This element was discovered by C. Winkler in Freiberg, Germany in 1886. The name comes from Germania (Germany).

Ionization energies
GeI 7.9 eV, GeII 15.9 eV, GeIII 34.2 eV.

Absorption lines of GeI

Table 1: Equivalent widths of Gel 4685(3)

Group V III

S 0.002  
K0   0.034

Source: The value for the sun is from Lambert et al. (1969).

Behavior in non-normal stars
GeI lines were announced as probably present in one star of the Cr-Eu-Sr variety of Ap stars (Adelman et al. 1979). Ge II has been observed in one Bp star of the Hg-Mn subgroup by Leckrone et al. (1991a).

Ge has five stable isotopes, namely Ge 70, 72, 73, 74 and 76 as well as 12 short lived isotopes and isomers. The five stable isotopes represent in the solar system 20%, 27%, 8%, 37% and 8% respectively of the Ge.

Ge isotopes are produced by different processes. Ge76 is produced only by the nuclear statistical equilibrium process but all the others are produced by this process or the s process. Ge 72, 73 and 74 can also be produced by the r process.

Published in "The Behavior of Chemical Elements in Stars", Carlos Jaschek and Mercedes Jaschek, 1995, Cambridge University Press.