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Date and Time of the Query: 2019-04-25 T03:07:56 PDT
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For refcode 2013ApJ...778...14G:
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2013ApJ...778...14G Galaxy Cluster Baryon Fractions Revisited Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Sivanandam, Suresh; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Zaritsky, Dennis Abstract. We measure the baryons contained in both the stellar and hot-gas components for 12 galaxy clusters and groups at z ~ 0.1 with M = 1-5 x 10^14^ M_sun_. This paper improves upon our previous work through the addition of XMM-Newton X-ray data, enabling measurements of the total mass and masses of each major baryonic component---intracluster medium, intracluster stars, and stars in galaxies---for each system. We recover a mean relation for the stellar mass versus halo mass, M_{\star}_ is proportional to M_{500}_^{-0.52+/- 0.04}, that is 1sigma shallower than in our previous result. We confirm that the partitioning of baryons between the stellar and hot-gas components is a strong function of M_500_; the fractions of total mass in stars and X-ray gas within a sphere of radius r_500_ scale as f_{\star}_ is proportional to M_{500}_^{-0.45+/- 0.04} and f_{gas}_ is proportional to M_{500}_^{0.26+/- 0.03}, respectively. We also confirm that the combination of the brightest cluster galaxy and intracluster stars is an increasingly important contributor to the stellar baryon budget in lower halo masses. Studies that fail to fully account for intracluster stars typically underestimate the normalization of the stellar baryon fraction versus M_500_ relation by ~25%. Our derived stellar baryon fractions are also higher, and the trend with halo mass weaker, than those derived from recent halo occupation distribution and abundance matching analyses. One difference from our previous work is the weak, but statistically significant, dependence here of the total baryon fraction upon halo mass: f_{bary}_ is proportional to M_{500}_^{0.16+/- 0.04}. For M_500_ >~ 2 x 10^14^, the total baryon fractions within r_500_ are on average 18% below the universal value from the seven year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) analysis, or 7% below for the cosmological parameters from the Planck analysis. In the latter case, the difference between the universal value and cluster baryon fractions is less than the systematic uncertainties associated with the M_500_ determinations. The total baryon fractions exhibit significant scatter, particularly at M_500_ < 2 x 10^14^ M_sun_ where they range from 60%-90%, or 65%-100%, of the universal value for WMAP7 and Planck, respectively. The ratio of the stellar-to-gas mass within r_500_ (M_sstarf_/M_gas_), a measure of integrated star-formation efficiency, strongly decreases with increasing M_500_. This relation is tight, with an implied intrinsic scatter of 12%. The fact that this relation remains tight at low mass implies that the larger scatter in the total baryon fractions at these masses arises from either true scatter in the total baryon content or observational scatter in M_500_ rather than late-time physical processes such as redistribution of gas to beyond r_500_. If the scatter in the baryon content at low mass is physical, then our results imply that in this mass range, the integrated star-formation efficiency rather than the baryon fraction that is constant at fixed halo mass. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA. Key words: galaxies: clusters: general, galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD, galaxies: evolution, galaxies: formation, galaxies: fundamental parameters, X-rays: galaxies: clusters
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