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Date and Time of the Query: 2019-03-26 T07:07:29 PDT
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For refcode 2013MNRAS.432.1709C:
Retrieve 260 NED objects in this reference.
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Copyright by Royal Astronomical Society. 2013MNRAS.432.1709C The ATLAS^3D^ project - XV. Benchmark for early-type galaxies scaling relations from 260 dynamical models: mass-to-light ratio, dark matter, Fundamental Plane and Mass Plane Cappellari, Michele; Scott, Nicholas; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, M.; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M. Abstract. We study the volume-limited and nearly mass-selected (stellar mass M_stars_ >~ 6 x 10^9^ M_sun_) ATLAS^3D^ sample of 260 early-type galaxies (ETGs, ellipticals Es and lenticulars S0s). We construct detailed axisymmetric dynamical models (Jeans Anisotropic MGE), which allow for orbital anisotropy, include a dark matter halo and reproduce in detail both the galaxy images and the high-quality integral-field stellar kinematics out to about 1R_e_, the projected half-light radius. We derive accurate total mass-to-light ratios (M/L)_e_ and dark matter fractions f_DM_, within a sphere of radius r={R_e} centred on the galaxies. We also measure the stellar (M/L)_stars_ and derive a median dark matter fraction f_DM_ = 13 per cent in our sample. We infer masses M_JAM_ = L x (M/L)_e_ ~ 2 x M_1/2_, where M_1/2_ is the total mass within a sphere enclosing half of the galaxy light. We find that the thin two-dimensional subset spanned by galaxies in the (M_JAM,sigma_e,R_e^maj) coordinates system, which we call the Mass Plane (MP) has an observed rms scatter of 19 per cent, which implies an intrinsic one of 11 per cent. Here, R_e^maj is the major axis of an isophote enclosing half of the observed galaxy light, while sigma_e_ is measured within that isophote. The MP satisfies the scalar virial relation M_JAM is proportional to sigma_e^2 R_e^maj within our tight errors. This show that the larger scatter in the Fundamental Plane (FP) (L, sigma_e_, R_e_) is due to stellar population effects [including trends in the stellar initial mass function (IMF)]. It confirms that the FP deviation from the virial exponents is due to a genuine (M/L)_e_ variation. However, the details of how both R_e_ and sigma_e_ are determined are critical in defining the precise deviation from the virial exponents. The main uncertainty in masses or M/L estimates using the scalar virial relation is in the measurement of R_e_. This problem is already relevant for nearby galaxies and may cause significant biases in virial mass and size determinations at high redshift. Dynamical models can eliminate these problems. We revisit the (M/L)_e_-sigma_e_ relation, which describes most of the deviations between the MP and the FP. The best-fitting relation is (M/L)_e is proportional to sigma_e^{0.72} (r band). It provides an upper limit to any systematic increase of the IMF mass normalization with sigma_e_. The correlation is more shallow and has smaller scatter for slow rotating systems or for galaxies in Virgo. For the latter, when using the best distance estimates, we observe a scatter in (M/L)_e_ of 11 per cent, and infer an intrinsic one of 8 per cent. We perform an accurate empirical study of the link between sigma_e_ and the galaxies circular velocity V_circ_ within 1R_e_ (where stars dominate) and find the relation max (V_circ_) ~ 1.76 x sigma_e_, which has an observed scatter of 7 per cent. The accurate parameters described in this paper are used in the companion Paper XX (Cappellari et al.) of this series to explore the variation of global galaxy properties, including the IMF, on the projections of the MP. Key words: galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD, galaxies: evolution, galaxies: formation, galaxies: kinematics and dynamics, galaxies: structure
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