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Date and Time of the Query: 2019-05-27 T00:50:46 PDT
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For refcode 2010ApJ...721...26G:
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2010ApJ...721...26G Precise Black Hole Masses from Megamaser Disks: Black Hole-Bulge Relations at Low Mass Greene, Jenny E.; Peng, Chien Y.; Kim, Minjin; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Braatz, James A.; Violette Impellizzeri, C. M.; Condon, James J.; Lo, K. Y.; Henkel, Christian; Reid, Mark J. Abstract. The black hole (BH)-bulge correlations have greatly influenced the last decade of efforts to understand galaxy evolution. Current knowledge of these correlations is limited predominantly to high BH masses (M_BH_>~10^8^ M_sun_) that can be measured using direct stellar, gas, and maser kinematics. These objects, however, do not represent the demographics of more typical L < L* galaxies. This study transcends prior limitations to probe BHs that are an order of magnitude lower in mass, using BH mass measurements derived from the dynamics of H_2_O megamasers in circumnuclear disks. The masers trace the Keplerian rotation of circumnuclear molecular disks starting at radii of a few tenths of a pc from the central BH. Modeling of the rotation curves, presented by Kuo et al., yields BH masses with exquisite precision. We present stellar velocity dispersion measurements for a sample of nine megamaser disk galaxies based on long-slit observations using the B&C spectrograph on the Dupont telescope and the Dual Imaging Spectrograph on the 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point. We also perform bulge-to-disk decomposition of a subset of five of these galaxies with Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging. The maser galaxies as a group fall below the M_BH_-{sigma}_*_ relation defined by elliptical galaxies. We show, now with very precise BH mass measurements, that the low-scatter power-law relation between M_BH_ and {sigma}_*_ seen in elliptical galaxies is not universal. The elliptical galaxy M_BH_-{sigma}_*_ relation cannot be used to derive the BH mass function at low mass or the zero point for active BH masses. The processes (perhaps BH self-regulation or minor merging) that operate at higher mass have not effectively established an M_BH_-{sigma}_*_ relation in this low-mass regime. Key words: galaxies: active, galaxies: bulges, galaxies: nuclei, galaxies: Seyfert
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