Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 1997. 35: 101-136
Copyright © 1997 by . All rights reserved

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In recent years, Kapteyn's Problems I and II have been discussed (by authors unaware of that early work) in connection with extragalactic distances from methods like Tully-Fisher (TF) and Faber-Jackson, for determination of the Hubble constant and peculiar velocity maps. Both of these problems have been sometimes referred to as Malmquist bias. I have collected in Table 1 examples of the used nomenclature.

Table 1. Various names used for the two kinds of biases

Author Nomenclature

Kapteyn (1914) Problem II Problem I
Landy & Szalay (1992) General Malmquist bias -
Han (1992) Geometry bias Selection effect
Teerikorpi (1990, 1993) "V against r" "r against V"
Sandage (1994a) Classical Distance-dependent
Hendry & Simmons (1994) Bayesian Frequentist
Willick (1994) Inferred-distance problem Calibration problem
Strauss & Willick (1995) Malmquist bias Selection bias
Teerikorpi (1995) M-bias of the first kind M-bias of the second kind

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