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For refcode 2006ApJ...647L..99D:
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2006ApJ...647L..99D The Influence of Mass and Environment on the Evolution of Early-Type Galaxies Sperello di Serego Alighieri, Barbara Lanzoni, and Inger Jorgensen Abstract. We report on a uniform comparative analysis of the fundamental parameters of early-type galaxies at z~1 down to M_B_<=-20, both in the field and in clusters. The changes in the M/L_B_ ratio from z~1 to today are larger for lower mass galaxies in all environments, and are larger in the field than in clusters for galaxies with the same mass. By deriving ages from the M/L_B_ ratio, we estimate the formation redshift for early-type galaxies as a function of galaxy mass and environment. We find that (1) the age of early-type galaxies increases with galaxy mass (downsizing) in all environments, (2) cluster galaxies are older than field galaxies at any given galaxy mass, and (3) this age difference increases with galaxy mass. The first two results confirm similar ones obtained by other means, while the third one is new. The most recent incarnation of the hierarchical models of galaxy formation and evolution is capable of explaining the first two results, but predicts the opposite of our third result. We also find a total lack of massive early-type galaxies (M>3x10^11^ M_sun_) with a formation redshift smaller than 2, which cannot be due to selection effects. Key words: Cosmology: Observations, Galaxies: Elliptical and Lenticular, cD, Galaxies: Evolution, Galaxies: Formation, Galaxies: High-Redshift =========================================================================== 2006ApJ...652L.145D Erratum: "The Influence of Mass and Environment on the Evolution of Early-Type Galaxies" (ApJ, 647, L99 [2006]) Sperello di Serego Alighieri, Barbara Lanzoni, and Inger Jorgensen We report about the changes to the above-mentioned Letter due to an error in the calibration of the galaxy luminosities used by Jorgensen et al. (2006). To correct for this error, the photometry for the two clusters should be offset to brighter luminosities with a factor (1 + z). Correcting for this error corresponds to an offset in log L to brighter luminosities with log (1 + z)which is 0.26 and 0.28 for RX J0152.7-1357 (z = 0.835) and RX J1226.9+3332 (z = 0.892), respectively. As a consequence, Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4 are changed as far as the two clusters are concerned, and the correct versions are given here. As can be clearly seen in Figures 1 and 2, the claimed difference in the fundamental plane (FP) and in the M/L_B_ ratio between the clusters and the field B environment is not present any more, and the behavior of the z ~ 1 early-type galaxies (ETGs) is remarkably similar in both environments, as claimed earlier by di Serego Alighieri et al. (2005). Therefore, the estimated formation epoch of ETGs does not depend on the environment but only on the galaxy mass (see Fig. 3). Quantitatively, the mean age difference between clusters and the field in each mass bin is smaller than 5% and is well within the standard deviation due to galaxy-to-galaxy variations (Fig. 4). Clearly it is now no longer relevant to study this age difference as a function of galaxy mass, and so Figure 4 is modified accordingly. Our correct results are therefore in even larger contrast to the most recent incarnation of the hierarchical models of galaxy formation and evolution, which foresee a marked difference in the formation epoch of ETGs with environment (De Lucia et al. 2006). ===========================================================================
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