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For refcode 1993ApJ...410...81L:
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1993ApJ...410...81L INFRARED SURFACE BRIGHTNESS FLUCTUATIONS: K'-BAND OBSERVATIONS OF M31, M32, AND THE DISTANCE TO MAFFEI 1 GERARD A. LUPPINO Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822; e-mail: ger@hokupa.ila.hawaii.edu AND JOHN L. TONRY Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139; e-mail:jt@antares.mit.edu Received 1992 October 16; accepted 1992 December 10 ABSTRACT We have taken 2.1 micron infrared K'-band images of the Local Group galaxies M31 and M32 and the nearby elliptical galaxy Maffei 1 using a 256 x 256 pixel HgCdTe infrared array. Measurement of the amplitude of the K'-band surface brightness fluctuations (SBFs) for M31 has enabled us to calibrate the K'-band fluctuations absolute magnitude, M^bar^_K'_ = - 5.61 +/- 0.09, taking M31 to be 0.77 Mpc distant. This agrees with theoretical predictions. The exceptional brightness of M^bar^_K'_, combined with the extremely red color of the fluctuations compared to background globular clusters and galaxies [(M^bar^_V_ - M^bar^_K'_)~ 7 whereas (V - K')_bkgnd_ ~ 3], suggests that K'-band SBF can be used out to much greater distances than optical I-band SBFs, although we find that K^bar^' may be more sensitive to stellar populations, and is anomalously bright in M32 if M32 is at the same distance as M31. Using our value for M^bar^_K'_ in M31, we have determined the distance to Maffei 1, an elliptical galaxy that lies at low galactic latitude and is heavily obscured by dust. We measure a distance modulus of 28.1+/-0.25 corresponding to a distance of d_SBF_ = 4.2 +/- 0.5 Mpc. We find a gradient in K^bar^' with radius whereby the fluctuation amplitude increases by about 0.13 mag per factor of 2 increase in radius. Our infrared images allow the first accurate determination of the Hubble type for Maffei 1 which we find to be a true giant elliptical (E4) with a total K' absolute magnitude of M^bar^_K'_^T^ = - 24.25 corresponding to about 1 L^*^, consistent with its velocity dispersion. We have also determined the distance to Maffei 1 using the technique D_n_-{sigma} and find d_Dn{sigma} = 4.2 +/- 1.1 Mpc (assuming H_0_ = 80 km s^-1^ Mpc^-1^), in close agreement with the SBF distance. Our distance of 4.2 Mpc places Maffei 1 well outside the boundary of the Local Group and indicates that Maffei 1 plays no role in Local Group dynamics. Subject headings: galaxies: distances and redshifts - galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD - galaxies: individual (Maffei 1) - galaxies: photometry - infrared: galaxies - Local Group
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