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Date and Time of the Query: 2019-06-20 T10:32:22 PDT
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For refcode 2016ApJ...828...14D:
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Copyright by American Astronomical Society. Reproduced by permission
2016ApJ...828...14D Kinematic Properties of Double-barred Galaxies: Simulations versus Integral-field Observations Du, Min; Debattista, Victor P.; Shen, Juntai; Cappellari, Michele Abstract. Using high-resolution N-body simulations, we recently reported that a dynamically cool inner disk embedded in a hotter outer disk can naturally generate a steady double-barred (S2B) structure. Here we study the kinematics of these S2B simulations, and compare them to integral-field observations from ATLAS ^ 3D ^ and SAURON. We show that S2B galaxies exhibit several distinct kinematic features, namely: (1) significantly distorted isovelocity contours at the transition region between the two bars, (2) peaks in sigma_LOS_ along the minor axis of inner bars, which we term "sigma-humps," that are often accompanied by ring/spiral-like features of increased sigma_LOS_, (3) {h}_3_{--}{bar}{v} anti-correlations in the region of the inner bar for certain orientations, and (4) rings of positive h_4_ when viewed at low inclinations. The most impressive of these features are the sigma-humps these evolve with the inner bar, oscillating in strength just as the inner bar does as it rotates relative to the outer bar. We show that, in cylindrical coordinates, the inner bar has similar streaming motions and velocity dispersion properties as normal large-scale bars, except for sigma_ z_, which exhibits peaks on the minor axis, i.e., humps. These sigma_ z_ humps are responsible for producing the sigma-humps. For three well-resolved early-type S2Bs (NGC 2859, NGC 2950, and NGC 3941) and a potential S2B candidate (NGC 3384), the S2B model qualitatively matches the integral-field data well, including the "sigma-hollows" previously identified. We also discuss the kinematic effect of a nuclear disk in S2Bs. Key words: galaxies: individual: NGC 2859, NGC 2950, NGC 3941, NGC 3384, galaxies: kinematics and dynamics, galaxies: structure
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