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For refcode 1989A&A...211...25T:
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Copyright by European Southern Observatory (ESO). Reproduced by permission
1989A&A...211...25T Formation of the leading spiral arms in retrograde galaxy encounters M. Thomasson, K.J. Donner, B. Sundelius, G.G. Byrd, T.-Y. Huang, and M.J. Valtonen Onsala Space Observatory, S-439 00 Onsala, Sweden Nordita, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark Observatory and Astrophysics Laboratory, University of Helsinki, SF-00130 Helsinki, Finland Department of Astronomy/Astrophysics, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Goteborg, Sweden Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 1921, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA Department of Physical Sciences, University of Turku, SF-20520 Turku, Finland Department of Astronomy, University of Nanjing, Nanjing, China Received October 9, 1987; accepted July 11, 1988 Summary. We study, theoretically and with N-body simulations, the formation of spiral structures in retrograde galaxy encounters. A one-armed leading spiral dominates in a disk if (i) the tidal perturbation from the retrograde companion is large enough, and (ii) the disk is surrounded by a massive halo. The leading arm is made up of particles in slightly elongated orbits, the turning points of which outline the arm. The orbits precess in such a way that the arm structure survives while it rotates in the opposite sense to the disk rotation. From the literature we find that very few spirals in a sample of galaxies with a large companion have leading spiral arms. A possible reason for this is that very few spiral galaxies have a halo with larger mass than the disk mass. Key words: galaxies: spiral - galaxies: structure of - galaxies: kinematics and dynamics of
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