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For refcode 1990A&A...239...33A:
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1990A&A...239...33A Periodicity of quasar redshifts N. Arp, N. C. Bi, Y. Chu, and X. Zhu Max-Planck-Institut fur Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-8046 Garching, Federal Republic of Germany Center for Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology, Hefei, China Received January 4, accepted December 2, 1989 Abstract. Previous analyses of the redshifts of quasars have shown that they have preferred values at z = 0.30, 0.60, 0.96, 1.41 and 1.96. These redshift peaks fit the formula {DELTA}ln(1 + z) = 0.206. Cases where multiple quasars fall closer on the sky to low redshift galaxies than expected by chance are analyzed here. Power spectra show that their redshift distribution has this periodicity at a confidence level of 94% for this exact peak and confidence level of 99.98% for a broad peak at this value. The survey technique used to find the quasars near galaxies enables selection effects to be ruled out as an explanation of this periodicity. Radio selected quasars are tested in two different directions in the sky (RA ~0^h^ and 12^h^ directions). They confirm the periodicity {DELTA}ln (1 + z) = 0.206 to 99% and 96% confidence levels respectively. This furnishes strong additional proof that the peaks cannot be due to color or emission line selection effects. When the 0^h^ and 12^h^ regions are combined the confidence level increases to 99.97%. It is shown that there is a zero point offset between the radio quasars in the 0^h^ and 12^h^ directions of the form (1 + z) x (1.025). Correcting this phase difference raises the power in the periodicity peak still further. Using a similar phase correction between the 0^h^ and 12^h^ region for the original sample of multiple quasars around galaxies, increases the power from 6.07 to 7.06, or to a confidence level of ~97%. The formula {DELTA}ln(1 + z) = 0.206 predicts one smaller z peak 0.06. It is shown that with the observation of increasing numbers of small z quasars that this peak has become even more conspicuous than when originally discovered by G. R. Burbidge in 1968. Samples of very high redshift quasars are investigated. They show the periodicity extending to the predicted values at z ~2.7 and 3.5. The phase shift between 0^h^ and 12^h^ regions is confirmed. Finally it is shown that redshifts of absorption lines in quasar spectra, due supposedly to intervening galaxies, exhibit this same {DELTA}ln (1 + z) = 0.206 periodicity. The implications of this redshift periodicity are briefly considered. If the quasar redshifts are caused by the expansion of space at large distances then the periodicity would violate the cosmological principle that the universe must look the same from all points within it. Key words: quasars quasars: redshift of
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