallel to the
photometric major axis of the galaxy (northwest of the nucleus), or
along P.A. ~ 180^deg^ (west of the nucleus). Assuming that an S1
template is representative of the continuum ratio of the underlying
stellar population (Cid-Fernandes, Storchi-Bergmann, & Schmitt 1998), we
find a typical E(B-V) of 0.1-0.3 mag for these dust lanes. In addition
to these dust features, there is a region of high log (F547M/F791W)
ratio (~0.1) located 2.5" (225 pc) north of the nucleus. This region of
"blue" continuum is associated with the northern tip of the central
emission-line structure (Fig. 3, bottom right-hand panel).
In our high angular resolution emission-line images (Fig. 4, top
and middle panels), the "egg-shaped" circumnuclear (inner 4" [360 pc])
line emission of NGC 1386 (Fig. 8 in Weaver et al. 1991) is now fully
resolved and reveals a string of emission regions aligned north-south.
The nuclear radio source is elongated in the same direction, extending
~ 1" south (Nagar et al. 1999). Close to the nucleus, there is also a
"plume" of emission extending over ~ 1" (90 pc) northeast and east of
the nucleus. Weak emission is also present on the other side of nucleus,
which together with the plume, forms a structure roughly perpendicular
to the main axis of the emission region (see Fig. 5, right panel). It is
interesting to speculate that this east-west structure is an edge-on
disk of ionized gas that is responsible for collimating the ionizing
photons and radio ejecta of the Seyfert nucleus into the north-south
direction.

10. 2000ApJS..128..139F
Re:NGC 1386
The [O III]/([N II] + H{alpha}) maps (Fig. 4, bottom panels) show a
clumpy structure with knots of high [O III]/([N II] + H{alpha}) ratio
present all along the emission region, except within the emission
"plume" east and west of the nucleus. These regions display relatively
low [O III]/([N II] + H{alpha}) ratios compared to the nuclear regions
(Fig. 4, bottom right-hand panel). Interestingly, the high
[O III]/([N II] + H{alpha}) knots are distributed on the eastern
(western) edge of the emission regions south (north) of the nucleus.
Although this east-west gradient of excitation could be because of
reddening south of the nucleus, where there is a dust lane west of the
emission-line structures, there is no obvious dust lane to the east of
the emission-line region 2"-3" north of the nucleus, where the continuum
is blue. Therefore, the gradient in the [O III]/([N II] + H{alpha})
ratio in the latter region may correspond to a real transverse change in
the excitation conditions of the ionized gas.
Last, a faint, inclined ring of emission extending up to ~ 12"
(1.1 kpc) from the nucleus is also seen in our [N II] + H{alpha} image
(Fig. 5). The ring is well described by an ellipse with major axis in
P.A. 25^deg^ (Fig. 5, left-hand panel), except at the northeast and
southwest ends where the emission falls inside the ellipse, giving a
"boxy" shape very similar to the shape of the continuum isophotes in
this region (see Fig. 2, top right-hand panel, in Weaver et al. 1991).
The line ratios measured in the vicinity of the ring by Weaver et al.
(1991), the fact that it is detected only in our [N II] + H{alpha}
image, and the alignment of the ring with the disk major axis strongly
suggest that this emission originates in normal H II regions.

11. 2000ApJ...544..747S
Re:NGC 1386
The W values, CR, and spectrum are best reproduced by the bulge template
plus 10% in mass of a 1 Gyr population. This fit is shown in Figure 16a,
where the HOBL can be observed. The Ne III {lambda}3968 + H {epsilon}
emission are almost filling the Ca II H + H{epsilon} absorption.

12. 1999ApJS..120..209N
Re:NGC 1386
NGC 1386 (type 2; Fig. 6) - There is a clear extension in the lower
contours of the 3.6cm map in P.A. ~170^deg^. This extension is present
before the self-calibration process and remains after multiple
iterations with self-calibration. The source is therefore listed as "S"
with P.A.~170^deg^. This value is different from the P.A. of -125^deg^
reported in Paper VI from a 6 cm map; we believe the present 3.6cm map
is more reliable. There is a strong confusing source ~16' away. The
20cm flux of 28.8 mJy measured here is marginally higher than the value
of 23.0 +/- 2.0 mJy published in Paper VI.

13. 1999A&AS..137..457M
Re:NGC 1386
NGC 1386: Ulvestad & Wilson (1984b) observed this object at 20 and 6 cm.
In their observations, NGC 1386 is barely resolved with an extension to
the southwest (PA = -125^deg^), and it is unresolved in our 3.5 cm map.
Ulvestad & Wilson (1984b) give a flux density of 13 mJy and 23.0 mJy at
6 and 20 cm, respectively, and a spectral index of
{alpha}_20_^6^ = -0.47. The spectral index between 6 and 3cm is very
flat, {alpha}_6_^3^ = -0.05. PTI observations find a flux density of
4 mJy at 13 cm (R94, S95).

14. 1998MNRAS.297..579C
Re:NGC 1386
NGC 1386. The Ws are typical of an S3 template at the nucleus (Fig. 16), S4-S5
at 10 arcsec from the nucleus, due to the presence of spiral arms
(Storchi-Bergmann et al. 1996b), and S3 farther out. The continuum ratios
indicate an S1 template at the nucleus, with a gradient to values typical of
S5-S6 at 10 arcsec and outwards.

15. 1996ApJS..105...75C
Re:NGC 1386
4.1.5. NGC 1386
NGC 1386 is located in the Fornax Cluster, so we have used the distance to that
cluster (20 Mpc) in our calculations. In the H{alpha} + [N II] image (Fig. 1e),
there is an ELR with luminosity 3.1 x 10^38^ ergs s^-1^ to the northwest, at a
distance of 41" (4.0 kpc) from the nucleus. The continuum emission from the
disk extends out to this position, so the ELR could lie in the plane of the
galaxy disk. Alternatively, the emission could be from gas in a halo cloud
which has been ionized by a wind. Weaver, Wilson, & Baldwin (1991) have used
long-slit spectrscopy to study the kinematics of the extranuclear gas within
~12" (~1 kpc). The line profiles and line ratios of the ELRs surrounding the
nucleus suggest that an outflow from the nucleus may be occurring along the
major axis. Ulvestad & Wilson (1984) found that the morphology of the nuclear
radio continuum emission is slightly extended ~400 pc toward the southwest
along position angle (P.A.) = - 125^deg^. Although there is good evidence for a
nuclear outflow in NGC 1386, it does not appear to be directed along the minor
axis. Except for the northwest ELR, all the line emission originates from <~1
kpc. More solid evidence is needed to conclude that a galactic scale outflow
(i.e., one blowing out of the galactic disk) is present in this galaxy.

16. 1996ApJS..103...81C
Re:NGC 1386
NGC 1386.--Seyfert 2.

17. 1996ApJ...467..551C
Re:NGC 1386
3.1.8. NGC 1386
We did not observe NGC 1386. No extranuclear radio emission is resolved in the
large-scale 1.4 GHz radio map presented in Condon (1987). Rush et al. (1995)
quote a flux of 21.5 mJy at 4.9 GHz from VLA D-array observations. On small
scales, the nuclear radio source is only slightly extended (out to ~400 pc)
along the galaxy major axis (southwest along P.A. 55^deg^; Weaver, Wilson,
& Baldwin 1991; Ulvestad & Wilson 1984). Weaver et al. (1991) present evidence
for a nuclear outflow directed along the major axis.

18. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 1386
FCC 179
Sa
(E/I,I,1)
CD-718-S
Feb 1/2, 1979
103aO + Wr2
45 min
NGC 1386 is in the Fornax Cluster
(Ferguson 1989). Like the galaxies on the preceding
five pages the spiral pattern in NGC 1386 is
made entirely of dust lanes. No evidence of HII
regions is visible either on this print or on the
original plate. What then is the origin and the age
of the dust?

19. 1985SGC...C...0000C
Re:NGC 1386
Plate 2698
Overexposed center with dark patches (lane?) barely seen. Bright lens.
Note correct RA.

20. 1982ESOU..C...0000L
Re:ESO 033452-3609.8
=ESO 358- G 35
in cluster

21. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 1386
In the Fornax I Cluster

22. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 1386
In the Fornax I Cluster.
Small, bright nucleus.


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