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Date and Time of the Query: 2019-06-19 T10:03:44 PDT
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For refcode 2011ApJ...741...37K:
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Copyright by American Astronomical Society. Reproduced by permission
2011ApJ...741...37K Dusty Explosions from Dusty Progenitors: The Physics of SN 2008S and the 2008 NGC 300-OT Kochanek, C. S. Abstract. SN 2008S and the 2008 NGC 300-OT were explosive transients of stars self-obscured by very dense, dusty stellar winds. An explosive transient with an unobserved shock breakout luminosity of order 10^10^ L_sun_ is required to render the transients little obscured and visible in the optical at their peaks. Such a large breakout luminosity then implies that the progenitor stars were cool, red supergiants, most probably ~9 M_sun_ extreme asymptotic giant branch stars. As the shocks generated by the explosions propagate outward through the dense wind, they produce a shock luminosity in soft X-rays that powers the long-lived luminosity of the transients. Unlike typical cases of transients exploding into a surrounding circumstellar medium, the progenitor winds in these systems are optically thick to soft X-rays, easily absorb radio emission, and rapidly reform dust destroyed by the peak luminosity of the transients. As a result, X-rays are absorbed by the gas and the energy is ultimately radiated by the reformed dust. Three years post-peak, both systems are still significantly more luminous than their progenitor stars, but they are again fully shrouded by the reformed dust and only visible in the mid-IR. The high luminosity and heavy obscuration may make it difficult to determine the survival of the progenitor stars for ~10 years. However, our model indicates that SN 2008S, but not the NGC 300-OT, should now be a detectable X-ray source. SN 2008S has a higher estimated shock velocity and a lower density wind, so the X-rays begin to escape at a much earlier phase. Key words: stars: evolution, supergiants, supernovae: general, supernovae: individual: SN 2008S 2008 NGC 300-OT
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