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Notes for object NGC 1399

25 note(s) found in NED.


1. 2009MNRAS.397.2148G
Re:NGC 1399
While Houghton et al. (2006) had suggested that a nuclear disc may be present,
Gebhardt et al. (2007) refute the existence of any second component at the
centre of NGC 1399. However, Lyubenova et al. (2008) have since suggested that a
nuclear star cluster (perhaps a partially digested, bright globular cluster) may
reside within the inner ~0.3 arcsec (30 pc), and we tentatively accept its
existence. If, however, NGC 1399 does not possess an NC, it will have no impact
on our results. This is because the NC/BH mass ratio is so small that the data
point in our Figs 1 to 3 will barely move if we set M_NC_= 0.
For a 13-Gyr-old population, M/L_B_~ 2.5, which was used for this galaxy.
It is interesting to note that NGC 1399 is a 'core galaxy'. No other such
galaxies, with their partially depleted stellar cores, appear to house nuclear
star clusters. The apparent excess nuclear flux in some 'core galaxies' (e.g.
the Sy2 LINER NGC 4552) is almost invariably due to non-thermal radiation from
an AGN; in some instances, it may also be due to residuals from the
deconvolution process used on early Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images.

2. 2008MNRAS.391.1009L
Re:NGC 1399
NGC 1399: the surface brightness profile was published by Schombert (1986). The
velocity dispersion in the central region of this galaxy was found to be 388 km
s^-1^ decreasing to 200 km s^-1^ at 10 arcsec from the centre by Longo et al.
(1994). The central radial velocity dispersion of this galaxy was measured in
this study as 371+/-3 km s^-1^. Thus, the central velocity dispersion measured
in this study corresponds to that measured by Longo et al. (1994), and the steep
decreasing velocity dispersion profile is confirmed as well. This galaxy has a
flat radial velocity profile.

3. 2008MNRAS.386.2242H
Re:NGC 1399
NGC 1399 - The black hole mass (M_bh_= 12^+5^-6^ x 10^8^ M_sun_) is
taken from Houghton et al. (2006), which is consistent with the result
of Gebhardt et al. (2007), M_bh_= (5.1 +- 0.7) x 10^8^ M_sun_ .

4. 2008MNRAS.386.2242H
Re:NGC 1399
NGC 1399 - The black hole mass (M_bh_=12^+5^_-6_*10^8^M_{sun}_) is taken
from Houghton et al. (2006), which is consistent with the result of Gebhardt et
al.(2007),M_bh_=(5.1+/-0.7)*10^8^ M_{sun}_.

5. 2006ApJ...639..136H
Re:NGC 1399
NGC 1399. We extracted spectra in 10 contiguous, concentric annuli, with
outer radii 0.2', 0.7', 1.5', 2.4', 3.0', 3.6', 4.2', 5.4', 7.7', and 12'
(1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 22, 29, 41, and 64 kpc), respectively. In order to
improve abundance constraints, we tied together Z_Fe_ between annuli 2 and
3, between annuli 4-6, and between annuli 7-9. We found a significant
improvement in the fit if two hot gas components were used in the inner 6
bins. For the cooler component kT rises from ~0.7 to 1.3 keV. The hotter
component has kT ~ 1.5 keV but was less well constrained. Although the
best-fitting model was not formally acceptable, adding an additional hot
gas component did not improve the fit further. Given the excellent S/N of
the data and the fact that the fractional fit residuals are typically
roughly a few percent, it seems probable that the remaining errors are
primarily systematic, for example, calibration effects. We found evidence
of an abundance gradient, with a sharp drop-off at ~7', as shown in Figure
4. Our abundance profile is in excellent agreement with that derived from
XMM data (Buote 2002). These results are also in agreement with previous
single-aperture ASCA abundance measurements (e.g., Buote & Fabian 1998).

6. 2006A&A...447...97B
Re:NGC 1399
NGC 1399: Loewenstein et al. (2001) did not find a nuclear point source and they
give a 3 {sigma} upper limit to any nuclear X-ray point source converting
nuclear counts (28 counts in an 1" circle region) to luminosity in (2-10 keV
band) assuming a slope 1.5 power-law spectrum.

7. 2005ApJS..157...59L
Re:NGC 1399
This peculiar E1 elliptical is the central and brightest galaxy in the Fornax
cluster and is known to have globular clusters 4 times more abundant than a
typical elliptical and 15 times more abundant than a typical spiral. ULX1 (IXO
18) and ULX2 (IXO 17) are identified with globular clusters from Chandra and
WFPC2 observations (Angelini et al. 2001). ULX1 showed a change in luminosities
from ~8 * 10^39^ to below 2 * 10^39^ ergs s^-1^ in less than a year. ULX3 is
located around some faint fuzzy features.

8. 2005ApJ...635.1031B
Re:NGC 1399
NGC 1399.-This galaxy has the brightest stellar continuum, typically an order
of magnitude brighter than other systems. As with other galaxies in the Fornax
Cluster (NGC 1316, NGC 1404), the Galactic H I column is low (1.31 x 10^20^
cm^-2^), as is the extinction, and there is no evidence for Galactic H_2_
absorption, although Galactic atomic absorption is found (Fig. 1). The lack of
H_2_ absorption simplifies the determination of the location of the continuum,
and we see no evidence for O VI emission. Due to the absence of O VI emission
and the strength of the continuum, we use the stellar continuum as the standard
template for the other systems, after filling in the Galactic absorption lines
(for guidance, we used the model by Brown et al. 1997).

9. 2005ApJ...622..235T
Re:NGC 1399
IRAS 100 micron; low-luminosity radio jet

10. 2004A&A...416...41X
Re:NGC 1399
NGC 1399. This is the central dominant galaxy of the Fornax cluster
which has been extensively studied in a wide range of wavelengths. It
hosts a low-luminosity radio jet which is confined within the optical
image (Killeen et al. 1988) and it shows an extended and asymmetric
gaseous halo in X-rays (Paolillo et al. 2002). Although there is no
detection of dust seen by optical obscuration (van Dokkum & Franx 1995),
we observe a MIR excess between the 9.62 and 15 micron bands
(Fig. 4). This excess (as already reported in Athey et al. 2002)
coincides with the 9.7 micron silicate dust band that originates in the
circumstellar envelopes of AGB stars.

11. 2003ApJS..146....1W
Re:NGC 1399
NGC 1399.-The Ly{beta} absorption associated with NGC 1399 is very
strong and reduces the S/N ratio in the continuum near the O VI{lambda}
1031.926 line to about 3.5 per resolution element. However, it can
clearly be established that the Galactic O VI absorption is weak. The
S/N ratio near the O VI {lambda}1037.617 line is -8, and a good
measurement is possible. The two measurements are in good agreement,
giving 1440 VI {lambda}1031.926) = 124 +- 39 +- 21 m{angstrom} and 147
(O VI {lambda}1037.617) = 70 +- 23 +- 36 mk. Both are ~3{sigma}
detections, but the column density ratio is ~1. In Table 2 the O VI
{lambda}1031.926 measurement is listed, but in the channel maps of
Figures 10-15 the O VI {lambda}1037.617 column densities are used, since
it has a better S/N ratio.
This galaxy is part of the Fornax-Eridanus Galaxy Grouping
(v = 1580 +- 490 km s^-1^), and several other galaxies have an impact
parameter of < 150 kpc. However, they have similar velocities and it
is not clear whether they are in front or behind NGC 1399.

12. 2003ApJ...598..827P
Re:NGC 1399
NGC 1399. The UV-optical morphologies of NGC 1399 are broadly similar,
and no measurable dispersion is seen in the internal colors. The UV
emission probably stems from the exposed stellar cores of evolved (old)
low-mass stars (i.e., the " UV-upturn "; see Brown et al. 2000), which
is consistent with the very red colors, M_1500_-B = 5.5. Regardless, the
low {xi}-values imply that the stars dominating the flux from UV-optical
wavelengths are well mixed.

13. 2001ApJS..132..129M
Re:NGC 1399
NGC 1399. - NGC 1399 is the central and brightest elliptical galaxy in
the nearby (D ~ 19 Mpc) Fornax cluster of galaxies and is well detected in
both UV bands (see Fig. 12a). The central FUV surface brightness is
exceptionally high among the normal E galaxies and spiral bulges we have
observed. There is a superposed foreground star visible 13" northeast of
the nucleus on the MUV frame. As discussed by O'Connell et al. (1992) and
Ohl et al. (1998), the radial light profiles in both the FUV and MUV
(Fig. 12b) are consistent with a de Vaucouleurs ({mu} ~ r^0.2^5) profile
over a 5 mag range, suggesting that the FUV light is produced by low-mass
stars from the dominant old stellar population. At larger radii, the axial
ratio of the UV isophotes matches that of the optical, but there is a
flattening of the UV isophotes for r <~ 5" in both UV bands which appears
to be real but has not been reported at longer wavelengths (Mackie,
Visvanathan, & Carter 1990; Bicknell et al. 1989). There are strong
(FUV-MUV) and (UV-optical) color gradients, in which the colors become
redder with increasing radius. The central (FUV-MUV) color (~ -0.9, see
Fig. 12b) is among the bluest known among normal elliptical galaxies. UIT
images of the Fornax cluster field, including NGC 1399 and NGC 1404 are
discussed by O'Neil et al. (1996).

14. 2001AJ....121.2974L
Re:NGC 1399
NGC 1399: Although of rather modest optical luminosity, NGC 1399 is the
central elliptical galaxy of the Fornax Cluster. It has around 5000 GCs,
giving it a high specific frequency (Bridges, Hanes, & Harris 1991).
Studies of the kinematics of the NGC 1399 GC system have been carried out
by Grillmair et al. (1994) and Kissler-Patig et al. (1998). Here we use the
same B- and I-band HST data of Grillmair et al. (1999) but convert the
color peaks to V-I.

15. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 1399
FCC 213
E1
CD-718-S
Feb 1/2, 1979
103aO + Wr2c
45 min
NGC 1399 is the brightest E galaxy in the Fornax Cluster
(Ferguson 1989). Hanes and Harris (1986) measure the specific globular
cluster frequency to be high, at S = 16. The system of clusters is
visible in the print here but less prominently than in NGC 4486 (panel
17) where S = 15. However, the counts by Hanes and Harris suggest to
them that the specific globular frequency is, in fact, comparable to
M87, taking into account that Fornax is 0.3 mag more distant than
Virgo.

16. 1994A&AS..106..199C
Re:NGC 1399
NGC 1399. It is the central galaxy in the Fornax cluster. Outside about
30" it shows a marked isophote twist and a positive value of the cos 4
Fourier coefficient. Recently, new evidences for the presence of a
central dark mass concentrations have been reported by Stiavelli et al.
(1993). Detected at 100 microns and at 5 GHz.

17. 1994A&AS..105..433L
Re:NGC 1399
NGC 1399 (Fig. 6). It is the dominant elliptical galaxy in the Fornax I
Cluster. We obtained spectra at three different position angles
(0^deg^,45^deg^, and 90^deg^) which, once the different resolutions are
taken into account, turn out to be in good agreement with the results by
Bicknell et al. (1989) and Stiavelli et al. (1993). We do not find any
trace of the anomalous kinematical behaviour observed by FIH in the
intermediate regions thus confirming their suggestion that the asymmetry
was introduced by a spurious instrumental effect. The central velocity
dispersion is confirmed to be high (388 km s^-1^) and the velocity
dispersion profiles decrease slowly outwards reaching 200 km s^-1^ at 10"
from the center.

18. 1994A&AS..105..433L
Re:NGC 1399
NGC 1399 (Fig. 6). It is the dominant elliptical galaxy in the Fornax I
Cluster. We obtained spectra at three different position angles (0^deg^,
45^deg^, and 90^deg^) which, once the different resolutions are taken
into account, turn out to be in good agreement with the results by
Bicknell et al. (1989) and Stiavelli et al. (1993). We do not find any
trace of the anomalous kinematical behaviour observed by FIH in the
intermediate regions thus confirming their suggestion that the asymmetry
was introduced by a spurious instrumental effect. The central velocity
dispersion is confirmed to be high (388 km s^-1^) and the velocity
dispersion profiles decrease slowly outwards reaching 200 km s^-1^ at 10"
from the center.

19. 1994A&AS..105..341G
Re:NGC 1399
NGC 1399 = Fornax I. Our H{alpha}+[NII] image reveals emission from the
nuclear region. IRAS 100 micron detection, but no obvious dust associated
with the emission-line gas. This may be due to orientation effects.
Extended radio source. X-ray emission.

20. 1994A&AS..104..179G
Re:NGC 1399
Fornax A
S3 ~ -0.015 at r = 2-4". IRAS 100 micron detection. Extended radio
source. X-ray emission.

21. 1992ApJS...80..137J
Re:MRC 0336-356
MRC 0336-356/0336-355
A pair of unrelated sources, the south-west
source a triple with extended components and the north-east source a strong
double with unresolved components. Models
fitted by Ekers (1969) and SSM.
Mapped by SM, Slee (1977) and Ekers et al. (1989).
.
Galaxy 10.6 m, NGC 1399, at 03 36 34.37 -35 36 44.6,
18 arcsec from the centroid of the south-west source, see Mills et al.
(1960). z = 0.0049, Palumbo et al. (1983). In cluster AS 373 (ACO).
Galaxy
18.0 m at 03 36 50.95 -35 32 35.9, 13 arcsec from the centroid of the
north-east source, see Schilizzi & McAdam (1970).
There is a faint cluster near the north-east source with a 20.5 m
object at 03 36 51.16 -35 32 18.4.

22. 1985SGC...C...0000C
Re:NGC 1399
Plate 2698
Overexposed center, many globulars(?) in faint much extended corona
with "sharp" edge on north.

23. 1982ESOU..C...0000L
Re:ESO 033634-3536.7
=ESO 358- G 45
in cluster

24. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 1399
= PKS 0336-35
Brightest galaxy in the core of the Fornax I Cluster
There is a star 0.3 arcmin north of the nucleus.
Non-interacting pair with NGC 1404 at 10.2 arcmin
Photometry: (For 50 dwarfs in the Cluster)
A.J., 70, 559, 1965.
Radio Observations:
Ap. J., 157, 481, 1969.
M.N.R.A.S., 152, 439, 1971.

25. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 1399
In the Fornax I Cluster.
Bright nucleus.
Star 0.3 arcmin [north] of the nucleus.
Non-interacting pair with NGC 1404 at 10.2 arcmin.
Photometry:
M.N.R.A.S., 111, 526, 1951.


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