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Date and Time of the Query: 2019-06-16 T10:17:19 PDT
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For refcode 2009ApJ...691L.142K:
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2009ApJ...691L.142K Correlations between Supermassive Black Holes, Velocity Dispersions, and Mass Deficits in Elliptical Galaxies with Cores Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf Abstract. High-dynamic-range surface photometry in a companion paper makes possible accurate measurement of the stellar light deficits L_def_ and mass deficits M_def_ associated with the cores of elliptical galaxies. We show that L_def_ correlates with velocity dispersions {sigma} of the host galaxy bulge averaged outside the central region that may be affected by a supermassive black hole (BH). We confirm that L_def_ correlates with BH mass M_blackhole_. Also, the fractional light deficit L_def_/L_*_ correlates with M_blackhole_/M_*_, the ratio of BH mass to the galaxy stellar mass. All three correlations have scatter similar to or smaller than the scatter in the well-known correlation between M_blackhole_ and {sigma}. The new correlations are remarkable in view of the dichotomy between ellipticals with cores and those with central extra light. Core light deficit correlates closely with M_blackhole_ and {sigma}, but extra light does not. This supports the suggestion that extra light Es are made in wet mergers with starbursts whereas core Es are made in dry mergers. After dry mergers, cores are believed to be scoured by BH binaries that fling stars away as their orbits decay or by BHs that sink back to the center after recoiling from anisotropic gravitational radiation emitted when they merge. Direct evidence for these mechanisms has been elusive. We interpret the new correlations as the "smoking gun" that connects cores with BHs. Together, the M_blackhole_-{sigma} and M_blackhole_-L_def_ correlations give us two independent ways to estimate BH masses in core Es. Key words: galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD, galaxies: evolution, galaxies: formation, galaxies: nuclei, galaxies: photometry, galaxies: structure
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