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Notes for object NGC 0404

21 note(s) found in NED.


1. 2007MNRAS.382.1552L
Re:NGC 0404
NGC 404: The blue colour of the nucleus and the circumnuclear regions are
apparent in Fig. 2. The red dust patch to the north-east of the nucleus seen in
the B/I image is also seen in the HST V-I image of Pogge et al. (2000). HST
observations at UV wavelengths of this galaxy show that its nucleus is dominated
by stellar absorption features from massive young stars (Maoz et al. 1998). The
starburst is also detected in the X-rays (Eracleous et al. 2002). Ho et al.
(1995) classified this nucleus as a LINER and this classification is confirmed
here (Section 7.3). The signature of a population of young stars is also clear
in Fig. 2 and is confirmed by our spectral analysis.

2. 2007MNRAS.377.1696M
Re:NGC 0404
NGC 404. Nagar et al. (2000) did not detect a radio core with the VLA in this
galaxy at wavelengths of 0.7, 2 and 3.6 cm, to 3{sigma} limits of 3, 0.39 and
0.27 mJy, respectively.
HST UV spectroscopy of the compact nucleus by Maoz et al. (1998) showed clear
absorption signatures of OB stars, contributing at least 40 per cent of the UV
light. However, the relative shallowness of the absorptions meant that the light
from massive stars was diluted by another component, comparable in flux, which
could be a featureless AGN continuum, or the light from less massive stars in an
aging or continuous starburst. In the single epoch of HST/ACS data by M05, the
2500-A flux (74 x 10^-17^ erg cm^-2^ s^-1^ A^-1^) was ~=60 per cent of the level
measured by the 1994 spectroscopy analysed by Maoz et al. (1998; 115 * 10^-17^
erg cm^-2^ s^-1^ A^-1^), and only 45 per cent of the HST Faint Object Camera
(FOC) imaging measurement in 1993 by Maoz et al. (1995; 180 x 10^-17^ erg cm^-2^
s^-1^ A^-1^ at 2300 A). I will therefore adopt a lower limit on the non-stellar
2500-A flux, of (115 - 74) * 10^-17^ erg cm ^-2^ s^-1^ A ^-1^. At 2300 A, the
AGN flux may have been as high as the level measured in 1993, minus the minimum
stellar contribution, or approximately (180 - 0.4 * 115) * 10^-17^ erg cm^-2^
s^-1^ A^-1^, which I will adopt as the 'high flux' for this object. At 3300 A,
M05 measured a flux of 85 * 10^-17^ erg cm^-2^ s^-1^ A^-1^.
In X-rays, a Chandra measurement of the compact nuclear source by Eracleous
et al. (2002) gives a 0.5-2 keV flux of 1.5 * 10^-14^ erg cm^-2^ s^-1^.

3. 2003ApJS..146..353M
Re:NGC 0404
NGC 404 (C)
This LINER is one of the nearest galaxies in the sample, and the H
image has a mottled appearance as a result of the resolved giant
stars. This complicates the identification of dust lanes and therefore
the nuclear classification, but the dust distribution still appears
chaotic. The V-I color map shown in Pogge et al. (2000) also supports
this classification and is less affected by resolved stars.

4. 2002ApJS..139....1T
Re:NGC 0404
NGC 404 (L2).-An analysis of the ASCA data is presented in Terashima
et al. (2000c). No clear X-ray emission was detected in our ASCA
observations. Komossa et al. (1999) and Roberts & Warwick (2000)
reported a ROSAT HRI detection with an X-ray luminosity of 5 x 10^37^ ergs
s^-1^ in the 0.1-2.4 keV band. Lira et al. (2000) also reported a similar
result. This luminosity is slightly higher than our upper limit which is
obtained assuming a power-law spectrum with {GAMMA} = 2. The ROSAT
detection and luminosity suggest that this source has a softer X-ray
spectrum than that we assumed, since ROSAT is more sensitive in the
softer energy band than ASCA. Alternatively, the source could have
faded since the ROSAT observation. No spectral information was obtained
from the ROSAT observation.
We analyzed a recent 24 ks Chandra observation and found a
compact nucleus with a very soft spectrum which is well represented by a
thermal plasma model with kT~ 0.8 keV. A hint of a hard component is also
seen. If the hard component is modeled by a power law with a photon
index of 2.0, the observed flux in the 2-10 keV band becomes
~3 x 10^-14^ ergs s^-1^ cm^-2^, which corresponds to a luminosity of
2 x 10^37^ ergs s^-1^.

5. 2002AJ....124..675C
Re:UGC 00718
LINER. Possibly in local group.

6. 2002A&A...389..812K
Re:NGC 0404
NGC 404. This compact lenticular galaxy with dusty patches
in its central part is partially affected by the halo of a
bright star. Tonry et al. (2001) determined its distance as
3.26 +/- 0.15 Mpc based on fluctuations of its surface
brightness. NGC 404 is the nearest representative of the rare
class of isolated S0 galaxies. There are no other known
galaxies within 1.1 Mpc around it (Karachentsev & Makarov 1999).
The origin of such an object is unclear. This galaxy may
represent the final stage of consecutive merging of members
of a former group of galaxies.

7. 2001AJ....122..653R
Re:NGC 0404
NGC 404: Apart from the strong nuclear point source, the NICMOS image
of NGC 404 is relatively featureless. The excess positive emission in the
center of the residual image is due to a slight mismatch between the point
source and the PSF. WFPC2 optical images (Pogge et al. 2000) show a spiral
pattern extending all the way into the nucleus, vague hints of which can
be seen in the NIR residual image. Interestingly, the best fit for the
surface brightness profile gives {gamma} = 0.28, officially in the domain
of core galaxies. This is unexpected given the low luminosity and low
velocity dispersion of the galaxy. As seen from Figures 5 and 6, NGC 404
deviates strongly from the locus of core galaxies in the core-parameter
relations. It is likely that our estimate of has been affected by the
bright nucleus.

8. 2000MNRAS.319...17L
Re:NGC 0404
NGC 404: A weak X-ray nuclear source (F_X_ = 7.5 x 10^-12^ erg s^-1^)
has been detected by the ROSAT HRI in the LINER nucleus of this galaxy. An
ASCA 2-10 keV upper limit of 3 x 10^-13^ erg s^-1^ cm^-2^ has been
reported by Maoz et al. (1998), which implies either that the ROSAT flux
is dominated by very soft emission, or that the source is variable. The
former idea is supported by recent UV observations of the NGC 404 nucleus
which show that the spectrum is dominated by stellar absorption features
from massive young stars (Maoz et al. 1998) and not by the blue,
featureless continuum expected from an active nucleus.

9. 2000ApJ...542..186N
Re:NGC 0404
NGC 404.-Our simultaneous 3.6, 2, and 0.7 cm observations on 1996
October 11 did not detect the nucleus at 10 {sigma} upper limits of 0.9,
1.3, and 10 mJy, respectively.

10. 2000ApJ...530..688A
Re:NGC 0404
NGC 404.-The optical line ratios in this galaxy (Ho et al. 1993)
meet Heckman (1980) definition for LINERs. No broad component of
H{alpha} is detected (Ho et al. 1997c). The location in the optical
ratio diagnostic diagrams places this galaxy in the transition object
region. Evidence for star-formation in this galaxy comes from both the
young underlying stellar population and the circumnuclear H II
region-type emission in its optical spectrum (Ho et al. 1993, 1995). In
addition the UV ionizing source in this galaxy is a star cluster
slightly older than the one in NGC 4569 (Maoz et al. 1998), as also
suggested by the higher SNR contribution than in NGC 4569 needed to
reproduce the [Fe II] 1.257 micron/Pa{beta} line ratio and optical line
ratios (Table 7 and Figs. 7 and 8). NGC 404 falls in the
starburst-dominated LINER category.

11. 1999A&A...349...88K
Re:NGC 0404
4.1. NGC 404
NGC 404 is blueshifted (Stromberg 1925). Baars & Wendker (1976) noted
its peculiar radio properties. Optical spectroscopy was performed by,
e.g., Burbidge & Burbidge (1965), Keel (1983), and Filippenko & Sargent
(1985) and revealed very narrow emission lines; for an image see Sandage
(1961). Larkin et al. (1998) obtained NIR spectra and reported the
detection of strong [FeII] emission in this and several further LINERs
(but not in all of their sample) and suggested X-ray heating to be at
work. A molecular gas ring was observed by Wiklind & Henkel (1990). The
detection of a UV core with HST was presented by Maoz et al. (1995).
Based on the analysis of UV spectra, Maoz et al. (1998) explained the
data by the presence of a central star cluster.
A deep HRI observation of NGC 404 is available. The source is
detected (~25 source photons) but too weak to allow a more detailed
temporal or spatial analysis. Assuming a powerlaw spectral shape as
described above we derive a (0.1-2.4 keV) luminosity of
L_X_ = 10^37.7^ erg s^-1^, the lowest L_X_ among the present objects,
and among the lowest so far detected for a LINER. The X-ray emission of
NGC 404 is consistent with originating completely from discrete stellar
sources given the galaxy's blue luminosity. Using the relation between
L_X_ and L_B_ of Canizares et al. (1987), we predict
L_X_^0.5-4.5keV^ = 10^38.25^ erg s^-1^ in the (0.5-4.5 keV) band which
compares to the observed value of 10^37.6^ erg s^-1^, which is below the
expectation but consistent within the scatter. (The intrinsic X-ray
luminosity could be boosted if there is some excess absorption or the
spectral shape is different from the assumed one.) It is interesting to
note that Wiklind & Henkel (1990) argue for a much larger distance of
NGC 404 than derived from, e.g., the Tully catalog (1988): they suggest
10 Mpc instead of 2.4 Mpc which would correspondingly increase the
values of both L_X_ and L_B_.

12. 1998ApJS..114...59L
Re:NGC 0404
NGC 404.--This is a classical LINER fully satisfying the Heckman (1980)
criteria. The infrared spectra show very prominent [Fe II] emission and a
strong detection of H_2_. NGC 404 has the largest [Fe II] line-to-continuum
ratio for any of the LINERs in this sample. It is plausible that the estimated
Pa{beta} flux is too high and that the calculated [Fe II]/Pa{beta} flux is
significantly higher than the value of 2.7 in Table 3. Even with this large
estimated Pa{beta} flux, NGC 404 has one of the highest ratios of [Fe II] to
Pa{beta} of any extragalactic object. The apparent feature at the location of
Br{gamma} is due to residual ripple in the G-star spectrum used to remove
telluric absorption which is most apparent in NGC 404 because it is at
essentially zero redshift. Since the expected Br{gamma} is below the detection
limit and there is an obvious explanation for the feature, we do not regard
this as a real detection of Br{gamma} in NGC 404. All of the line emission is
spatially unresolved with a seeing of 1". At a distance between 1.8 and 2.4
Mpc, this corresponds to only 10 pc. At this distance, the aperture-corrected
[Fe II] luminosity is 1.1x10^37^ ergs s^-1^, which is only a few times the
expected luminosity for a single supernova remnant (Moorwood & Oliva 1988). It
is an interesting possibility that the emission within NGC 404 could be
generated in a single SNR in a high-density medium. The Pa{beta} absorption
correction, estimated in section 3.2, is about a factor of 2 too low to explain
why Pa{beta} is undetected. The most obvious explanation is that NGC 404
contains a significant population of young stars which increase the amount of
Balmer absorption. This is supported by Keel (1983), who considered NGC 404 a
peculiar member of the LINER class owing to the presence of a blue continuum
and strong Balmer absorption lines. NGC 404 shows none of the infrared atomic
absorption features seen in some of the other galaxies in this sample. The
optical spectrum, (Filippenko & Sargent 1985) also shows a relatively smooth
continuum spectrum. Although the emission lines are very narrow, a strong
central UV point source and several surrounding fainter UV sources have been
detected with HST (Maoz et al. 1995). Although the central UV source was taken
as evidence for an AGN by Maoz, a central star cluster is also a possibility.

13. 1998A&AS..128...75P
Re:NGC 0404
4.3.1. NGC 404
This S0 galaxy is characterized by a strong and skewed dust lane (Barbon et al.
1982). HI was detected by Baars et al. (1976), molecular gas was observed by
Wiklind & Henkel (1990). The velocity amplitude of the gas is low, +/- 40
km s^-1^ and kinematical Major Axis (MA) of the gas is almost aligned with
stellar MA. Figure 2 shows monochromatic images in H{alpha}, [N II] 6584 A
and [O III] 5007 A emission lines. H{alpha} and [N II] 6584 A extensions are
comparable but the [O III] 5007 A map shows a larger extension (about 30") with
two distinct lobes.
The weak difference between stellar MA and gas MA explains that the region of
possible {phi} viewing angles is very wide. The case with gas perpendicular to
the short axis is not constrained and the other case with gas perpendicular to
the long axis is marginal. It is very hard to conclude in what plane the gas
disk is situated.
Figure 4b shows H{alpha}/[N II] map. It's clear that this ratio is not constant
for the total galaxy. The map shows a strong gradient between East and West.
The mean value is 2.13 which is consistent with the literature (Kim 1989).

14. 1995ApJS...98..477H
Re:NGC 0404
Noteworthy for a very young underlying stellar population, this LINER has
atypically narrow emission lines that are unresolved in our spectra. The
2-D data show extended circumnuclear emission lines which have the
spectral characteristics of H II regions. A Faint Object Camera (FOC)
Hubble Space Telescope (HST)} image taken at ~ 2300 A (Maoz et al 1995)
reveals that the nuclear region contains a bright, unresolved (r < 1 pc)
point source surrounded by several fainter sources, the latter presumably
being star forming regions responsible for both the extended nebular
emission and the young stellar spectral features seen in the nucleus.

15. 1994CAG1..B...0000S
Re:NGC 0404
Hubble Atlas, p. 6
S0_3_(0)
(P)
H-2115-H
Oct 13/14, 1939
103aO
55 min
NGC 404 is one of the most puzzling galaxies in the sky because
of its very small redshift combined with its lack of resolution into
stars and the absence of the low-average-surface-brightness signature
expected of dwarf S0 galaxies (Binggeli, Sandage, and Tarenghi 1984).
The redshift, corrected to the centroid of the Local Group, is only
235 km/s, as listed in the RSA2. The absolute magnitude is M_B_T_ =
-17.4, adopting a distance of 5 Mpc. The angular diameter of the main
body is 66", giving a small linear diameter of 1.5 kpc.
The morphology of the image is that of a classic three-zone
S0(0). The central, high-surface-brightness bulge zone is burned out
in the main image here but can be seen in the insert. The boundary
between the bulge and the intermediate zone can also be seen in the
insert. The extended outer envelope is well seen in the main print. It
can be traced on the original plate to the second of the bright stars
at the top of the image.
A dust lane cuts across the bulge, in a typical S0_3_
pattern. The lane, faintly seen in the insert print, is evidently
viewed nearly edge on; its back side is buried in the flooding
intensity of the bulge, also common in S0_3_ galaxies.

16. 1994A&AS..105..481M
Re:NGC 0404
NGC 404: A roundish SA0 showing a small bulge well contrasted against
a dust ring, and an extended disk enclosing a faint ring-lens.

17. 1976RC2...C...0000d
Re:NGC 0404
Possibly in the Local Group.
Photometry: (Reports of variable object) in Info. Bull. Var. Stars,
Nos. 614, 636, 638, and 648, 1972 and IAU Circ. 2380, 1972, were in error;
see IAU Circ. 2382, 1972.
Photometry: (5 Color)
A.J., 73, 313, 1968.

18. 1973UGC...C...0000N
Re:UGC 00718
SA(s)0- (de Vaucouleurs), S0 (Holmberg)
Measurements disturbed by GC 1400, m=2.37, the galaxy is not visible on the
red PA map

19. 1964RC1...C...0000d
Re:NGC 0404
Very small, extremely bright nucleus
with dark crescent and patches.
Traces of whorls or dark lanes in lens.
Smooth nebulosity.
Possibly in Local Group? (negative velocity).
Photograph and Photometry:
Ap. J., 133, 314, 1961.

20. 1961Hubbl.B...0000S
Re:NGC 0404
S0
H-2115-H
Oct. 13/14, 1939
103aO
55 min
Enlarged 16.8X
In many respects NGC 0404 appears to be a normal S03
with a circular dust lane embedded in a uniform lens and
envelope. The lane cannot be traced through a complete
revolution. Although this might be explained as a projection
effect similar to that of NGC 4459 and NGC 4526 on
page 5, the explanation is probably inadequate because
the background envelope of NGC 0404 (not visible in the
illustration) is elliptical. Therefore the fundamental plane of
the galaxy is not perpendicular to the line of sight. But
the absorption ring is placed along the minor axis of the
ellipse. It would have to be along the major axis if the
orientation explanation for its incompleteness is correct.

21. 1918PLicO..13....9C
Re:NGC 0404
Round; 1.3' in diameter; quite bright. The nucleus is stellar; no spiral
structure is apparent, but there is a minute, curved, dark lane n.f. the
nucleus. 26 s.n.


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