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Picture 10

10. It must have struck the reader that in the last two illustrations the shaded part of the earth was not of even darkness, but was clearly lighter on the left hand side. The cause of this becomes clear in this picture. In it we not only see the earth (1), its umbra (2) and the path (3) along which it moves, but we notice around the earth what looks like a circle. This line (4) is the path or orbit of the moon as it moves around the earth. The actual position of the moon (5) on that December 21st when we were supposed to make our celestial jump of exploration is shown. It now is clear that as the moon was there on the left, the night on earth was lit up on that side. As light travels 300,000 kilometers per second (that is, 3 centimeters on this scale), we see that it would need 1.3 seconds to cover the distance from the moon to the earth.

1 cm. in picture = 1010 cm. = 100,000 km.
Scale = 1:10,000,000,000 =1:1010