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Date and Time of the Query: 2019-06-16 T02:15:57 PDT
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For refcode 1999MNRAS.309..447M:
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Copyright by Royal Astronomical Society. 1999MNRAS.309..447M Rates of tidal disruption of stars by massive central black holes John Magorrian and Scott Tremaine Accepted 1999 June 1. Received 1999 May 20; in original form 1999 February 1 ABSTRACT There is strong evidence for some kind of massive dark object in the centres of many galaxy bulges. The detection of flares from tidally disrupted stars could confirm that these objects are black holes (BHs). Here we present calculations of the stellar disruption rates in detailed dynamical models of real galaxies, taking into account the refilling of the loss cone of stars on disruptable orbits by two-body relaxation and tidal forces in non-spherical galaxies. The highest disruption rates (one star per 10^4^ yr) occur in faint (L <~ 10^10^ L_sun_) galaxies, which have steep central density cusps. More luminous galaxies are less dense and have much longer relaxation times and more massive BHs. Dwarf stars in such galaxies are swallowed whole by the BH and hence do not emit flares; giant stars could produce flares as often as every 10^5^ yr, although the rate depends sensitively on the shape of the stellar distribution function. We discuss the possibility of detecting disruption flares in current supernova searches. The total mass of stars consumed over the lifetime of the galaxy is of the order of 10^6^ M, independent of galaxy luminosity; thus, disrupted stars may contribute significantly to the present BH mass in galaxies fainter than ~10^9^ L_sun_. Keywords: celestial mechanics, stellar - dynamics - galaxies: kinematics and dynamics - galaxies: nuclei
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