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For refcode 2001AJ....121..140K:
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2001AJ....121..140K A BROAD SEARCH FOR COUNTERROTATING GAS AND STARS: EVIDENCE FOR MERGERS AND ACCRETION S. J. KANNAPPAN AND D. G. FABRICANT Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Mail Stop 20, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138; skannappan@cfa.harvard.edu, dfabricant@cfa.harvard.edu Received 2000 July 23; accepted 2000 September 12 ABSTRACT We measure the frequency of bulk gas-stellar counterrotation in a sample of 67 galaxies drawn from the Nearby Field Galaxy Survey, a broadly representative survey of the local galaxy population down to M_B_ ~ -15. We detect four counterrotators among 17 E/S0's with extended gas emission (24_-6_^+8^%). In contrast, we find no clear examples of bulk counterrotation among 38 Sa-Sbc spirals, although one Sa does show peculiar gas kinematics. This result implies that, at 95% confidence, no more than 8% of Sa-Sbc spirals are bulk counterrotators. Among types Sc and later, we identify only one possible counterrotator, a Magellanic irregular. We use these results together with the physical properties of the counterrotators to constrain possible origins for this phenomenon. Key words: galaxies: evolution-galaxies: formation-galaxies: interactions- galaxies: kinematics and dynamics
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