Contents Previous


General References.

[A] Curtis, H. D.: The Nebulae. In Handbuch der Astrophysic, Vol. V/2, p. 833-936; Vol. VII, p. 550-563. Berlin: Springer 1933, 1936. - A General survey of the early work in the field with extensive bibliography up to 1935; includes finding lists of Messier, W. Herschel and J. Herschel numbers, tabular descriptions of various classification systems and a list of published reproductions of drawings and photographs of nebulae.
[B] Hubble, E.P.: The Realm of the Nebulae. Oxford: University Press 1936. - The standard semi-popular account of the pre-war Mt. Wilson work with fairly complete references to modern American sources up to 1935.
[D] Vogt, H.: Die Spiralnebel. Heidelberg: C. Winter 1946. - A thorough semi-popular summary with very complete references, mainly to American and German sources, up to 1944.

Special references.

[9] Curtis, H. D.: Descriptions of 762 Nebulae and Clusters photographed with the Crossley reflector. Publ. Lick Obs. 13, Part I (1918). - Includes a description of the ``Phi-type'' (p.12 and Plate I)
[10] Curtis, H. D.: A study of Occulting Matter in the Spiral Nebulae. Publ. Lick Obs. 13, Part II (1918). - Includes many photographs of tilted spirals and "spindles" showing dark markings; mainly of historical interest as the first systematic study of absorption effects in galaxies.
[12] Danver, C. G.: A Morphological Investigation of some Near Galaxies. Ann. Lund. Obs. 1942, No. 10. - A very complete discussion of the orientations and shapes of 202 bright galaxies with a catalogue of descriptive parameters for 98 spirals.
[25] Hubble, E.: Extragalactic nebulae. Astrophys. Journ. 64, 321-369 (1926). - A classical paper including the original description of the standard classification system and a preliminary analysis of the statistical properties of the ``extragalactic nebulae'' as external galaxies. It is now mainly of historical interest.
[28] Humason, M. L., N. U. Mayall and A. R. Sandage: Redshifts and magnitudes of extragalactic nebulae. Astronom. J. 61, 97-162 (1956) = Mt. Wilson and Palomar Obs. Rep. No. 181 = Lick Obs. Bull. No.542. - A fundamental paper including all red-shift data to date for over 800 galaxies observed at Mt. Wilson-Palomar (620 objects) and Lick (300 objects) between 1935 and 1955, or 63% of the Shapley-Ames objects brighter than mH = 13.0, north of declination -30°. The Mt. Wilson list includes spectral types, the Lick list has notes on spectral and other peculiarities. Includes a list of integrated P magnitudes for 576 bright galaxies derived by Sandage from Petit's and Stebbins and Whitford's photoelectric observations [56], [70], [72]. Provisional derivation of the Hubble redshift parameter H = 180 km/sec per Mpc. which defines the distance scale in current use beyond the Local Group and nearby groups.
[38] Lindblad, B.: On a barred spiral structure in the Andromeda nebula. Stockholm Obs. Ann. 19, No. 2 (1956). - Restitution of the structure of M 31 in its own plane and comparison with the typical SBb spiral NGC 7723. An excellent discussion of what appears to be a transition structure between the typical SA (s) b and SAB (s) b types of the revised classification scheme. The interpretation of the pattern in support of the ``leading'' arms is, however, less convincing.
[41] Lindblad, B. and R. G. Langebartel: On the dynamics of stellar systems. Stockholm Obs. Ann. 17, No. 6 (1953). - A theoretical discussion of barred spirals and transition types; see especially pp. 58-59 and Plates I, II illustrating SAB (s) and SAB (rs) types of the revised classification scheme.
[43] Lundmark, K.: A preliminary classification of nebulae. Ark. Math., Astronom. Fys., Ser. B 19, No. 8 (1926) = Medd. Obs. Upsala No. 7. - Classification by shape and concentration; introduces the Magellanic Cloud type.
[44] Lundmark, K.: Studies of angalactic nebulae. Nova Acta Reg. Soc. Sci. Upsala, vol. extraord. 1927 = Medd. Obs. Upsala, No. 30. - A comprehensive survey of the early studies of non-galactic nebulae and a summary of the author's work, mainly statistical, at Heidelberg, Greenwich, Mt. Hamilton and Mt. Wilson. This important volume (124 pp and 10 plates) is now valuable mainly for its historical interest.
[56] Petit, E.: Magnitudes and color indices of extragalactic nebulae determined photoelectrically. Astrophys. Journ. 120, 413-438 (1954). - An important list of magnitudes (P, V) and colors for 558 galaxies observed for redshift at Lick and Mt. Wilson-Palomar. A list of integrated magnitudes of bright galaxies partly based on Petit's data is given by Sandage in [28].
[57] Randers, G.: A note on the evolution of extragalactic nebulae. Astrophys. Journ. 92, 235-246 (1940) = Contrib. Mt. Wilson Obs. No. 634. - A preliminary discussion of ring structures in spirals.
[58] Reaves, G.: Dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster. Astronom. J. 61, 69-76 (1956) = Lick Obs. Bull. No. 540 and Univ. of California Thesis, 1953 (private communication). - Discussion of dwarf galaxies of low surface brightness; description of the IC 3475 type.
[62] Reinmuth, K.: Die Herschel-Nebel. Veröff. Sternw. Heidelberg 1926, No. 9. - A major photographic survey of the General Catalogue nebulae north of declination -20°; includes data on dimensions, type in Wolf's system and condensed description of 4200 objects.
[66] Shapley, H.: The angular diameters of bright galaxies. Harvard Ann. 88, No. 4 (1934). Micrometric diameters of 447 bright galaxies measured on long-exposure photographs taken with the 24-inch Bruce refractor.
[68] Shapley, H. and A. Ames: A survey of the external galaxies brighter than the 13-th magnitude. Harvard Ann. 88, No. 2 (1932). - An important survey and reference catalogue of 1249 bright galaxies including dimensions and types in Hubble's standard system from a variety of sources and photographic magnitudes from homogeneous small-scale, in focus plates. For a provisional revision of types see [81] and for a discussion of the magnitude system see [82], [83].
[70] Stebbins, J., and A. E. Whitford: Photoelectric magnitudes and colors of extragalactic nebulae. Astrophys. Journ. 86, 247-273 (1937) = Contrib. Mt. Wilson Obs. 577. - An important list of magnitudes and colors of 165 bright galaxies measured through a series of diaphragms of small aperture; the measured magnitudes are far short of the integrated magnitude but provide the basic material for the standardization of other series; see discussion in [82], [83].
[72] Stebbins, J., and A. E. Whitford: Magnitudes and colors of 176 extragalactic nebulae. Astrophys. Journ. 115, 284-291 (1952) = Mt. Wilson-Palomar Rep. No. 64. - A very important series of photometric data for the standardization of other series; see discussion in [82], [83].
[80] Vaucouleurs, G. De: A survey of bright galaxies south of -35° declination with the 30-inch Reynolds reflector (1952-1955). Mem. Commonwealth Obs. 1956, No. 13. - An extensive photographic survey of bright southern galaxies (210 Shapley-Ames objects, 120 NGC and IC objects, 130 uncatalogued objects). Includes a preliminary description of the revised classification scheme and notation system, statistical discussions of type and dimension data, axial ratios, ring-structures as geometric distance indicators, etc. Detailed tables of revised types and dimensions; with 8 plates giving photographs of 44 galaxies.
[81] Vaucouleurs, G. De: A provisional revision of the Harvard Survey of bright galaxies (Shapley-Ames Catalogue). Austral. Nat. Univ. Mimeogram 1953. - Includes revised data on types in Hubble's system, dimensions and corrected magnitudes for 1250 bright galaxies from published sources available in 1952 with individual references. The corrected (total) magnitudes are derived from the original Harvard magnitudes according to the principles discussed in [82], [83]. A final revision is in preparation including the material in [80] and other Mt. Stromlo data for the southern zone together with more recent Lick and Mt. Wilson-Palomar data for the northern zone.
[82] Vaucouleurs, G. De: Photographic magnitudes of the brighter external galaxies. Astronom. J. 61, 430-437 (1956). - Discussion of 10 basic photographic and photoelectric series of nebular magnitudes; derivation of standard total P magnitudes of 100 bright galaxies; discussion of the Harvard magnitudes in the Shapley-Ames catalogue [68]; derivation of correction formulae used in [81]; statistical discussion of completeness of Shapley-Ames Catalogue.
[83] Vaucouleurs, G. De: Etudes sur les galaxies brillantes, I: Magnitudes photographiques. Ann. Obs. du Houga 2, Part I (1957). - This is a more complete discussion of the questions summarized in [82] with full details, tables, etc. Comparison with the integrated magnitudes of Sandage [28] indicates excellent agreement.

Contents Previous