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Date and Time of the Query: 2019-07-21 T15:08:10 PDT
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For refcode 2004MNRAS.347...74P:
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Copyright by Royal Astronomical Society. 2004MNRAS.347...74P Low-luminosity Type II supernovae: spectroscopic and photometric evolution Pastorello, A.; Zampieri, L.; Turatto, M.; Cappellaro, E.; Meikle, W. P. S.; Benetti, S.; Branch, D.; Baron, E.; Patat, F.; Armstrong, M.; Altavilla, G.; Salvo, M.; Riello, M. Abstract. In this paper we present spectroscopic and photometric observations for four core-collapsed supernovae (SNe), namely SNe 1994N, 1999br, 1999eu and 2001dc. Together with SN 1997D, we show that they form a group of exceptionally low-luminosity events. These SNe have narrow spectral lines (indicating low expansion velocities) and low luminosities at every phase (significantly lower than those of typical core-collapsed supernovae). The very-low luminosity during the^56^Co radioactive decay tail indicates that the mass of^56^Ni ejected during the explosion is much smaller (M_Ni_~ 2-8 x 10^-3^ M_sun_) than the average (M_Ni_~ 6-10 x 10^-2^ M_sun_). Two supernovae of this group (SN 1999br and SN 2001dc) were discovered very close to the explosion epoch, allowing us to determine the lengths of their plateaux (~100 d) as well as establishing the explosion epochs of the other, less completely observed SNe. It is likely that this group of SNe represent the extreme low-luminosity tail of a single continuous distribution of Type II plateau supernovae events. Their kinetic energy is also exceptionally low. Although an origin from low-mass progenitors has also been proposed for low-luminosity core-collapsed SNe, recent work provides evidence in favour of the high-mass progenitor scenario. The incidence of these low-luminosity SNe could be as high as 4-5 per cent of all Type II SNe.
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