NASA/IPAC EXTRAGALACTIC DATABASE
Date and Time of the Query: 2019-04-20 T06:00:23 PDT
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For refcode 2015MNRAS.452.4361K:
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Copyright by Royal Astronomical Society. 2015MNRAS.452.4361K Hot outflows in galaxy clusters Kirkpatrick, C. C.; McNamara, B. R. Abstract. The gas-phase metallicity distribution has been analysed for the hot atmospheres of 29 galaxy clusters using Chandra X-ray Observatory observations. All host brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with X-ray cavity systems produced by radio AGN. We find high elemental abundances projected preferentially along the cavities of 16 clusters. The metal-rich plasma was apparently lifted out of the BCGs with the rising X-ray cavities (bubbles) to altitudes between twenty and several hundred kiloparsecs. A relationship between the maximum projected altitude of the uplifted gas (the 'iron radius') and jet power is found with the form R_Fe is proportional to P_jet^{0.45}. The estimated outflow rates are typically tens of solar masses per year but exceed 100 M_sun_ yr^- 1^ in the most powerful AGN. The outflow rates are 10-20 per cent of the cooling rates, and thus alone are unable to offset a cooling inflow. Nevertheless, hot outflows effectively redistribute the cooling gas and may play a significant role at regulating star formation and AGN activity in BCGs and presumably in giant elliptical galaxies. The metallicity distribution overall can be complex, perhaps due to metal-rich gas returning in circulation flows or being blown around in the hot atmospheres. Roughly 15 per cent of the work done by the cavities is expended lifting the metal-enriched gas, implying their nuclear black holes have increased in mass by at least ~10^7^-10^9^ M_sun_. Finally, we show that hot outflows can account for the broad, gas-phase metallicity distribution compared to the stellar light profiles of BCGs, and we consider a possible connection between hot outflows and cold molecular gas flows discovered in recent Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations. Key words: galaxies: abundances, galaxies: active, X-rays: galaxies: clusters
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