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For refcode 1996A&A...309....9B:
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1996A&A...309....9B The reality of anomalous redshifts in the spectra of some QSOs and its implications G. Burbidge Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences and Department of Physics, University of California, La Jolla, Ca 92093-0111, USA Received 28 June 1995 / Accepted 9 September 1995 Abstract. The evidence for the physical association of close pairs involving bright QSOs with large redshifts and bright nearby galaxies with small redshifts, is reviewed and, in Table 1, a list of the best cases is given. It is shown that in a series of statistical studies using catalogs of QSOs and catalogs of galaxies, very strong correlations of high redshift radio QSOs have been found successively with a. The Shapley Ames Catalog of the brightest galaxies. Here the correlation is with powerful radio QSOs with S >= 9 Jy (0.4 GHz). The result is significant at the 7-10 {sigma} level. b. The Bright Galaxy Catalog (z <= 0.05). Here the QSO sample is dominated by radio emitting QSOs, largely identified from the 3CR, Molonglo, Parkes, and 4C radio catalogs. c. The galaxies in the Lick Catalog (m <~ 17, z <~0.2). Again the sample of QSOs is a radio sample. d. The IRAS galaxy catalogs, where some fraction of the galaxies may have z up to 0.4, and where a few galaxies may be identical in position with the QSOs, but where the larger fraction have much smaller redshifts than the QSOs. Again the QSO sample is a radio sample. e. Finally strong correlations on scales <~ 10' have been found between optically bright, high redshift radio loud QSOs and the diffuse X-ray emission seen by ROSAT. Bartelmann et al. (1994) believe that this diffuse X-ray emission is due to galaxy clusters at redshifts significantly less than the observed redshifts of the QSOs. All of this evidence taken together suggests that a subset of QSOs at least, are physically associated with galaxies and lie at the distances of the galaxies. Since the correlations have been made with galaxies over a wide range of distances, it is concluded that in general QSOs must have both an intrinsic redshift component, and a cosmological component. Thus the debate is no longer about "local" versus "cosmological" QSOs. There is cloud of "local" QSOs where we interpret local to mean distances <= 200 Mpc. The remaining QSOs are "cosmological" but they have a significant intrinsic redshift component. Using this as an empirical model we attempt to understand the total population of QSOs. The nearest ones are associated with nearby galaxies like M 82 and NGC 4258, and the galaxies in the Virgo cluster. As Arp has pointed out, on this model 3C 273 and 3C 279 are members of the Virgo cluster. The many examples of dense groups of QSOs which have apparently been ejected from galaxies within ~100 Mpc, and have been reported over many years, are discussed. In Sect. 5, we discuss QSOs and their parent galaxies and show that the current observations of fuzz and other luminous matter close to QSOs are compatible with this interpretation. The absolute magnitudes of the local QSOs listed in Table 1 lie in the range -13 to -18, and the most luminous ones tend to lie closest to the parent galaxies (Figs. 1 and 2). In Sect. 7, we discuss absorption in the spectra of QSOs and argue that in cases where there is good statistical evidence that QSO and galaxy lie together in space, and absorption at the redshift of the galaxy is seen in the spectrum of the QSO, the QSO must lie in an extended halo about the galaxy. Thus the cosmological distance of the QSO is given by the galaxy redshift. A similar situation applies in QSOs in which a damped Ly{alpha} system is found. Since a strong case has been made that such systems arise in thick disks or halos of otherwise undetected galaxies, we argue that these are the parent galaxies of the QSOs. Using many of the cases that have been found, we conclude that for these QSOs, the intrinsic redshift components lie in the range 0.1-0.5. As is the case in the conventional scheme, much of the absorption is due to intervening clouds or galaxies, though it is suggested that some attention be paid to the idea that some of the gas giving rise to absorption is ejected from the QSOs. Other properties which are briefly discussed include the situation with regard to relativistic motion for QSOs which are comparatively close by, (Sect. 8) and the contribution to the X-ray background from QSOs in this model (Sect. 9). The model makes a first attempt at explaining all of the properties of QSOs including the evidence that intrinsic redshift components are present. The conclusion is that a small fraction of the bright QSOs have originated in galaxies close to us and have redshifts largely intrinsic in origin. However the vast majority have been ejected from more distant galaxies and lie at cosmological distances (the distances of the parent galaxies). Their redshifts are largely of cosmological origin. The intrinsic redshift component is z_i_ = [(1 + z_o_)/(1 + z_g_) - 1] where z_o_ is the observed redshift, and z_g_ is the redshift of the parent galaxy. Key words: galaxies: general - quasars: general - galaxies: redshift - cosmology: observations
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